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Infant microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922070/deep-sequencing-of-the-16s-ribosomal-rna-of-the-neonatal-oral-microbiome-a-comparison-of-breast-fed-and-formula-fed-infants
#1
S S Al-Shehri, E L Sweeney, D M Cowley, H G Liley, P D Ranasinghe, B G Charles, P N Shaw, D Vagenas, J A Duley, C L Knox
In utero and upon delivery, neonates are exposed to a wide array of microorganisms from various sources, including maternal bacteria. Prior studies have proposed that the mode of feeding shapes the gut microbiota and, subsequently the child's health. However, the effect of the mode of feeding and its influence on the development of the neonatal oral microbiota in early infancy has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the oral microbiota of healthy infants that were exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921083/integrated-role-of-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-supplementation-in-gut-microbiota-immunity-and-metabolism-of-infant-rhesus-monkeys
#2
Xuan He, Carolyn M Slupsky, James W Dekker, Neill W Haggarty, Bo Lönnerdal
To investigate the impact of probiotic supplementation of infant formula on immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, and metabolism, five individually housed infant rhesus monkeys exclusively fed standard infant formula supplemented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019) from birth until 3 months of age were compared with five standard formula-fed and five breast-fed monkeys. Anthropometric measurements, serum insulin, immune parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and feces were evaluated...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910234/luminal-contents-from-the-gut-of-colicky-infants-induce-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-mice
#3
H Eutamène, C L Garcia-Rodenas, S Yvon, E d'Aldebert, F Foata, B Berger, J Sauser, V Theodorou, G Bergonzelli, E Mas
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of infantile colic is poorly understood, though various studies report gut microbiota dysbiosis in colicky infants. We aimed to test the hypothesis that colic-related dysbiosis is associated with visceral hypersensitivity triggered by an altered luminal milieu. METHODS: Fecal samples from seven colicky and seven non-colicky infants were studied. Fecal supernatants (FS) were infused into the colons of C57/Bl6 mice (n=10/specimen). Visceral sensitivity was subsequently assessed in the animals by recording their abdominal muscle response to colorectal distension (CRD) by electromyography (EMG)...
December 1, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904883/interactions-of-respiratory-viruses-and-the-nasal-microbiota-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-healthy-infants
#4
Insa Korten, Moana Mika, Shkipe Klenja, Elisabeth Kieninger, Ines Mack, Maria Teresa Barbani, Meri Gorgievski, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902365/the-oral-cavities-of-healthy-infants-harbor-high-proportions-of-streptococcus-salivarius-strains-with-phenotypic-and-genotypic-resistance-to-multiple-classes-of-antibiotics
#5
Thaís H Palma, Erika Harth-Chú, Jodie Scott, Rafael N Stipp, Heike Boisvert, Mariana F Salomão, Jéssica D Theobaldo, Rosana F Possobon, Leandro C Nascimento, Jonathan W McCafferty, Lina Faller, Margaret J Duncan, Renata O Mattos-Graner
Emerging antibiotic resistance in the oropharyngeal microbiota, of which Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent species, represents a challenge for treating pediatric populations. In this study, we investigated the role of S. salivarius as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the oral microbiota by analyzing 95 S. salivarius isolates from 22 healthy infants (2 to 16 months of age). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin were determined...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899809/does-vaginal-delivery-mitigate-or-strengthen-the-intergenerational-association-of-overweight-and-obesity-findings-from-the-boston-birth-cohort
#6
N T Mueller, G Mao, W Bennet, S Hourigan, M G Dominguez-Bello, L J Appel, X Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet Cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m(2)) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother-child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5y (range 2...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884820/una-destinatio-viae-diversae-does-exposure-to-the-vaginal-microbiota-confer-health-benefits-to-the-infant-and-does-lack-of-exposure-confer-disease-risk
#7
Kjersti Aagaard, Christopher J Stewart, Derrick Chu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883906/infant-food-applications-of-complex-carbohydrates-structure-synthesis-and-function
#8
Dorothy L Ackerman, Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development...
November 11, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864179/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-among-human-gut-derived-bifidobacteria
#9
Sabrina Duranti, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Chiara Ferrario, Rosaria Anzalone, Alice Viappiani, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
: The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may regularly be exposed to antibiotics, which are used to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Bacterial communities of the gut retain a reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, and antibiotic therapy thus positively selects for those microorganisms that harbor such genetic features, causing microbiota modulation. During the first months following birth, bifidobacteria represent one of the most dominant components of the human gut microbiota, though little is known about their AR gene complement (or resistome)...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861554/high-diversity-and-variability-in-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-women-following-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-pprom-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Teenus Paramel Jayaprakash, Emily C Wagner, Julie van Schalkwyk, Arianne Y K Albert, Janet E Hill, Deborah M Money
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the vaginal microbiota of women following preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and determine if microbiome composition predicts latency duration and perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Canada. POPULATION: Women with PPROM between 24+0 and 33+6 weeks gestational age (GA). METHODS: Microbiome profiles, based on pyrosequencing of the cpn60 universal target, were generated from vaginal samples at time of presentation with PPROM, weekly thereafter, and at delivery...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856001/enteral-high-fat-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-blend-alters-the-pathogen-composition-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-premature-infants-with-an-enterostomy
#11
Noelle Younge, Qing Yang, Patrick C Seed
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of enteral fish oil and safflower oil supplementation on the intestinal microbiome in infants with an enterostomy born premature. STUDY DESIGN: Infants with an enterostomy born premature were randomized to receive early enteral supplementation with a high-fat polyunsaturated fatty acid (HF-PUFA) blend of fish oil and safflower oil vs standard nutritional therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for longitudinal profiling of the microbiome from the time of study entry until bowel reanastomosis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853453/gradual-changes-of-gut-microbiota-in-weaned-miniature-piglets
#12
Jun Hu, Yangfan Nie, Jianwei Chen, Yong Zhang, Zhichang Wang, Qiwen Fan, Xianghua Yan
Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846067/detection-of-sepsis-in-preterm-infants-by-fecal-volatile-organic-compounds-analysis-a-proof-of-principle-study
#13
Daniel J C Berkhout, Hendrik J Niemarkt, Martin Buijck, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, Paul Brinkman, Marc A Benninga, Anton H van Kaam, Boris W Kramer, Peter Andriessen, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
OBJECTIVES: Several studies associated altered gut microbiota composition in preterm infants with late-onset sepsis (LOS), up to days prior to clinical onset of sepsis. However, microbiota analysis as early diagnostic biomarker is in clinical practice currently not feasible because of logistic aspects and high costs. Therefore, we hypothesized that analysis of fecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) may serve as non-invasive biomarker to predict LOS at a preclinical stage, since VOC reflect the composition and activity of intestinal microbial communities...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845236/serum-cathelicidin-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-and-disease-severity-among-infants-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis
#14
Kohei Hasegawa, Jonathan M Mansbach, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Robert J Freishtat, Stephen J Teach, Pedro A Piedra, Carlos A Camargo
Among infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis, and who had low serum LL-37 levels, the Haemophilus-dominant nasopharyngeal microbiota profile was associated with higher disease severity. By contrast, in those with high LL-37 levels, we observed no association.
November 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833819/salivary-microbiomes-of-indigenous-tsimane-mothers-and-infants-are-distinct-despite-frequent-premastication
#15
Cliff S Han, Melanie Ann Martin, Armand E K Dichosa, Ashlynn R Daughton, Seth Frietze, Hillard Kaplan, Michael D Gurven, Joe Alcock
BACKGROUND: Premastication, the transfer of pre-chewed food, is a common infant and young child feeding practice among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon. Research conducted primarily with Western populations has shown that infants harbor distinct oral microbiota from their mothers. Premastication, which is less common in these populations, may influence the colonization and maturation of infant oral microbiota, including via transmission of oral pathogens...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833033/establishment-and-development-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-preterm-infants-in-a-lebanese-tertiary-hospital
#16
Tarek Itani, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Imad Melki, Clotilde Rousseau, Irène Mangin, Marie-José Butel, Dolla Karam Sarkis
The establishment and development of the intestinal microbiota is known to be associated with profound short- and long-term effects on the health of full-term infants (FTI), but studies are just starting for preterm infants (PTI). The data also mostly come from western countries and little information is available for the Middle East. Here, we determined the composition and dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during the first month of life for PTI (n = 66) and FTI (n = 17) in Lebanon. Fecal samples were collected weekly and analyzed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE)...
November 8, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832763/a-comparison-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-a-population-of-low-risk-infants-exposed-and-not-exposed-to-intrapartum-antibiotics-the-baby-microbiota-of-the-intestine-cohort-study-protocol
#17
Julia Simioni, Eileen K Hutton, Elizabeth Gunn, Alison C Holloway, Jennifer C Stearns, Helen McDonald, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Lehana Thabane, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences metabolic, nutritional, and immunologic processes and has been associated with a broad range of adverse health outcomes including asthma, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Early life exposures may alter the course of gut microbial colonization leading to differences in metabolic and immune regulation throughout life. Although approximately 50 % of low-risk full-term infants born in Canada are exposed to intrapartum antibiotics, little is known about the influence of this common prophylactic treatment on the developing neonatal intestinal microbiota...
November 10, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827448/composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-infants-in-china-and-global-comparison
#18
Ya-Shu Kuang, Sheng-Hui Li, Yong Guo, Jin-Hua Lu, Jian-Rong He, Bei-Jun Luo, Feng-Ju Jiang, Hui Shen, Christopher J Papasian, Herbert Pang, Hui-Min Xia, Hong-Wen Deng, Xiu Qiu
Symbiotic gut microbiota is essential for human health, and its compositional changes have been associated with various complex disorders. However, systematic investigation of the acquisition and development of gut microbial communities during early infancy are relatively rare, particularly for infants from non-Western countries. In this study, we characterize the colonization and development of infant microbiota in healthy Chinese infants and compare the pattern with those from other countries. The fecal microbiota of 2-month-old infants was considerably more diverse than that of neonates, as indicated by higher relative abundances of Veillonella, Clostridium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Collinsella and Prevotella, and reduction of Escherichia and Enterococcus...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826359/modeling-human-enteric-dysbiosis-and-rotavirus-immunity-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#19
Erica L Twitchell, Christine Tin, Ke Wen, Husen Zhang, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Samuel Vilchez, Guohua Li, Ashwin Ramesh, Mariah Weiss, Shaohua Lei, Tammy Bui, Xingdong Yang, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Lijuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines have poor efficacy in infants from low- and middle-income countries. Gut microbiota is thought to influence the immune response to oral vaccines. Thus, we developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of enteric dysbiosis to study the effects of human gut microbiota (HGM) on immune responses to rotavirus vaccination, and the effects of rotavirus challenge on the HGM by colonizing Gn pigs with healthy HGM (HHGM) or unhealthy HGM (UHGM). The UHGM was from a Nicaraguan infant with a high enteropathy score (ES) and no seroconversion following administration of oral rotavirus vaccine, while the converse was characteristic of the HHGM...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821062/the-highly-variable-microbiota-associated-to-intestinal-mucosa-correlates-with-growth-and-hypoxia-resistance-of-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-submitted-to-different-nutritional-histories
#20
François-Joël Gatesoupe, Christine Huelvan, Nicolas Le Bayon, Hervé Le Delliou, Lauriane Madec, Olivier Mouchel, Patrick Quazuguel, David Mazurais, José-Luis Zambonino-Infante
BACKGROUND: The better understanding of how intestinal microbiota interacts with fish health is one of the key to sustainable aquaculture development. The present experiment aimed at correlating active microbiota associated to intestinal mucosa with Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Hypoxia Resistance Time (HRT) in European sea bass individuals submitted to different nutritional histories: the fish were fed either standard or unbalanced diets at first feeding, and then mixed before repeating the dietary challenge in a common garden approach at the juvenile stage...
November 8, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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