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Infant microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912815/feasibility-of-metatranscriptome-analysis-from-infant-gut-microbiota-adaptation-to-solid-foods-results-in-increased-activity-of-firmicutes-at-six-months
#1
Floor Hugenholtz, Jarmo Ritari, Lotta Nylund, Mark Davids, Reetta Satokari, Willem M de Vos
Newborns are rapidly colonized by microbes and their intestinal tracts contain highly dynamic and rapidly developing microbial communities in the first months of life. In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#2
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n=30) and age-matched singletons (n=14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910860/isolation-of-probiotic-piliated-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-strains-from-human-faecal-microbiota-using-spaaantiserum-based-colony-immunoblotting
#3
Zhen-Quan Yang, Yu Xue, Mi Zhang, Sheng-Qi Rao, Lu Gao, Yong-Qi Yin, Da-Wei Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhou, Xin-An Jiao
Piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (pLR) strains possess higher adherent capacity than non-piliated strains. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterise probiotic pLR strains in human faecal samples. To this end, mouse polyclonal antiserum (anti-SpaA) against the recombinant pilus protein (SpaA) of L. rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) was prepared and tested for its reactivity and specificity. With the anti-SpaA, a method combining the de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar plating separation and colony immunoblotting (CIB) was developed to isolate pLR from 124 human faecal samples...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903469/signatures-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-japanese-infants-who-developed-food-allergies-in-early-childhood
#4
Masaru Tanaka, Yuki Korenori, Masakazu Washio, Takako Kobayashi, Rie Momoda, Chikako Kiyohara, Aki Kuroda, Yuka Saito, Kenji Sonomoto, Jiro Nakayama
Bacterial colonization in infancy is considered crucial for the development of the immune system. Recently, there has been a drastic increase in childhood allergies in Japan. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study with 56 infants on the relationship between gut microbiota in the first year of life and the development of allergies during the first 3 years. In the lactation period, organic acid producers such as Leuconostoc, Weissella and Veillonella tended to be underrepresented in subjects who developed food allergies (FA, n = 14) within the first two years...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900158/dynamic-oropharyngeal-and-faecal-microbiota-during-treatment-in-infants-hospitalized-for-bronchiolitis-compared-with-age-matched-healthy-subjects
#5
Qian Hu, Wenkui Dai, Qian Zhou, Dan Fu, Yuejie Zheng, Wenjian Wang, Yanhong Liu, Qin Yang, Dongling Dai, Sixi Liu, Guosheng Liu, Shuaicheng Li, Feiqiu Wen
Bronchiolitis is one of the most severe diseases affecting infants worldwide. An imbalanced oropharynx (OP) microbiota has been reported in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis; however, the microbiota dynamics in the OP and faeces during therapy remain unexplored. In total, 27 infants who were hospitalized with bronchiolitis were selected for this study, and sampling was conducted before therapy and after clinical recovery. We also recruited 22 age-matched healthy infants for this study. The faecal and OP microbiota diversity in the patients was lower than that in the healthy children...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894218/lactate-utilizing-community-is-associated-with-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-colicky-infants
#6
Van T Pham, Christophe Lacroix, Christian P Braegger, Christophe Chassard
The aetiology of colic, a functional gastrointestinal disorder in infants, is not yet resolved. Different mechanisms have been suggested involving the gut microbiota and intermediate metabolites such as lactate. Lactate can be metabolized by lactate-utilizing bacteria (LUB) to form different end-products. Using a functional approach, we hypothesized that H2 production and accumulation by LUB is associated with the development of colic. The LUB communities in the feces of forty infants, including eight colicky infants, were characterized using a combination of culture- and molecular-based methods, and metabolite concentrations were measured by HPLC...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894126/microbes-in-infant-gut-development-placing-abundance-within-environmental-clinical-and-growth-parameters
#7
Tanja Obermajer, Iztok Grabnar, Evgen Benedik, Tina Tušar, Tatjana Robič Pikel, Nataša Fidler Mis, Bojana Bogovič Matijašić, Irena Rogelj
Sound and timely microbial gut colonization completes newborn's healthy metabolic programming and manifests in infant appropriate growth and weight development. Feces, collected at 3, 30, and 90 days after birth from 60 breastfed Slovenian newborns, was submitted to microbial DNA extraction and qPCR quantification of selected gut associated taxa. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to evaluate microbial dynamics with respect to infant demographic, environmental, clinical characteristics and first year growth data...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893638/innate-immune-responses-play-a-key-role-in-controlling-infection-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-cryptosporidium
#8
REVIEW
Fabrice Laurent, Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé
Cryptosporidium infection leads to acute diarrhea worldwide. The development of cryptosporidiosis is closely related to the immune status of its host, affecting primarily young ruminants, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. In recent years, several studies have improved our knowledge on the immune mechanisms responsible for the control of the acute phase of the infection and have highlighted the importance of innate immunity. The parasite develops in the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells, giving these cells a central role, as they are both the exclusive host cell for replication of the parasite and participate in the protective immune response...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891751/rotavirus-vaccine-response-correlates-with-the-infant-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pakistan
#9
Vanessa Harris, Asad Ali, Susana Fuentes, Katri Korpela, Momin Kazi, Jacqueline Tate, Umesh Parashar, W Joost Wiersinga, Carlo Giaquinto, Carolina de Weerth, Willem M de Vos
Background Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide, and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders...
September 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886400/breastfeeding-increases-microbial-community-resilience
#10
Isabel I Carvalho-Ramos, Rubens T D Duarte, Katia Brandt, Marina B Martinez, Carla R Taddei
OBJECTIVE: Since the present group had already described the composition of the intestinal microbiota of Brazilian infants under low social economic level, the aim of the present study was to analyze the microbial community structure changes in this group of infants during their early life due to external factors. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 11 infants monthly during the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding clinical and diet information and characterized according to breastfeeding practices...
September 5, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878760/respiratory-commensal-bacteria-corynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum-improves-resistance-of-infant-mice-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-superinfection
#11
Paulraj Kanmani, Patricia Clua, Maria G Vizoso-Pinto, Cecilia Rodriguez, Susana Alvarez, Vyacheslav Melnikov, Hideki Takahashi, Haruki Kitazawa, Julio Villena
Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. We hypothesized that human isolate C. pseudodiphtheriticum strain 090104 is able to modulate the respiratory innate immune response and beneficially influence the resistance to viral and bacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877893/randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-impact-of-early-life-intervention-with-bifidobacteria-on-the-healthy-infant-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome
#12
Monika Bazanella, Tanja V Maier, Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Marianna Lucio, Maria X Maldonado-Gòmez, Chloe Autran, Jens Walter, Lars Bode, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Dirk Haller
Background: Early-life colonization of the intestinal tract is a dynamic process influenced by numerous factors. The impact of probiotic-supplemented infant formula on the composition and function of the infant gut microbiota is not well defined.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of a bifidobacteria-containing formula on the healthy human intestinal microbiome during the first year of life.Design: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of newborn infants assigned to a standard whey-based formula containing a total of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, B...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874323/the-effect-of-probiotics-and-zinc-supplementation-on-the-immune-response-to-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-a-randomized-factorial-design-placebo-controlled-study-among-indian-infants
#13
Robin P Lazarus, Jacob John, E Shanmugasundaram, Anand K Rajan, S Thiagarajan, Sidhartha Giri, Sudhir Babji, Rajiv Sarkar, P Saravankumar Kaliappan, Srinivasan Venugopal, Ira Praharaj, Uma Raman, Meghana Paranjpe, Nicholas C Grassly, Edward P K Parker, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Jessica A Fleming, A Duncan Steele, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Asha M Abraham, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Strategies are needed to improve oral rotavirus vaccine (RV), which provides suboptimal protection in developing countries. Probiotics and zinc supplementation could improve RV immunogenicity by altering the intestinal microbiota and immune function. METHODS: Infants 5weeks old living in urban Vellore, India were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 4-arm factorial design to assess the effects of daily zinc (5mg), probiotic (10(10)Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) or placebo on the immunogenicity of two doses of RV (Rotarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) given at 6 and 10weeks of age...
September 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870234/collection-of-non-meconium-stool-on-fecal-occult-blood-cards-is-an-effective-method-for-fecal-microbiota-studies-in-infants
#14
Wendy S W Wong, Nicole Clemency, Elisabeth Klein, Marina Provenzano, Ramaswamy Iyer, John E Niederhuber, Suchitra K Hourigan
BACKGROUND: Effective methods are needed to collect fecal samples from children for large-scale microbiota studies. Stool collected on fecal occult blood test (FOBT) cards that can be mailed provides an effective solution; however, the quality of sequencing resulting from this method is unknown. The aim of this study is to compare microbiota metrics of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing from stool and meconium collected on FOBT cards with stool collected in an Eppendorf tube (ET) under different conditions...
September 5, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870230/pre-pregnancy-weight-gestational-weight-gain-and-the-gut-microbiota-of-mothers-and-their-infants
#15
Maggie A Stanislawski, Dana Dabelea, Brandie D Wagner, Marci K Sontag, Catherine A Lozupone, Merete Eggesbø
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence supports that the maternal gut microbiota impacts the initial infant gut microbiota. Since the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity, it is important to understand how pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) impact the gut microbiota of mothers at the time of delivery and their infants in early life. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on gut microbiota samples from 169 women 4 days after delivery and from the 844 samples of their infants at six timepoints during the first 2 years of life...
September 4, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866384/intestinal-microbiota-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-allergy-effects-of-prebiotics-and-role-in-eczema-development
#16
Harm Wopereis, Kathleen Sim, Alexander Shaw, John O Warner, Jan Knol, J Simon Kroll
BACKGROUND: The development of gut microbiota in infancy is important in the maturation of the immune system. Deviations in colonization patterns have been associated with allergic manifestations (e.g. eczema), but exact microbiome dysfunctions underlying allergies remain unclear. We studied the gut microbiota of 138 infants at increased risk of developing allergy, participating in a clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of a partially hydrolyzed protein formula supplemented with non-digestible oligosaccharides (pHF-OS) on the prevention of eczema...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855672/evolution-of-gut-bifidobacterium-population-in-healthy-japanese-infants-over-the-first-three-years-of-life-a-quantitative-assessment
#17
Ravinder Nagpal, Takashi Kurakawa, Hirokazu Tsuji, Takuya Takahashi, Kazunari Kawashima, Satoru Nagata, Koji Nomoto, Yuichiro Yamashiro
Bifidobacteria are important members of human gut microbiota; however, quantitative data on their early-life dynamics is limited. Here, using a sensitive reverse transcription-qPCR approach, we demonstrate the carriage of eight signature infant-associated Bifidobacterium species (B. longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. catenulatum group, B. infantis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum and B. dentium) in 76 healthy full-term vaginally-born infants from first day to three years of life. About 21% babies carry bifidobacteria at first day of life (6...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855595/the-influence-of-different-maternal-microbial-communities-on-the-development-of-infant-gut-and-oral-microbiota
#18
Tiina Drell, Jelena Štšepetova, Jaak Simm, Kristiina Rull, Aira Aleksejeva, Anne Antson, Vallo Tillmann, Madis Metsis, Epp Sepp, Andres Salumets, Reet Mändar
Very few studies have analyzed how the composition of mother's microbiota affects the development of infant's gut and oral microbiota during the first months of life. Here, microbiota present in the mothers' gut, vagina, breast milk, oral cavity, and mammary areola were compared with the gut and oral microbiota of their infants over the first six months following birth. Samples were collected from the aforementioned body sites from seven mothers and nine infants at three different time points over a 6-month period...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854667/effect-of-dietary-nucleosides-and-yeast-extracts-on-composition-and-metabolic-activity-of-infant-gut-microbiota-in-polyferms-colonic-fermentation-models
#19
Eun-Hee Doo, Christophe Chassard, Clarissa Schwab, Christophe Lacroix
Nucleotides (NT) and nucleosides (NS) are added to infant formula to mimic the content of breast milk, but little is known about their impact on infant gut microbiota. In this study, we tested the effect of NS and of yeast extracts (YE) with different NT content using PolyFermS continuous fermentation models mimicking formula-fed, healthy and enteropathogen-contaminated infant gut microbiota. Microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formation and gene expression were determined. NS, and to a larger extend YE modulated microbiota composition and increased metabolic activity in both models...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844447/women-and-their-microbes-the-unexpected-friendship
#20
REVIEW
Jessica A Younes, Elke Lievens, Ruben Hummelen, Rebecca van der Westen, Gregor Reid, Mariya I Petrova
Communities of microbiota have been associated with numerous health outcomes, and while much emphasis has been placed on the gastrointestinal niche, there is growing interest in the microbiome specific for female reproductive health and the health of their offspring. The vaginal microbiome plays an essential role not only in health and dysbiosis, but also potentially in successful fertilization and healthy pregnancies. In addition, microbial communities have been isolated from formerly forbidden sterile niches such as the placenta, breast, uterus, and Fallopian tubes, strongly suggesting an additional microbial role in women's health...
August 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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