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Infant microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789027/ethanolamine-enhances-intestinal-functions-by-altering-gut-microbiome-and-mucosal-anti-stress-capacity-in-weaned-rats
#1
Jian Zhou, Xia Xiong, Ke-Xing Wang, Li-Jun Zou, Peng Ji, Yu-Long Yin
Ethanolamine (Etn) contained in milk is the base constituent of phosphatidylethanolamine and is required for the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and bacteria, which is important for maintenance of the gut microbiome and intestinal development. The present study investigated the effect of Etn on intestinal function and microbiome using 21-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 0, 250, 500 and 1000 μm Etn in drinking water for 2 weeks immediately after weaning. Growth performance, intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity and mucosal immunity, as well as gut microbiota community composition, were evaluated...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788027/the-neonatal-microbiome-and-its-partial-role-in-mediating-the-association-between-birth-by-cesarean-section-and-adverse-pediatric-outcomes
#2
Diana Montoya-Williams, Dominick J Lemas, Lisa Spiryda, Keval Patel, O'neshia Olivia Carney, Josef Neu, Tiffany L Carson
BACKGROUND: Cesarean sections (CS) are among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the world. Epidemiologic data has associated delivery by CS with an increased risk of certain adverse health outcomes in children, such as asthma and obesity. OBJECTIVE: To explore what is known about the effect of mode of delivery on the development of the infant microbiome and discuss the potentially mediating role of CS-related microbial dysbiosis in the development of adverse pediatric health outcomes...
May 22, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780807/a-critical-review-of-the-bacterial-baptism-hypothesis-and-the-impact-of-cesarean-delivery-on-the-infant-microbiome
#3
REVIEW
Lisa F Stinson, Matthew S Payne, Jeffrey A Keelan
Numerous studies suggest that infants delivered by cesarean section are at a greater risk of non-communicable diseases than their vaginal counterparts. In particular, epidemiological studies have linked Cesarean delivery with increased rates of asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders, and obesity. Mode of delivery has also been associated with differences in the infant microbiome. It has been suggested that these differences are attributable to the "bacterial baptism" of vaginal birth, which is bypassed in cesarean deliveries, and that the abnormal establishment of the early-life microbiome is the mediator of later-life adverse outcomes observed in cesarean delivered infants...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776928/enrichment-of-clinically-relevant-organisms-in-spontaneous-preterm-delivered-placenta-and-reagent-contamination-across-all-clinical-groups-in-a-large-uk-pregnancy-cohort
#4
Lydia J Leon, Ronan Doyle, Ernest Diez-Benavente, Taane G Clark, Nigel Klein, Philip Stanier, Gudrun E Moore
In this study differences in the placental microbiota of term and preterm deliveries from a large UK pregnancy cohort were studied using 16S targeted amplicon sequencing. The impact of contamination from DNA extraction, PCR reagents, as well as those from delivery itself were also examined. A total of 400 placental samples from 256 singleton pregnancies were analysed and differences investigated between spontaneous preterm, non-spontaneous preterm, and term delivered placenta. DNA from recently delivered placenta was extracted, and screening for bacterial DNA was carried out using targeted sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763437/postnatal-colonization-with-human-infant-type-bifidobacterium-species-alters-behavior-of-adult-gnotobiotic-mice
#5
Berkley Luk, Surabi Veeraragavan, Melinda Engevik, Miriam Balderas, Angela Major, Jessica Runge, Ruth Ann Luna, James Versalovic
Accumulating studies have defined a role for the intestinal microbiota in modulation of host behavior. Research using gnotobiotic mice emphasizes that early microbial colonization with a complex microbiota (conventionalization) can rescue some of the behavioral abnormalities observed in mice that grow to adulthood completely devoid of bacteria (germ-free mice). However, the human infant and adult microbiomes vary greatly, and effects of the neonatal microbiome on neurodevelopment are currently not well understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761040/viromes-of-one-year-old-infants-reveal-the-impact-of-birth-mode-on-microbiome-diversity
#6
Angela McCann, Feargal J Ryan, Stephen R Stockdale, Marion Dalmasso, Tony Blake, C Anthony Ryan, Catherine Stanton, Susan Mills, Paul R Ross, Colin Hill
Establishing a diverse gut microbiota after birth is being increasingly recognised as important for preventing illnesses later in life. It is well established that bacterial diversity rapidly increases post-partum; however, few studies have examined the infant gut virome/phageome during this developmental period. We performed a metagenomic analysis of 20 infant faecal viromes at one year of age to determine whether spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) or caesarean section (CS) influenced viral composition. We find that birth mode results in distinctly different viral communities, with SVD infants having greater viral and bacteriophage diversity...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751830/amniotic-fluid-from-healthy-term-pregnancies-does-not-harbor-a-detectable-microbial-community
#7
Efrem S Lim, Cynthia Rodriguez, Lori R Holtz
Recent studies have conflicting data regarding the presence of intra-amniotic microbiota. Viral communities are increasingly recognized as important although overlooked components of the human microbiota. It is unknown if the developing fetus is exposed to a community of viruses (virome). Given the debate over the existence of an intra-amniotic microbial community and the importance of understanding how the infant gut is populated, we characterized the virome and bacterial microbiota of amniotic fluid from 24 uncomplicated term pregnancies using next-generation sequencing methods...
May 11, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746836/early-life-antibiotic-driven-dysbiosis-leads-to-dysregulated-vaccine-immune-responses-in-mice
#8
Miriam Anne Lynn, Damon John Tumes, Jocelyn Mei Choo, Anastasia Sribnaia, Stephen James Blake, Lex Ee Xiang Leong, Graeme Paul Young, Helen Siobhan Marshall, Steve Lodewijk Wesselingh, Geraint Berian Rogers, David John Lynn
Antibody-mediated responses play a critical role in vaccine-mediated immunity. However, for reasons that are poorly understood, these responses are highly variable between individuals. Using a mouse model, we report that antibiotic-driven intestinal dysbiosis, specifically in early life, leads to significantly impaired antibody responses to five different adjuvanted and live vaccines. Restoration of the commensal microbiota following antibiotic exposure rescues these impaired responses. In contrast, antibiotic-treated adult mice do not exhibit impaired antibody responses to vaccination...
May 9, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743837/characterization-of-the-fecal-microbiota-differs-between-age-groups-in-koreans
#9
Sun-Young Kook, Yunjeong Kim, Ben Kang, Yon Ho Choe, Young-Ho Kim, Seokjin Kim
Background/Aims: Tens of trillions of microorganisms constitute the gut microbiota of the human body. The microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining host immunity and metabolism. Analyses of the gut microbial composition in Korea are limited to a few studies consisting of small sample sizes. To investigate the gut microbial community in a large sample of healthy Koreans, we analyzed the 16S ribosomal RNA of 4 representative bacterial genera Lactobacillus , Bifidobacterium , Bacteroides , and Clostridium ...
April 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734011/the-ability-of-human-intestinal-anaerobes-to-metabolize-different-oligosaccharides-novel-means-for-microbiota-modulation
#10
Riichi Ose, Katsuaki Hirano, Shintaro Maeno, Junichi Nakagawa, Seppo Salminen, Takumi Tochio, Akihito Endo
Prebiotic oligosaccharides are known to have significant impacts on gut microbiota and are thus widely used to program healthy microbiota composition and activity from infants to the elderly. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the major target microorganisms of oligosaccharides, but the metabolic properties of oligosaccharides in other predominant gut microbes have not been well characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated the metabolic properties of six oligosaccharides in 31 key gut anaerobes...
May 4, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732975/demystifying-dysbiosis-can-the-gut-microbiome-promote-oral-tolerance-over-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#11
Tom Marrs, K Sim
The growing burden of food allergy is being driven by environmental exposures and the potential role of gut micro-organisms (or 'microbiota') is hotly debated. Early culture-based studies outlined that imbalances between commensal gut constituents ('dysbiosis') early in life may raise the risk of developing allergic disease. A number of studies using animal models describe mechanisms by which specific bacterial taxa within the gut microbiota, their diversity and dietary substrates such as fibre may promote oral tolerance...
May 7, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726280/modulatory-effect-of-three-probiotic-strains-on-infants-gut-microbial-composition-and-immunological-parameters-on-a-placebo-controlled-double-blind-randomised-study
#12
J De Andrés, S Manzano, C García, J M Rodríguez, I Espinosa-Martos, E Jiménez
The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal health. Current use of probiotics is aimed at modulating the bacterial gut composition to alleviate specific diseases. The safety and tolerance of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071) has recently been described. The objective of the present study was to analyse the microbiological composition and immunological parameters of faecal samples obtained from healthy infants from 3 to 12 months of age after receiving either one of the three probiotic strains or placebo for 8 weeks...
May 4, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724615/validation-of-standard-method-en-iso-22964-2017-microbiology-of-the-food-chain-horizontal-method-for-the-detection-of-cronobacter-spp
#13
Amparo de Benito, Nathalie Gnanou Besse, Isabelle Desforges, Barbara Gerten, Begoña Ruiz, David Tomás
The new version of the ISO standard method for detection of Cronobacter spp. (EN ISO 22964:2017) was validated in the frame of the European Commission Mandate M381 to CEN. Seventeen laboratories from nine countries participated in the interlaboratory studies to determine the performance characteristics of the method. The performance of the method was evaluated using matrices for which the presence of Cronobacter spp. is considered to be of serious concern, such as infant formula and its ingredients and representatives of categories cited in the EC Regulation 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs for Cronobacter spp...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724017/low-maternal-microbiota-sharing-across-gut-breast-milk-and-vagina-as-revealed-by-16s-rrna-gene-and-reduced-metagenomic-sequencing
#14
Ekaterina Avershina, Inga Leena Angell, Melanie Simpson, Ola Storrø, Torbjørn Øien, Roar Johnsen, Knut Rudi
The maternal microbiota plays an important role in infant gut colonization. In this work we have investigated which bacterial species are shared across the breast milk, vaginal and stool microbiotas of 109 women shortly before and after giving birth using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a novel reduced metagenomic sequencing (RMS) approach in a subgroup of 16 women. All the species predicted by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing were also detected by RMS analysis and there was good correspondence between their relative abundances estimated by both approaches...
May 1, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703739/-tuf-gene-sequence-variation-in-bifidobacterium-longum-subspecies-infantis-detected-in-the-fecal-microbiota-of-chinese-infants
#15
Blair Lawley, Manuela Centanni, Jun Watanabe, Ian Sims, Susan Carnachan, Roland Broadbent, Pheng Soon Lee, Khai Hong Wong, Gerald W Tannock
Members of the bacterial genus Bifidobacterium generally dominate the faecal microbiota of infants. The species B. longum is prevalent, but the subspecies longum and infantis that are known to colonize the infant bowel are not usually differentiated in microbiota investigations. These subspecies differ in their capacity to metabolize Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) and may have differing ecological and symbiotic roles in humans. Quantitative PCR provides a quick analytical method by which to accurately ascertain the abundances of target species in microbiotas and microcosms...
April 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695002/changes-in-the-messenger-rna-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-in-healthy-infants-according-to-age
#16
Francesco Savino, Ilaria Galliano, Maria Garro, Andrea Savino, Paolo Manzoni, Valentina Daprà, Paola Montanari, Massimiliano Bergallo
BACKGROUND:  Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are potentially useful indicators of several pediatric disease states. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which inflammation is regulated by interactions between microbiota and the host. Little data are available regarding the expression of TLRs in postnatal healthy infants. TLR 2 and TLR4 are extracellular TLRs that act as innate immune receptors by recognizing a wide range of endogenous ligands and microorganisms. METHODS:  The aim of this study was to use real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of TLR2 and TLR4 in blood samples obtained from healthy full-term infants and toddlers...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688458/preterm-infants-have-distinct-microbiomes-not-explained-by-mode-of-delivery-breastfeeding-duration-or-antibiotic-exposure
#17
Cecilie Dahl, Hein Stigum, Jørgen Valeur, Nina Iszatt, Virissa Lenters, Shyamal Peddada, Jørgen V Bjørnholt, Tore Midtvedt, Siddhartha Mandal, Merete Eggesbø
Background: Preterm infants have low gut microbial diversity and few anaerobes. It is unclear whether the low diversity pertains to prematurity itself or is due to differences in delivery mode, feeding mode or exposure to antibiotics. Methods: The Norwegian Microbiota Study (NoMIC) was established to examine the colonization of the infant gut and health outcomes. 16S rRNA gene Illumina amplicon-sequenced samples from 519 children (160 preterms), collected at 10 days, 4 months and 1 year postnatally, were used to calculate alpha diversity...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687552/gut-microbial-functional-maturation-and-succession-during-human-early-life
#18
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruiz, Inmaculada Acuña, Ruy Jáuregui, Nico Jehmlich, Sven-Bastian Haange, Martin von Bergen, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
The evolutional trajectory of gut microbial colonization from birth has been shown to prime for health later in life. Here, we combined cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics to investigate the functional maturation of gut microbiota in faecal samples from full-term healthy infants collected at 6 and 18 months of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the metaproteomes showed that Bifidobacterium provided the highest number of distinct protein groups. Considerable divergences between taxa abundance and protein phylogeny were observed at all taxonomic ranks...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684056/bifidobacteria-isolated-from-vaginal-and-gut-microbiomes-are-indistinguishable-by-comparative-genomics
#19
Aline C Freitas, Janet E Hill
Bifidobacteria colonize the human gastrointestinal tract, vagina, oral cavity and breast milk. They influence human physiology and nutrition through health-promoting effects, play an important role as primary colonizers of the newborn gut, and contribute to vaginal microbiome homeostasis by producing lactic acid. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bifidobacteria are transmitted from mother to infant remains in discussion. Moreover, studies have suggested that Bifidobacterium spp. have specializations for gut colonization, but comparisons of strains of the same bifidobacteria species from different body sites are lacking...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672211/increased-prevalence-of-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-infants-at-risk-of-developing-celiac-disease-the-proficel-study
#20
Marta Olivares, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Giada de Palma, Amalia Capilla, Esther Nova, Gemma Castillejo, Vicente Varea, Ascensión Marcos, José Antonio Garrote, Isabel Polanco, Ester Donat, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen Calvo, Luis Ortigosa, Francesc Palau, Yolanda Sanz
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy involving genetic and environmental factors, whose interaction influences disease risk. The intestinal microbiota, including viruses and bacteria, could play a role in the pathological process leading to gluten intolerance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of pathogens in the intestinal microbiota of infants at familial risk of developing CD. We included 127 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative with CD. Infants were classified according to milk-feeding practice (breastfeeding or formula feeding) and HLA-DQ genotype (low, intermediate or high genetic risk)...
April 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
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