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Infant microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652919/-khelaifiella-massiliensis-niameybacter-massiliensis-brachybacterium-massiliense-enterobacter-timonensis-massilibacillus-massiliensis-new-bacterial-species-and-genera-isolated-from-the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-infants
#1
M Tidjani Alou, F Cadoret, S Brah, A Diallo, C Sokhna, V Mehrej, J-C Lagier, P-E Fournier, D Raoult
The main characteristics of 'Khelaifiella massiliensis' strain Mt13(T) (= CSUR P1935, = DSM100591), 'Niameybacter massiliensis' strain Mt14(T) (= CSUR P1909, = DSM100592), 'Brachybacterium massiliense' strain MT5(T) (= CSUR P2240, = DSM101766), 'Enterobacter timonensis' strain mt20(T) (= CSUR P2201, = DSM 101775) and 'Massilibacillus massiliensis' strain Marseille-P2411(T) (= CSUR P2411, = DSM102838), new species isolated from the gut of healthy African infants, are presented.
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651630/maternal-inheritance-of-bifidobacterial-communities-and-bifidophages-in-infants-through-vertical-transmission
#2
Sabrina Duranti, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Federica Armanini, Francesca Turroni, Kieran James, Pamela Ferretti, Valentina Gorfer, Chiara Ferrario, Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Rosaria Anzalone, Moreno Zolfo, Alice Viappiani, Edoardo Pasolli, Ilaria Bariletti, Rosarita Canto, Rosanna Clementi, Marina Cologna, Tiziana Crifò, Giuseppina Cusumano, Sabina Fedi, Stefania Gottardi, Claudia Innamorati, Caterina Masè, Daniela Postai, Daniela Savoi, Massimo Soffiati, Saverio Tateo, Anna Pedrotti, Nicola Segata, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
BACKGROUND: The correct establishment of the human gut microbiota represents a crucial development that commences at birth. Different hypotheses propose that the infant gut microbiota is derived from, among other sources, the mother's fecal/vaginal microbiota and human milk. RESULTS: The composition of bifidobacterial communities of 25 mother-infant pairs was investigated based on an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) approach, combined with cultivation-mediated and genomic analyses...
June 26, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646967/the-respiratory-microbiome-and-respiratory-infections
#3
Stefan A Unger, Debby Bogaert
Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic respiratory health do not fully explain why some children become sick and others do not. The respiratory tract hosts bacteria that can cause respiratory infections but also normal commensal bacteria. Together, this microbial population is called the microbiome...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644357/effect-of-synbiotic-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-cesarean-delivered-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study
#4
Mei Chin Chua, Kaouther Ben-Amor, Christophe Lay, Anne G E Neo, Wei Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Charmaine Chew, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech, Jan Knol, Voranush Chongsrisawat
We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the gut microbiota of cesarean-born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a higher bifidobacteria proportion from day 3/5 (P < 0...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643627/bifidobacteria-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#5
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Susana Delgado, Lorena Ruiz, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Borja Sánchez, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are members of the intestinal microbiota of mammals and other animals, and some strains are able to exert health-promoting effects. The genus Bifidobacterium belongs to the Actinobacteria phylum. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in the human intestinal microbiota, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being predominant in adults, and Actinobacteria in breast-fed infants, where bifidobacteria can reach levels higher than 90% of the total bacterial population...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638093/fatty-acid-composition-and-phospholipid-types-used-in-infant-formulas-modifies-the-establishment-of-human-gut-bacteria-in-germ-free-mice
#6
Rikke Guldhammer Nejrup, Tine Rask Licht, Lars Ingvar Hellgren
Human milk fat contains high concentrations of medium-chained fatty acids (MCFA) and triacylglycerols emulsified by a sphingomyelin-rich phospholipid membrane (milk phospholipids, MPL). Infant formula comprises mainly long-chained fatty acids (LCFA) emulsified with dairy proteins and soy lecithin (SL) lacking sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin content and saturation level of phospholipids affect the gut lipase activity, which alters the concentrations of lipid hydrolysis products in ileum and colon, and hereby putatively affects the competitive advantage of specific gut bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637803/protein-malnutrition-alters-tryptophan-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-homeostasis-and-adaptive-immune-responses-in-human-rotavirus-infected-gnotobiotic-pigs-transplanted-with-human-infant-fecal-microbiota
#7
David D Fischer, Sukumar Kandasamy, Francine C Paim, Stephanie N Langel, Moyasar A Alhamo, Lulu Shao, Juliet Chepngeno, Ayako Miyazaki, Huang-Chi Huang, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of five. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets with infected with virulent human rotavirus. After human rotavirus infection, protein deficient pigs had decreased human rotavirus antibody titers and total IgA concentrations, systemic T helper (CD3+CD4+) and cytotoxic T (CD3+CD8+) lymphocyte frequencies and serum tryptophan and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#8
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620481/tolerability-and-safety-of-the-intake-of-bovine-milk-oligosaccharides-extracted-from-cheese-whey-in-healthy-human-adults
#9
Jennifer T Smilowitz, Danielle G Lemay, Karen M Kalanetra, Elizabeth L Chin, Angela M Zivkovic, Melissa A Breck, J Bruce German, David A Mills, Carolyn Slupsky, Daniela Barile
Mechanistic research suggests a unique evolutionary relationship between complex milk oligosaccharides and cognate bifidobacteria enriched in breast-fed infants. Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) were recently identified as structurally and functionally similar to human milk oligosaccharides. The present single-blind three-way crossover study is the first to determine the safety and tolerability of BMO consumption by healthy human participants (n 12) and its effects on faecal microbiota and microbial metabolism...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618260/protectors-of-the-neonatal-gut-clostridia-send-pathogens-packing
#10
Judith Behnsen
Commensal bacteria are known to provide colonization resistance in the gut. But exactly which ones provide this function? In a recent paper in Science, Kim et al. (2017) revealed that Clostridia added to mouse infant gut microbiota are sufficient to limit colonization of pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae.
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615382/factors-influencing-the-gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Li Wen, Andrew Duffy
The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including genetics; the mode of delivery at birth; the method of infant feeding; the use of medications, especially antibiotics; and the diet. There may exist a gut microbiota signature that promotes intestinal inflammation and subsequent systemic low-grade inflammation, which in turn promotes the development of type 2 diabetes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611760/bacterial-composition-and-diversity-in-breast-milk-samples-from-mothers-living-in-taiwan-and-mainland-china
#12
Shiao-Wen Li, Koichi Watanabe, Chih-Chieh Hsu, Shiou-Huei Chao, Zheng-Hua Yang, Yan-Jun Lin, Chun-Chiang Chen, Yong-Mei Cao, Hsuan-Cheng Huang, Chuan-Hsiung Chang, Ying-Chieh Tsai
Human breast milk is widely recognized as the best source of nutrients for healthy growth and development of infants; it contains a diverse microbiota. Here, we characterized the diversity of the microbiota in the breast milk of East Asian women and assessed whether delivery mode influenced the microbiota in the milk of healthy breast-feeding mothers. We profiled the microbiota in breast milk samples collected from 133 healthy mothers in Taiwan and in six regions of mainland China (Central, East, North, Northeast, South, and Southwest China) by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606217/nutritional-support-for-low-birth-weight-infants-insights-from-animal-studies
#13
Na Li, Wei Wang, Guoyao Wu, Junjun Wang
Infants born with low birth weights (<2500 g, LBW), accounting for about 15 % of newborns, have a high risk for postnatal growth failure and developing the metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and obesity later in life. Improper nutrition provision during critical stages, such as undernutrition during the fetal period or overnutrition during the neonatal period, has been an important mediator of these metabolic diseases. Considering the specific physiological status of LBW infants, nutritional intervention and optimisation during early life merit further attention...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592977/clostridium-difficile-colonization-and-or-infection-during-infancy-and-the-risk-of-childhood-allergic-diseases
#14
Sun Hwa Lee, Yun Na Gong, Eell Ryoo
PURPOSE: The gut microbiota can influence several diseases through immune modulation; however, the exact role of microbes such as Clostridium difficileand the relationship between microbiota colonization and allergic diseases are not well known. This study aimed to determine the relationship between C. difficilecolonization and/or infection (CDCI) during infancy and allergic diseases during early childhood. METHODS: Infants 1-12 months of age presenting changes in bowel habits for more than 2 weeks were enrolled in this study...
May 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566122/necrotizing-enterocolitis-classification-and-two-initial-steps-towards-prevention
#15
Sandra Meinich Juhl
The premature infant suffers from immaturity of all organ systems, one of them being the gastrointestinal tract. When the infant is born, the immature gastrointestinal tract is exposed to milk and simultaneously colonized by high densities of bacteria. The combination of milk, microbiota and an immature gut, leaves the infant vulnerable to developing the dreaded intestinal emergency necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NEC is often very aggressive and no cure exists, which means that prevention is an utmost important topic to researchers, physicians, parents - and infants...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560114/differentiation-of-bifidobacterium-longum-subspecies-longum-and-infantis-by-quantitative-pcr-using-functional-gene-targets
#16
Blair Lawley, Karen Munro, Alan Hughes, Alison J Hodgkinson, Colin G Prosser, Dianne Lowry, Shao J Zhou, Maria Makrides, Robert A Gibson, Christophe Lay, Charmaine Chew, Pheng Soon Lee, Khai Hong Wong, Gerald W Tannock
BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are abundant in the feces of babies during the exclusively-milk-diet period of life. Bifidobacterium longum is reported to be a common member of the infant fecal microbiota. However, B. longum is composed of three subspecies, two of which are represented in the bowel microbiota (B. longum subsp. longum; B. longum subsp. infantis). B. longum subspecies are not differentiated in many studies, so that their prevalence and relative abundances are not accurately known...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551707/nutritional-therapy-in-very-early-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-case-report
#17
Talya L Miller, Dale Lee, Mathew Giefer, Ghassan Wahbeh, David L Suskind
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by a dysregulated immune response to the fecal microbiota. Very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) refers to a subgroup of pediatric patients with IBD diagnosed before 6 years of age. This subgroup is often characterized by increased severity, aggressive progression, strong family history of IBD, and often poor response to conventional treatments. Nutritional therapies have been utilized to treat IBD, but their role in VEO-IBD is unclear...
May 27, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521318/breastfeeding-childhood-asthma-and-allergic-disease
#18
Wendy H Oddy
The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521317/mechanisms-of-tolerance-induction
#19
Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn, Pantipa Chatchatee
Food allergy results from failure in oral tolerance that usually occurs in infancy or early childhood. Exposure to peanut and hen's egg via the inflamed and disrupted epithelial barrier in children with severe atopic dermatitis is a risk factor for the development of allergy to these foods and supports the hypothesis that epicutaneous exposure in the absence of oral feeding is an important pathway of allergic IgE sensitization in infants. In recent years, the collective evidence has pointed toward the protective effect of an early feeding with peanut and egg in children with eczema, taking advantage of the pathways underlying oral tolerance to counteract epicutaneous exposure...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504574/gut-dysbiosis-following-c-section-instigates-higher-colonisation-of-toxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-in-infants
#20
R Nagpal, H Tsuji, T Takahashi, K Nomoto, K Kawashima, S Nagata, Y Yamashiro
Herein we investigated the intestinal carriage of α-toxigenic and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens during infancy, focusing on its association with other gut microbes and mode of delivery and feeding. Faecal samples from 89 healthy term infants were collected at age 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 3 years. C. perfringens was quantified by qPCR; other gut bacteria were quantified by reverse-transcription-qPCR. Alpha-toxigenic C. perfringens was detected in 3.4% infants at day 7 but was present in 35-40% infants at subsequent time-points, with counts ranging from 10(3)-10(7) cells/g faeces...
May 30, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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