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Infant microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333864/non-digestible-carbohydrates-in-infant-formula-as-substitution-for-human-milk-oligosaccharide-functions-effects-on-microbiota-and-gut-maturation
#1
Renate Akkerman, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs...
January 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325581/haemophilus-is-overrepresented-in-the-nasopharynx-of-infants-hospitalized-with-rsv-infection-and-associated-with-increased-viral-load-and-enhanced-mucosal-cxcl8-responses
#2
Thomas H A Ederveen, Gerben Ferwerda, Inge M Ahout, Marloes Vissers, Ronald de Groot, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Martijn A Huynen, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Marien I de Jonge
BACKGROUND: While almost all infants are infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) before the age of 2 years, only a small percentage develops severe disease. Previous studies suggest that the nasopharyngeal microbiome affects disease development. We therefore studied the effect of the nasopharyngeal microbiome on viral load and mucosal cytokine responses, two important factors influencing the pathophysiology of RSV disease. To determine the relation between (i) the microbiome of the upper respiratory tract, (ii) viral load, and (iii) host mucosal inflammation during an RSV infection, nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles of RSV infected infants (< 6 months) with different levels of disease severity and age-matched healthy controls were determined by 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing...
January 11, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310579/gene-trait-matching-across-the-bifidobacterium-longum-pan-genome-reveals-considerable-diversity-in-carbohydrate-catabolism-among-human-infant-strains
#3
Silvia Arboleya, Francesca Bottacini, Mary O'Connell-Motherway, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross, Douwe van Sinderen, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium longum is a common member of the human gut microbiota and is frequently present at high numbers in the gut microbiota of humans throughout life, thus indicative of a close symbiotic host-microbe relationship. Different mechanisms may be responsible for the high competitiveness of this taxon in its human host to allow stable establishment in the complex and dynamic intestinal microbiota environment. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic and metabolic diversity in a set of 20 B...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298732/the-association-between-anterior-nares-and-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-in-infants-hospitalized-for-bronchiolitis
#4
Pamela N Luna, Kohei Hasegawa, Nadim J Ajami, Janice A Espinola, David M Henke, Joseph F Petrosino, Pedro A Piedra, Ashley F Sullivan, Carlos A Camargo, Chad A Shaw, Jonathan M Mansbach
BACKGROUND: The airway microbiome is a subject of great interest for the study of respiratory disease. Anterior nare samples are more accessible than samples from deeper within the nasopharynx. However, the correlation between the microbiota found in the anterior nares and the microbiota found within the nasopharynx is unknown. We assessed the anterior nares and nasopharyngeal microbiota to determine (1) the relation of the microbiota from these two upper airway sites and (2) if associations were maintained between the microbiota from these two sites and two bronchiolitis severity outcomes...
January 3, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295502/physiological-translocation-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-during-pregnancy-contributes-to-the-composition-of-the-milk-microbiota-in-mice
#5
Javier de Andrés, Esther Jiménez, Isabel Chico-Calero, Manuel Fresno, Leónides Fernández, Juan Miguel Rodríguez
The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least some of them may be originally present in the maternal digestive tract and may reach the mammary gland through an endogenous route during pregnancy and lactation. The objective of this work was to elucidate whether some lactic acid bacteria are able to translocate and colonize the mammary gland and milk...
December 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283050/antibiotics-associated-disorders-and-postbiotics-induced-rescue-in-gut-health
#6
Debarati Paul, Sounik Manna, Santi M Mandal
The gut microbiota plays significant roles in the human body during all spheres' of life and influences innate immunity, promotes granulocyte signaling and provides resistance during pathogenic colonization of the gut; crucial for a healthy life. Antibiotics directly affect the gut microbiota that consequently alter the basic biological processes, and imposes severe consequences in population falling under different age groups. In this article, we have assessed the differences in microbial colonization and immune function of the intestinal tract in infants, adults, and the aged people and also have examined the recent reports describing the impacts of antibiotics on infant microbiome assembly and functioning...
December 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281966/global-transcriptional-landscape-and-promoter-mapping-of-the-gut-commensal-bifidobacterium-breve-ucc2003
#7
Francesca Bottacini, Aldert Zomer, Christian Milani, Chiara Ferrario, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Muireann Egan, Marco Ventura, Douwe van Sinderen
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium breve represents a common member of the infant gut microbiota and its presence in the gut has been associated with host well being. For this reason it is relevant to investigate and understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment, persistence and activities of this gut commensal in the host environment. RESULTS: The assessment of vegetative promoters in the bifidobacterial prototype Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 was performed employing a combination of RNA tiling array analysis and cDNA sequencing...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275810/necrotizing-enterocolitis-pathophysiology-from-a-historical-context
#8
David Hackam, Michael Caplan
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to afflict approximately 7% of preterm infants born weighing less than 1500g, though recent investigations have provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of this complex disease. The disease has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units worldwide for many years, and our current understanding reflects exceptional observations made decades ago. In this review, we will describe NEC from a historical context and summarize seminal findings that underscore the importance of enteral feeding, the gut microbiota, and intestinal inflammation in this complex pathophysiology...
February 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250560/pulmonary-susceptibility-of-neonates-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-a-problem-of-innate-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Carole Drajac, Daphné Laubreton, Sabine Riffault, Delphyne Descamps
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious viral agent responsible for acute lower respiratory infection in infants. This pathology characterized by mucus hypersecretion and a disturbed T cell immune response is one of the major causes of infant hospitalization for severe bronchiolitis. Although different risk factors are associated with acute RSV bronchiolitis, the immunological factors contributing to the susceptibility of RSV infection in infants are not clearly elucidated...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250074/early-life-human-microbiota-associated-with-childhood-allergy-promotes-the-t-helper-17-axis-in-mice
#10
Dagbjort H Petursdottir, Sofia Nordlander, Khaleda Rahman Qazi, Claudia Carvalho-Queiroz, Omneya Ahmed Osman, Eva Hell, Sophia Björkander, Yeneneh Haileselassie, Marit Navis, Efthymia Kokkinou, Ivan Zong Long Lio, Julia Hennemann, Björn Brodin, Douglas L Huseby, Caroline Nilsson, Diarmaid Hughes, Klas I Udekwu, Eva Sverremark-Ekström
The intestinal microbiota influences immune maturation during childhood, and is implicated in early-life allergy development. However, to directly study intestinal microbes and gut immune responses in infants is difficult. To investigate how different types of early-life gut microbiota affect immune development, we collected fecal samples from children with different allergic heredity (AH) and inoculated germ-free mice. Immune responses and microbiota composition were evaluated in the offspring of these mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248229/breastfeeding-associated-microbiota-in-human-milk-following-supplementation-with-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-5-and-bifidobacterium-animalis-subspecies-lactis-bb-12
#11
Melanie Rae Simpson, Ekaterina Avershina, Ola Storrø, Roar Johnsen, Knut Rudi, Torbjørn Øien
Breastfeeding is one of the major factors affecting the early development of the infant gut microbiota, and weaning is associated with a shift in the gut microbiota toward a more adult composition. Through breastfeeding, infants receive bioactive components that shape their microbiota while also being exposed to the breast milk and breast surface microbial communities. Recent studies have suggested the possibility of an entero-mammary route of microbial transfer, opening the possibility of infant gut microbiota modulation through maternal probiotic supplementation...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241587/associations-between-infant-fungal-and-bacterial-dysbiosis-and-childhood-atopic-wheeze-in-a-nonindustrialized-setting
#12
Marie-Claire Arrieta, Andrea Arévalo, Leah Stiemsma, Pedro Dimitriu, Martha E Chico, Sofia Loor, Maritza Vaca, Rozlyn C T Boutin, Evan Morien, Mingliang Jin, Stuart E Turvey, Jens Walter, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Philip J Cooper, Brett Finlay
BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Recently, we identified a critical window early in the life of both mice and Canadian infants during which gut microbial changes (dysbiosis) affect asthma development. Given geographic differences in human gut microbiota worldwide, we studied the effects of gut microbial dysbiosis on atopic wheeze in a population living in a distinct developing world environment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether microbial alterations in early infancy are associated with the development of atopic wheeze in a nonindustrialized setting...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228972/impact-of-prematurity-and-nutrition-on-the-developing-gut-microbiome-and-preterm-infant-growth
#13
Alex Grier, Xing Qiu, Sanjukta Bandyopadhyay, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Haeja A Kessler, Ann L Gill, Brooke Hamilton, Heidie Huyck, Sara Misra, Thomas J Mariani, Rita M Ryan, Lori Scholer, Kristin M Scheible, Yi-Horng Lee, Mary T Caserta, Gloria S Pryhuber, Steven R Gill
BACKGROUND: Identification of factors that influence the neonatal gut microbiome is urgently needed to guide clinical practices that support growth of healthy preterm infants. Here, we examined the influence of nutrition and common practices on the gut microbiota and growth in a cohort of preterm infants. RESULTS: With weekly gut microbiota samples spanning postmenstrual age (PMA) 24 to 46 weeks, we developed two models to test associations between the microbiota, nutrition and growth: a categorical model with three successive microbiota phases (P1, P2, and P3) and a model with two periods (early and late PMA) defined by microbiota composition and PMA, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218997/causes-of-impaired-oral-vaccine-efficacy-in-developing-countries
#14
Edward Pk Parker, Sasirekha Ramani, Benjamin A Lopman, James A Church, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Andrew J Prendergast, Nicholas C Grassly
Oral vaccines are less immunogenic when given to infants in low-income compared with high-income countries, limiting their potential public health impact. Here, we review factors that might contribute to this phenomenon, including transplacental antibodies, breastfeeding, histo blood group antigens, enteric pathogens, malnutrition, microbiota dysbiosis and environmental enteropathy. We highlight several clear risk factors for vaccine failure, such as the inhibitory effect of enteroviruses on oral poliovirus vaccine...
December 8, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217369/influence-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-given-to-infants-in-south-india
#15
Edward P K Parker, Ira Praharaj, Anna Zekavati, Robin P Lazarus, Sidhartha Giri, Darwin J Operario, Jie Liu, Eric Houpt, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Beate Kampmann, Jacob John, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly
Oral rotavirus vaccines have consistently proven to be less immunogenic among infants in developing countries. Discrepancies in the intestinal microbiota, including a greater burden of enteropathogens and an altered commensal community composition, may contribute to this trend by inhibiting the replication of vaccine viruses. To test this possibility, we performed a nested case-control study in Vellore, India, in which we compared the intestinal microbiota of infants who responded serologically or not after two doses of Rotarix delivered at 6 and 10 weeks of age as part of a clinical trial (CTRI/2012/05/002677)...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214047/high-resolution-profiling-of-the-gut-microbiome-reveals-the-extent-of-clostridium-difficile-burden
#16
Ninalynn Daquigan, Anna Maria Seekatz, K Leigh Greathouse, Vincent B Young, James Robert White
Microbiome profiling through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis has proven to be a useful research tool in the study of C. difficile infection (CDI); however, CDI microbiome studies typically report results at the genus level or higher, thus precluding identification of this pathogen relative to other members of the gut microbiota. Accurate identification of C. difficile relative to the overall gut microbiome may be useful in assessments of colonization in research studies or as a prognostic indicator for patients with CDI...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212851/omics-of-bifidobacteria-research-and-insights-into-their-health-promoting-activities
#17
REVIEW
Francesca Bottacini, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium include gut commensals that are particularly abundant among the microbial communities residing in the gut of healthy breast-fed infants, where their presence has been linked to many beneficial host effects. Next-generation DNA sequencing and comparative and functional genome methodologies have been shown to be particularly useful in exploring the diversity of this genus. These combined approaches have allowed the identification of genetic features related to bifidobacterial establishment in the gut, involving host-microbe as well as microbe-microbe interactions...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209311/codevelopment-of-microbiota-and-innate-immunity-and-the-risk-for-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#18
REVIEW
Julia Kolter, Philipp Henneke
The pathogenesis of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOD), which manifests between the third day and the third month of life, remains poorly understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most important cause of LOD in infants without underlying diseases or prematurity and the third most frequent cause of meningitis in the Western world. On the other hand, GBS is a common intestinal colonizer in infants. Accordingly, despite its adaption to the human lower gastrointestinal tract, GBS has retained its potential virulence and its transition from a commensal to a dangerous pathogen is unpredictable in the individual...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198451/development-of-the-microbiota-in-infants-and-its-role-in-maturation-of-the-gut-mucosa-and-the-immune-system
#19
Cecilia Ximenez, Javier Torres
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with increasing numbers of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergy, cancer and even neurologic or behavioral disorders. The other side of the coin is that a healthy microbiota leads to a healthy human development, to a mature and well trained immune system and to an efficient metabolic machinery. What we have learned in adults is in the end the result of a good start, a programmed, healthy development of the microbiota that must occur in the early years of life, probably even starting during the fetal stage...
November 30, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190745/colonization-with-escherichia-coli-ec-25-protects-neonatal-rats-from-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#20
Debi M Thomas, Brandon Bell, Stephanie Papillon, Patrick Delaplain, Joanna Lim, Jamie Golden, Jordan Bowling, Jin Wang, Larry Wang, Anatoly V Grishin, Henri R Ford
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants; yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. To evaluate the role of intestinal bacteria in protection against NEC, we assessed the ability of naturally occurring intestinal colonizer E. coli EC25 to influence composition of intestinal microbiota and NEC pathology in the neonatal rat model. Experimental NEC was induced in neonatal rats by formula feeding/hypoxia, and graded histologically. Bacterial populations were characterized by plating on blood agar, scoring colony classes, and identifying each class by sequencing 16S rDNA...
2017: PloS One
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