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Infant microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079170/growth-and-morbidity-of-gambian-infants-are-influenced-by-maternal-milk-oligosaccharides-and-infant-gut-microbiota
#1
Jasmine C C Davis, Zachery T Lewis, Sridevi Krishnan, Robin M Bernstein, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla, Angela M Zivkovic
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother's HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3'-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068209/the-role-of-early-life-nutrition-in-the-establishment-of-gastrointestinal-microbial-composition-and-function
#2
Erin C Davis, Mei Wang, Sharon M Donovan
The development of the human infant intestinal microbiota is a sequential process that begins in utero and continues during the first 2 to 3 years of life. Microbial composition and diversity are shaped by host genetics and multiple environmental factors, of which diet is a principal contributor. An understanding of this process is of clinical importance as the microbiota acquired in early life influence gastrointestinal, immune and neural development, and reduced microbial diversity or dysbiosis during infancy is associated with disorders in infancy and later childhood...
January 9, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053703/rubeoparvulum-massiliense-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-bacterial-genus-isolated-from-the-human-gut-of-a-senegalese-infant-with-severe-acute-malnutrition
#3
M Tidjani Alou, J Rathored, J-C Lagier, S Khelaifia, C Michelle, C Sokhna, A Diallo, A B Diallo, P-E Fournier, D Raoult, S Edouard
Rubeoparvulum massiliense strain mt6(T) was isolated from the gut microbiota of a severely malnourished boy from Senegal and consisted of facultative anaerobic, spore-forming, nonmotile and Gram-negative rods. R. massiliense showed a 92% similarity with the 16S rRNA of Bacillus mannanilyticus. The genome of strain mt6(T) is 2 843 796 bp long with a 43.75% G+C content. It contains 2735 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA genes, among which are nine rRNA genes.
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038686/the-developing-hypopharyngeal-microbiota-in-early-life
#4
Martin Steen Mortensen, Asker Daniel Brejnrod, Michael Roggenbuck, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Christina Balle, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Jakob Stokholm, Jonathan Thorsen, Johannes Waage, Morten Arendt Rasmussen, Hans Bisgaard, Søren Johannes Sørensen
BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age...
December 30, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034306/influence-of-maternal-breast-milk-ingestion-on-acquisition-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-preterm-infants
#5
Katherine E Gregory, Buck S Samuel, Pearl Houghteling, Guru Shan, Frederick M Ausubel, Ruslan I Sadreyev, W Allan Walker
BACKGROUND: The initial acquisition and early development of the intestinal microbiome during infancy are important to human health across the lifespan. Mode of birth, antibiotic administration, environment of care, and nutrition have all been shown to play a role in the assembly of the intestinal microbiome during early life. For preterm infants, who are disproportionately at risk of inflammatory intestinal disease (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis), a unique set of clinical factors influence the establishment of the microbiome...
December 30, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034304/temporal-bacterial-and-metabolic-development-of-the-preterm-gut-reveals-specific-signatures-in-health-and-disease
#6
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Emma C L Marrs, Daniel P Smith, Andrew Nelson, Bashir Abdulkadir, Tom Skeath, Joseph F Petrosino, John D Perry, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
BACKGROUND: The preterm microbiome is crucial to gut health and may contribute to necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), which represents the most significant pathology affecting preterm infants. From a cohort of 318 infants, <32 weeks gestation, we selected 7 infants who developed NEC (defined rigorously) and 28 matched controls. We performed detailed temporal bacterial (n = 641) and metabolomic (n = 75) profiling of the gut microbiome throughout the disease. RESULTS: A core community of Klebsiella, Escherichia, Staphyloccocus, and Enterococcus was present in all samples...
December 29, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034292/the-effect-of-pullulan-on-the-growth-and-acidifying-activity-of-selected-stool-microflora-of-human
#7
Anna Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Małgorzata Gniewosz, Marek Kieliszek, Anna Bzducha-Wróbel
BACKGROUND: Pullulan is a microbial polysaccharide of low energy value, which can component of low-calorie foods and in dietary snacks for diabetics. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of pullulan on the growth and fermentation activity of selected human intestinal bacteria. METHODS: Commercial pullulan purchased from Focubase (China) of a molecular weight of 100,000 Da constituted as experimental material. Food grade pullulan 99% purity. Two control media were prepared: the first standard RCM composed of (g/100 ml): 0...
December 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018325/sensitive-quantitative-analysis-of-the-meconium-bacterial-microbiota-in-healthy-term-infants-born-vaginally-or-by-cesarean-section
#8
Ravinder Nagpal, Hirokazu Tsuji, Takuya Takahashi, Kazunari Kawashima, Satoru Nagata, Koji Nomoto, Yuichiro Yamashiro
For decades, babies were thought to be born germ-free, but recent evidences suggest that they are already exposed to various bacteria in utero. However, the data on population levels of such pioneer gut bacteria, particularly in context to birth mode, is sparse. We herein aimed to quantify such bacteria from the meconium of 151 healthy term Japanese infants born vaginally or by C-section. Neonatal first meconium was obtained within 24-48 h of delivery; RNA was extracted and subjected to reverse-transcription-quantitative PCR using specific primers for Clostridium coccoides group, C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008784/therapeutic-interventions-for-gut-dysbiosis-and-related-disorders-in-the-elderly-antibiotics-probiotics-or-faecal-microbiota-transplantation
#9
R C Vemuri, R Gundamaraju, T Shinde, R Eri
Ageing and physiological functions of the human body are inversely proportional to each other. The gut microbiota and host immune system co-evolve from infants to the elderly. Ageing is accompanied by a decline in gut microbial diversity, immunity and metabolism, which increases susceptibility to infections. Any compositional change in the gut is directly linked to gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and metabolic diseases. Increase in opportunistic pathogen invasion in the gut like Clostridium difficile leading to C...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005692/nasal-airway-microbiota-profile-and-severe-bronchiolitis-in-infants-a-case-control-study
#10
Kohei Hasegawa, Rachel W Linnemann, Jonathan M Mansbach, Nadim J Ajami, Janice A Espinola, Joseph F Petrosino, Pedro A Piedra, Michelle D Stevenson, Ashley F Sullivan, Amy D Thompson, Carlos A Camargo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship of airway microbiota with bronchiolitis in infants. We aimed to identify nasal airway microbiota profiles and to determine their association with the likelihood of bronchiolitis in infants. METHODS: A case-control study. As a part of multicenter prospective study, we collected nasal airway samples from 40 infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis. We concurrently enrolled 110 age-matched healthy controls. By applying 16S rRNA gene sequencing and an unbiased clustering approach to these 150 nasal samples, we identified microbiota profiles and determined the association of microbiota profiles with likelihood of bronchiolitis...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002391/starter-formula-enriched-in-prebiotics-and-probiotics-ensures-normal-growth-of-infants-and-promotes-gut-health-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Michael Radke, Jean-Charles Picaud, Andrea Loui, Gilles Cambonie, Dirk Faas, Harry N Lafeber, Nanda de Groot, Sophie S Pecquet, Philippe G Steenhout, Jean-Michel Hascoet
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics and probiotics exert beneficial effects by modulating gut microbiota and immune system. This study evaluates efficacy and safety of an infant formula containing Bovine Milk-derived Oligosaccharides (BMOS) and B. lactis (CNCM I-3446) on incidence of diarrhea and febrile infections during the first year of life (primary outcome). METHODS: Full-term infants receiving Test or Control (without BMOS and B. lactis) formula were enrolled in a multi-center, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial with a reference breastfeeding group...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943365/potential-role-of-ectoparasites-zeuxapta-seriolae-and-caligus-lalandei-in-the-transmission-of-pathogenic-bacteria-in-yellowtail-kingfish-seriola-lalandi-inferred-from-cultivable-microbiota-and-molecular-analyses
#12
F A Sepúlveda, J F Torres, C D Infante, M T González
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930727/airway-microbiota-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-clinically-well-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Theresa A Laguna, Brandie D Wagner, Cynthia B Williams, Mark J Stevens, Charles E Robertson, Cole W Welchlin, Catherine E Moen, Edith T Zemanick, Jonathan K Harris
BACKGROUND: Upper airway cultures guide the identification and treatment of lung pathogens in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, this may not fully reflect the spectrum of bacteria present in the lower airway. Our objectives were to characterize the airway microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asymptomatic CF infants during the first year of life and to investigate the relationship between BALF microbiota, standard culture and clinical characteristics. METHODS: BALF, nasopharyngeal (NP) culture and infant pulmonary function testing data were collected at 6 months and one year of age during periods of clinical stability from infants diagnosed with CF by newborn screening...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924435/antibiotic-resistance-is-linked-to-carriage-of-papc-and-iuta-virulence-genes-and-phylogenetic-group-d-background-in-commensal-and-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-from-infants-and-young-children
#14
N Karami, A E Wold, I Adlerberth
P fimbriae, enabling adherence to colonic and urinary epithelium, and aerobactin, an iron sequestering system, are both colonization factors in the human colon and virulence factors for urinary tract infection. The colonic microbiota is suggested to be a site suitable for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. We investigated whether phenotypic resistance to antibiotics in commensal and uropathogenic Escherichia coli from infants and young children is associated with carriage of virulence genes and to phylogenetic group origin and, in the case of fecal strains, to persistence in the gut and fecal population levels...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922070/deep-sequencing-of-the-16s-ribosomal-rna-of-the-neonatal-oral-microbiome-a-comparison-of-breast-fed-and-formula-fed-infants
#15
S S Al-Shehri, E L Sweeney, D M Cowley, H G Liley, P D Ranasinghe, B G Charles, P N Shaw, D Vagenas, J A Duley, C L Knox
In utero and upon delivery, neonates are exposed to a wide array of microorganisms from various sources, including maternal bacteria. Prior studies have proposed that the mode of feeding shapes the gut microbiota and, subsequently the child's health. However, the effect of the mode of feeding and its influence on the development of the neonatal oral microbiota in early infancy has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the oral microbiota of healthy infants that were exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921083/integrated-role-of-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-supplementation-in-gut-microbiota-immunity-and-metabolism-of-infant-rhesus-monkeys
#16
Xuan He, Carolyn M Slupsky, James W Dekker, Neill W Haggarty, Bo Lönnerdal
To investigate the impact of probiotic supplementation of infant formula on immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, and metabolism, five individually housed infant rhesus monkeys exclusively fed standard infant formula supplemented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019) from birth until 3 months of age were compared with five standard formula-fed and five breast-fed monkeys. Anthropometric measurements, serum insulin, immune parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and feces were evaluated...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910234/luminal-contents-from-the-gut-of-colicky-infants-induce-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-mice
#17
H Eutamène, C L Garcia-Rodenas, S Yvon, E d'Aldebert, F Foata, B Berger, J Sauser, V Theodorou, G Bergonzelli, E Mas
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of infantile colic is poorly understood, though various studies report gut microbiota dysbiosis in colicky infants. We aimed to test the hypothesis that colic-related dysbiosis is associated with visceral hypersensitivity triggered by an altered luminal milieu. METHODS: Fecal samples from seven colicky and seven non-colicky infants were studied. Fecal supernatants (FS) were infused into the colons of C57/Bl6 mice (n=10/specimen). Visceral sensitivity was subsequently assessed in the animals by recording their abdominal muscle response to colorectal distension (CRD) by electromyography (EMG)...
December 1, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904883/interactions-of-respiratory-viruses-and-the-nasal-microbiota-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-healthy-infants
#18
Insa Korten, Moana Mika, Shkipe Klenja, Elisabeth Kieninger, Ines Mack, Maria Teresa Barbani, Meri Gorgievski, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902365/oral-cavities-of-healthy-infants-harbour-high-proportions-of-streptococcus-salivarius-strains-with-phenotypic-and-genotypic-resistance-to-multiple-classes-of-antibiotics
#19
Thaís H Palma, Erika N Harth-Chú, Jodie Scott, Rafael N Stipp, Heike Boisvert, Mariana F Salomão, Jéssica D Theobaldo, Rosana F Possobon, Leandro C Nascimento, Jonathan W McCafferty, Lina Faller, Margaret J Duncan, Renata O Mattos-Graner
Emerging antibiotic resistance in the oropharyngeal microbiota, of which Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent species, represents a challenge for treating paediatric populations. In this study, we investigated the role of Streptococcussalivarius as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the oral microbiota by analysing 95 Streptococcussalivarius isolates from 22 healthy infants (2-16 months of age). MICs of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin were determined...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899809/does-vaginal-delivery-mitigate-or-strengthen-the-intergenerational-association-of-overweight-and-obesity-findings-from-the-boston-birth-cohort
#20
N T Mueller, G Mao, W L Bennet, S K Hourigan, M G Dominguez-Bello, L J Appel, X Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother-child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5 years (range: 2...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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