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Infant microbiota

Rima Rachid, Talal A Chatila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rise in the prevalence of food allergy over the past decades has focused attention of factors that may impact disease development, most notably the gut microbiota. The gut microbial communities play a crucial role in promoting oral tolerance. Their alteration by such factors as Cesarean section delivery, diet and antibiotics may influence disease development. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in the development of food allergy...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Enza Giglione, Flavia Prodam, Simonetta Bellone, Sonia Monticone, Sheila Beux, Agostina Marolda, Alessia Pagani, Diana Di Gioia, Mario Del Piano, Giovanni Mogna, Gianni Bona
GOALS: To assess the effectiveness of Bifidobacterium breve B632 and BR03 association in the reduction of infants crying over time. The second endpoint was to observe the effect of the same strains on daily evacuations and on the number of regurgitations and vomits. BACKGROUND: Infant colics represent a clinical condition in childhood, characterized by an uncontrollable crying that occurs without any apparent organic cause. An altered intestinal microbiota composition in the very first months may induce intestinal colics in infants...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Maria C Cenit, Pilar Codoñer-Franch, Yolanda Sanz
Gut microbiota shapes the development of the mucosal immune system and may provide protection against immune-mediated diseases. Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition triggered by dietary gluten proteins, recently associated with gut microbiota alterations in cross-sectional studies comparing patients and controls. Whether or not these differences are causally related to the disease has yet to be elucidated, but evaluation of specific bacteria isolated from CD patients in experimental models suggests that they can promote an adverse response to dietary gluten, whereas other commensal bacteria can be protective...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Stefano Levi Mortera, Federica Del Chierico, Pamela Vernocchi, Maria M Rosado, Agnese Cavola, Marco Chierici, Luisa Pieroni, Andrea Urbani, Rita Carsetti, Isabella Lante, Bruno Dallapiccola, Lorenza Putignani
At birth, contact with external stimuli, such as nutrients derived from food, is necessary to modulate the symbiotic balance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, protect against bacterial dysbiosis, and initiate the development of the mucosal immune response. Among a variety of different feeding patterns, breastfeeding represents the best modality. In fact, the capacity of breast milk to modulate the composition of infants' gut microbiota leads to beneficial effects on their health. In this study, we used newborn mice as a model to evaluate the effect of parental genetic background (i...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Emma Elison, Louise K Vigsnaes, Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Julie Rasmussen, Nikolaj Sørensen, Bruce McConnell, Thierry Hennet, Morten O A Sommer, Peter Bytzer
The gut microbiota has been established as an important player influencing many aspects of human physiology. Breast milk, the first diet for an infant, contains human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) that shape the infant's gut microbiota by selectively stimulating the growth of specific bacteria, especially bifidobacteria. In addition to their bifidogenic activity, the ability of HMO to modulate immune function and the gut barrier makes them prime candidates to restore a beneficial microbiota in dysbiotic adults and provide health benefits...
October 10, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Manli Y Davis, Husen Zhang, Lera E Brannan, Robert J Carman, James H Boone
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most common known cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Upon the disturbance of gut microbiota by antibiotics, C. difficile establishes growth and releases toxins A and B, which cause tissue damage in the host. The symptoms of C. difficile infection disease range from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Interestingly, 10-50 % of infants are asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. This longitudinal study of the C. difficile colonization in an infant revealed the dynamics of C...
October 7, 2016: Microbiome
Gonzalo N Bidart, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Vicente Monedero, María J Yebra
Lacto-N-biose (LNB) and galacto-N-biose (GNB) are major building blocks of free oligosaccharides and glycan moieties of glyco-complexes present in human milk and gastrointestinal mucosa. We have previously characterized the phospho-β-galactosidase GnbG from Lactobacillus casei BL23 that is involved in the metabolism of LNB and GNB. GnbG has been used here in transglycosylation reactions, and it showed the production of LNB and GNB with N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine as acceptors, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Pamela Vazquez-Gutierrez, Tomas de Wouters, Julia Werder, Christophe Chassard, Christophe Lacroix
The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, in particular by its barrier effect and competition with exogenous pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the competition of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2 (Bp PV8-2) and Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 (Bk PV20-2), isolated from anemic infant gut microbiota and selected for their high iron sequestration properties, was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli O157:H45 (EHEC) by using co-culture tests and assays with intestinal cell lines...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Agus Firmansyah, Nalinee Chongviriyaphan, Drupadi Hs Dillon, Nguyen Cong Khan, Tatsuya Morita, Kraisid Tontisirin, Le Danh Tuyen, Weiping Wang, Jacques Bindels, Paul Deurenberg, Sherlin Ong, Jo Hautvast, Diederick Meyer, Elaine E Vaughan
Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Antti E Seppo, Chloe A Autran, Lars Bode, Kirsi M Järvinen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide a main substrate to help shape the infant's gut microbiota and affect the maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system. In our cohort, infants that received human milk with low Lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) III concentrations (< 60μM) were more likely to become affected with cow's milk allergy when compared to high LNFP III-containing milk (odds ratio 6.7, 95% CI 2.0-22).
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Xiaomei Cong, Wanli Xu, Rachael Romisher, Samantha Poveda, Shaina Forte, Angela Starkweather, Wendy A Henderson
The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
J Romano-Keeler, M A Azcarate-Peril, J-H Weitkamp, J C Slaughter, W H McDonald, S Meng, M S Latuga, J L Wynn
OBJECTIVE: Oral colostrum priming (OCP) after birth in preterm infants is associated with improved weight gain and modification of the oral immunomicrobial environment. We hypothesized that OCP would modify salivary immune peptides and the oral microbiota in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective, randomized clinical trial to determine the effects of OCP on salivary immune peptide representation in preterm infants (<32 weeks completed gestation at birth)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
John L Fitzstevens, Kelsey C Smith, James I Hagadorn, Melissa J Caimano, Adam P Matson, Elizabeth A Brownell
Human milk-associated microbes are among the first to colonize the infant gut and may help to shape both short- and long-term infant health outcomes. We performed a systematic review to characterize the microbiota of human milk. Relevant primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed (January 1, 1964, to June 31, 2015). Included studies were conducted among healthy mothers, were written in English, identified bacteria in human milk, used culture-independent methods, and reported primary results at the genus level...
September 27, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Robert L Donnell, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Jiang Liu, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Alteration of gut microbial colonization process may influence susceptibility of the newborn/infant to infectious and chronic disease. Infectious disease risk leads to widespread use of non-prescription antimicrobials in household products such as Triclocarban (TCC), an antimicrobial compound in personal care products. TCC concentrates in and is transferred through the milk to suckling offspring. TCC exposure during gestation and lactation significantly reduced phylogenetic diversity (PD) among exposed dams and neonates...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kohei Hasegawa, Rachel W Linnemann, Jonathan M Mansbach, Nadim J Ajami, Janice A Espinola, Lauren G Fiechtner, Joseph F Petrosino, Carlos A Camargo
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to older siblings is associated with a lower risk of asthma. To date, no study has addressed the impact of having siblings on both the airway and fecal microbiota during infancy. We aimed to profile the nasal airway and fecal microbiota in infants, and to examine the association between having siblings and microbiota profiles. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 105 healthy infants (aged <1 year). By applying 16S rRNA gene sequencing and an unbiased clustering approach to the nasal airway and fecal samples, we identified microbiota profiles and then determined the association between having siblings and microbiome profiles...
September 16, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Leah Stiemsma, Marie-Claire Arrieta, Pedro Dimitriu, Jasmine Cheng, Lisa Thorson, Diana Lefebvre, Meghan B Azad, Padmaja Subbarao, Piush Mandhane, Allan Becker, Malcolm Sears, Tobias Kollmann, William Mohn, Brett Finlay, Stuart Turvey
Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways affecting one in ten children in Westernized countries. Recently, our group showed that specific bacterial genera in early life are associated with atopy and wheezing in one-year-old children. However, little is known about the link between the early life gut microbiome and the diagnosis of asthma in preschool age children. To determine the role of the gut microbiota in preschool age asthma, children up to 4 years of age enrolled in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study were classified as asthmatic (n = 39) or matched healthy controls (n = 37)...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Claudia Carvalho-Queiroz, Maria A Johansson, Jan-Olov Persson, Evelina Jörtsö, Torbjörn Kjerstadius, Caroline Nilsson, Shanie Saghafian-Hedengren, Eva Sverremark-Ekström
Early-life infections with persistent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are delayed in affluent countries, probably due to alterations in early environmental exposures, such as maternal age, siblings, and day-care attendance. We have previously reported that the timing of EBV and CMV contraction is related both to allergic sensitization and changes in functional competence of immune cells, while the presence/absence of lactobacilli [Lactobacillus (L.) casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus] or Staphylococcus (S...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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