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Transit amplifying cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794059/evolution-and-development-of-monocot-stomata
#1
Paula J Rudall, Elisabeth D Chen, Erin Cullen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Leaves of monocots are typically linear with parallel venation, though a few taxa have broad leaves. Studies of stomatal patterning and development in monocots required updating in the context of rapidly improving knowledge of both the phylogenetic and development-genetic context of monocots that facilitate studies of character evolution. METHODS: We used an existing microscope-slide collection to obtain data on stomatal structure across all the major monocot clades, including some species with relatively broad leaves...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783244/loss-of-ampk-activation-promotes-the-invasion-and-metastasis-of-pancreatic-cancer-through-an-hsf1-dependent-pathway
#2
Ke Chen, Weikun Qian, Jie Li, Zhengdong Jiang, Liang Cheng, Bin Yan, Junyu Cao, Liankang Sun, Cancan Zhou, Meng Lei, Wanxing Duan, Jiguang Ma, Qingyong Ma, Zhenhua Ma
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy with a mortality rate that closely parallels its incidence rate, and a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the invasion and distant metastasis is required. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a very highly conserved factor in eukaryotes that regulates the protective heat shock response. Here, we show that HSF1 is abnormally activated in pancreatic cancer. The knockdown of HSF1 impaired the invasion and migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro; however, the up-regulation of HSF1 showed the opposite effects...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759022/mir-151a-induces-partial-emt-by-regulating-e-cadherin-in-nsclc-cells
#3
I Daugaard, K J Sanders, A Idica, K Vittayarukskul, M Hamdorf, J D Krog, R Chow, D Jury, L L Hansen, H Hager, P Lamy, C L Choi, D Agalliu, D G Zisoulis, I M Pedersen
miR-151a and its host gene, focal adhesion kinase, FAK, are located in a region of chromosome 8q that is frequently amplified in solid tumors, including lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and metastasis remains the major challenge in battling lung cancer mortality. Here, we demonstrate that miR-151a is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient specimens, as compared to healthy lung. In addition, miR-151a overexpression promotes proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induces tumor cell migration and invasion of NSCLC cells...
July 31, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754713/ubap2l-is-amplified-in-a-large-subset-of-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-is-critical-for-epithelial-lung-cell-identity-and-tumor-metastasis
#4
Romain Aucagne, Simon Girard, Nadine Mayotte, Bernhard Lehnertz, Stéphane Lopes-Paciencia, Patrick Gendron, Geneviève Boucher, Jalila Chagraoui, Guy Sauvageau
The ubiquitin-associated protein 2-like (UBAP2L) gene remains poorly studied in human and mouse development. UBAP2L interacts with the Polycomb group protein B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1) and determines the activity of mouse hematopoietic stem cells in vivo Here we show that loss of Ubap2l leads to disorganized respiratory epithelium of mutant neonates, which die of respiratory failure. We also show that UBAP2L overexpression leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotype in a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line...
July 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753576/isoxazole-compound-ml327-blocks-myc-expression-and-tumor-formation-in-neuroblastoma
#5
Eric J Rellinger, Chandrasekhar Padmanabhan, Jingbo Qiao, Brian T Craig, Hanbing An, Jing Zhu, Hernán Correa, Alex G Waterson, Craig W Lindsley, R Daniel Beauchamp, Dai H Chung
Neuroblastomas are the most common extracranial solid tumors in children and arise from the embryonic neural crest. MYCN-amplification is a feature of ~30% of neuroblastoma tumors and portends a poor prognosis. Neural crest precursors undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to gain migratory potential and populate the sympathoadrenal axis. Neuroblastomas are posited to arise due to a blockade of neural crest differentiation. We have recently reported effects of a novel MET inducing compound ML327 (N-(3-(2-hydroxynicotinamido) propyl)-5-phenylisoxazole-3-carboxamide) in colon cancer cells...
July 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745003/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-the-systems-of-adaptive-immunity
#6
Viktor Müller, Rob J de Boer, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Eörs Szathmáry
We propose an evolutionary perspective to classify and characterize the diverse systems of adaptive immunity that have been discovered across all major domains of life. We put forward a new function-based classification according to the way information is acquired by the immune systems: Darwinian immunity (currently known from, but not necessarily limited to, vertebrates) relies on the Darwinian process of clonal selection to 'learn' by cumulative trial-and-error feedback; Lamarckian immunity uses templated targeting (guided adaptation) to internalize heritable information on potential threats; finally, shotgun immunity operates through somatic mechanisms of variable targeting without feedback...
July 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707354/additive-neurogenesis-supported-by-multiple-stem-cell-populations-mediates-adult-spinal-cord-development-a-spatio-temporal-statistical-mapping-analysis-in-a-teleost-model-of-indeterminate-growth
#7
Ruxandra F Sîrbulescu, Iulian Ilieş, Annette Meyer, Günther K H Zupanc
The knifefish Apteronotus leptorhynchus exhibits indeterminate growth throughout adulthood. This phenomenon extends to the spinal cord, presumably through the continuous addition of new neurons and glial cells. However, little is known about the developmental dynamics of cells added during adult growth. The present work characterizes the structural and functional development of the adult spinal cord in this model organism through a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the spatial and temporal dynamics of new cells at various developmental stages...
July 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694515/physical-binding-of-endothelial-mcam-and-neural-transmembrane-protease-matriptase-novel-cell-adhesion-in-neural-stem-cell-vascular-niche
#8
Hsiu-Hui Tung, Sheau-Ling Lee
Brain neural stem cells and transit amplifying cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles are in direct contact with the microvascular endothelium. The mechanisms/molecules of direct cell contact in the SVZ neurovascular niche are not fully understood. We previously showed that neural stem/progenitor (NS/P) cells induce brain endothelial signaling in direct cell contact through matriptase (MTP) on NS/P cell surface. In the present study, using pull-down and LC-MS/MS, we identified melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) the brain endothelial molecule that interacts with MTP...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670819/emerging-roles-of-transit-amplifying-cells-in-tissue-regeneration-and-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Bing Zhang, Ya-Chieh Hsu
Most regenerative tissues employ transit-amplifying cells (TACs) that are positioned in between stem cells and differentiated progeny. In a classical hierarchical model, stem cells undergo limited divisions to produce TACs, which then proliferate rapidly to expand the system and produce diverse differentiated cell types. Although TACs are indispensable for generating tissues, they have been largely viewed as a transit point between stem cells and downstream lineages. Studies in the past few years, however, have revealed some fascinating biology and unanticipated functions of TACs...
July 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669884/determining-the-control-networks-regulating-stem-cell-lineages-in-colonic-crypts
#10
Jienian Yang, David E Axelrod, Natalia L Komarova
The question of stem cell control is at the center of our understanding of tissue functioning, both in healthy and cancerous conditions. It is well accepted that cellular fate decisions (such as divisions, differentiation, apoptosis) are orchestrated by a network of regulatory signals emitted by different cell populations in the lineage and the surrounding tissue. The exact regulatory network that governs stem cell lineages in a given tissue is usually unknown. Here we propose an algorithm to identify a set of candidate control networks that are compatible with (a) measured means and variances of cell populations in different compartments, (b) qualitative information on cell population dynamics, such as the existence of local controls and oscillatory reaction of the system to population size perturbations, and (c) statistics of correlations between cell numbers in different compartments...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#11
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649443/a-multiscale-model-of-early-cell-lineage-specification-including-cell-division
#12
Alen Tosenberger, Didier Gonze, Sylvain Bessonnard, Michel Cohen-Tannoudji, Claire Chazaud, Geneviève Dupont
Embryonic development is a self-organised process during which cells divide, interact, change fate according to a complex gene regulatory network and organise themselves in a three-dimensional space. Here, we model this complex dynamic phenomenon in the context of the acquisition of epiblast and primitive endoderm identities within the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo in the mouse. The multiscale model describes cell division and interactions between cells, as well as biochemical reactions inside each individual cell and in the extracellular matrix...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645478/a-tspo-ligand-prevents-mitochondrial-sterol-accumulation-and-dysfunction-during-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-in-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#13
Julien Musman, Stéphanie Paradis, Mathieu Panel, Sandrine Pons, Caroline Barau, Claudio Caccia, Valerio Leoni, Bijan Ghaleh, Didier Morin
A major cause of cell death during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is mitochondrial dysfunction. We previously showed that the reperfusion of an ischemic myocardium was associated with an accumulation of cholesterol into mitochondria and a concomitant strong generation of auto-oxidized oxysterols. The inhibition of mitochondrial accumulation of cholesterol abolished the formation of oxysterols and prevented mitochondrial injury at reperfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of hypercholesterolemia on sterol and oxysterol accumulation in rat cardiac cytosols and mitochondria and to analyse the effect of the translocator protein ligand 4'-chlorodiazepam on this accumulation and mitochondrial function...
June 20, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644741/ras-signaling-regulates-stem-cells-and-amelogenesis-in-the-mouse-incisor
#14
X Zheng, A F Goodwin, H Tian, A H Jheon, O D Klein
The role of Ras signaling during tooth development is poorly understood. Ras proteins-which are activated by many upstream pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase cascades-signal through multiple effectors, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K pathways. Here, we utilized the mouse incisor as a model to study how the MAPK and PI3K pathways regulate dental epithelial stem cells and amelogenesis. The rodent incisor-which grows continuously throughout the life of the animal due to the presence of epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells-provides a model for the study of ectodermal organ renewal and regeneration...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641501/hematological-characterizations-and-molecular-diagnostic-aspects-of-hb-wiangpapao-%C3%AE-44-ce2-pro%C3%A2-ser-%C3%AE-1-ccg-tcg-hba1-c-133c-t-a-new-%C3%AE-globin-variant-found-in-a-pregnant-thai-woman
#15
Sitthichai Panyasai, Sakorn Pornprasert
We report the hematological parameters and provide a rapid molecular analysis method for detection of Hb Wiangpapao [α44(CE2)Pro→Ser, CCG>TCG; HBA1: c.133C>T], a new α-globin variant found in a pregnant Thai woman. Her red cell indices were measured by an automated blood counter. The results were: red blood cell (RBC) count 4.03 × 10(12)/L, Hb 13.1 (g/dL), packed cell volume (PCV) 0.39 L/L, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 97.0 fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH) 32.5 pg, mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC) 33...
March 2017: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637904/ifn-%C3%AE-expressing-th17-cells-are-required-for-development-of-severe-ocular-surface-autoimmunity
#16
Yihe Chen, Sunil K Chauhan, Chunyi Shao, Masahiro Omoto, Takenori Inomata, Reza Dana
Th17 cells are critical effectors mediating the ocular surface autoimmunity in dry eye disease (DED). Increased IFN-γ has also been implicated in DED; however, it remains unclear to what extent Th1 cells contribute to DED pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the cellular source of IFN-γ and assessed its contribution to corneal epitheliopathy in DED mice. We discovered a significant IL-17A(+)IFN-γ(+) (Th17/1) population and determined that these cells are derived from Th17 precursors. Adoptive transfer of Th17/1, but not Th1, cells confers the disease to naive recipients as effectively as do Th17 cells alone...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630448/progesterone-prevents-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-ovine-amniotic-epithelial-cells-and-enhances-their-immunomodulatory-properties
#17
Angelo Canciello, Valentina Russo, Paolo Berardinelli, Nicola Bernabò, Aurelio Muttini, Mauro Mattioli, Barbara Barboni
The in vitro expansion is detrimental to therapeutic applications of amniotic epithelial cells (AEC), an emerging source of fetal stem cells. This study provides molecular evidences of progesterone (P4) role in preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ovine AEC (oAEC). oAEC amplified under standard conditions spontaneously acquired mesenchymal properties through the up-regulation of EMT-transcription factors. P4 supplementation prevented phenotype shift by inhibiting the EMT-inducing mechanism such as the autocrine production of TGF-β and the activation of intracellular-related signaling...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628110/colonic-organoids-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-modeling-colorectal-cancer-and-drug-testing
#18
Miguel Crespo, Eduardo Vilar, Su-Yi Tsai, Kyle Chang, Sadaf Amin, Tara Srinivasan, Tuo Zhang, Nina H Pipalia, Huanhuan Joyce Chen, Mavee Witherspoon, Miriam Gordillo, Jenny Zhaoying Xiang, Frederick R Maxfield, Steven Lipkin, Todd Evans, Shuibing Chen
With the goal of modeling human disease of the large intestine, we sought to develop an effective protocol for deriving colonic organoids (COs) from differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Extensive gene and immunohistochemical profiling confirmed that the derived COs represent colon rather than small intestine, containing stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and the expected spectrum of differentiated cells, including goblet and endocrine cells. We applied this strategy to iPSCs derived from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP-iPSCs) harboring germline mutations in the WNT-signaling-pathway-regulator gene encoding APC, and we generated COs that exhibit enhanced WNT activity and increased epithelial cell proliferation, which we used as a platform for drug testing...
July 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626570/riboflavin-as-a-bioorthogonal-photocatalyst-for-the-activation-of-a-pt-iv-prodrug
#19
Silvia Alonso-de Castro, Emmanuel Ruggiero, Ane Ruiz-de-Angulo, Elixabete Rezabal, Juan C Mareque-Rivas, Xabier Lopez, Fernando López-Gallego, Luca Salassa
Encouraging developments demonstrate that few transition metal and organometallic catalysts can operate in a bioorthogonal fashion and promote non-natural chemistry in living systems by minimizing undesired side reactions with cellular components. These catalytic processes have potential for applications in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. However, the stringent conditions of the cell environment severely limit the number of accessible metal catalysts and exogenous reactions. Herein, we report an unorthodox approach and a new type of bioorthogonal catalytic reaction, in which a metal complex is an unconventional substrate and an exogenous biological molecule acts as a catalyst...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597843/dynamical-predictors-of-an-imminent-phenotypic-switch-in-bacteria
#20
Huijing Wang, J Christian J Ray
Single cells can stochastically switch across thresholds imposed by regulatory networks. Such thresholds can act as a tipping point, drastically changing global phenotypic states. In ecology and economics, imminent transitions across such tipping points can be predicted using dynamical early warning indicators. A typical example is 'flickering' of a fast variable, predicting a longer-lasting switch from a low to a high state or vice versa. Considering the different timescales between metabolite and protein fluctuations in bacteria, we hypothesized that metabolic early warning indicators predict imminent transitions across a network threshold caused by enzyme saturation...
June 29, 2017: Physical Biology
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