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Transit amplifying cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071722/spict-a-cyst-cell-specific-gene-regulates-starvation-induced-spermatogonial-cell-death-in-the-drosophila-testis
#1
Ason C-Y Chiang, Heiko Yang, Yukiko M Yamashita
Tissues are maintained in a homeostatic state by balancing the constant loss of old cells with the continued production of new cells. Tissue homeostasis can shift between high and low turnover states to cope with environmental changes such as nutrient availability. Recently, we discovered that the elimination of transit-amplifying cells plays a critical role in maintaining the stem cell population during protein starvation in the Drosophila testis. Here, we identify spict, a gene expressed specifically in differentiating cyst cells, as a regulator of spermatogonial death...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063383/push-pull-strategy-in-the-regulation-of-postembryonic-root-development
#2
REVIEW
Goh Choe, Ji-Young Lee
Unlike animals, plants continue to grow throughout their lives. The stem cell niche, protected in meristems of shoots and roots, enables this process. In the root, stem cells produce precursors for highly organized cell types via asymmetric cell divisions. These precursors, which are "transit-amplifying cells," actively divide for several rounds before entering into differentiation programs. In this review, we highlight positive feedback regulation between shoot- and root-ward signals during the postembryonic root growth, which is reminiscent of a "push-pull strategy" in business parlance...
January 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059068/cdk4-6-or-mapk-blockade-enhances-efficacy-of-egfr-inhibition-in-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
Jin Zhou, Zhong Wu, Gabrielle Wong, Eirini Pectasides, Ankur Nagaraja, Matthew Stachler, Haikuo Zhang, Ting Chen, Haisheng Zhang, Jie Bin Liu, Xinsen Xu, Ewa Sicinska, Francisco Sanchez-Vega, Anil K Rustgi, J Alan Diehl, Kwok-Kin Wong, Adam J Bass
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a deadly disease where systemic therapy has relied upon empiric chemotherapy despite the presence of genomic alterations pointing to candidate therapeutic targets, including recurrent amplification of the gene encoding receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here, we demonstrate that EGFR-targeting small-molecule inhibitors have efficacy in EGFR-amplified oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but may become quickly ineffective. Resistance can occur following the emergence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and by reactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway following EGFR blockade...
January 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049551/beta-catenin-can-induce-hair-follicle-stem-cell-differentiation-into-transit-amplifying-cells-through-c-myc-activation
#4
Qiong Shen, Weirong Yu, Yong Fang, Min Yao, Penggao Yang
Hair follicle stem cells play important roles in maintaining homeostasis and skin tissue self-renewal. Transit-amplifying cells represent the transition of cells from hair follicle stem cells into differentiated epidermal cells. Thus far, the signaling pathway and the molecular biological mechanism that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells remain unclear. In this paper, we studied the relationship between β-catenin and c-myc during the process of the differentiation of hair follicle stem cells into transit-amplifying cells...
December 21, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009986/conditionally-reprogrammed-normal-and-primary-tumor-prostate-epithelial-cells-a-novel-patient-derived-cell-model-for-studies-of-human-prostate-cancer
#5
Olga A Timofeeva, Nancy Palechor-Ceron, Guanglei Li, Hang Yuan, Ewa Krawczyk, Xiaogang Zhong, Geng Liu, Geeta Upadhyay, Aleksandra Dakic, Songtao Yu, Shuang Fang, Sujata Choudhury, Xueping Zhang, Andrew Ju, Myeong-Seon Lee, Han C Dan, Youngmi Ji, Yong Hou, Yun-Ling Zheng, Chris Albanese, Johng Rhim, Richard Schlegel, Anatoly Dritschilo, Xuefeng Liu
Our previous study demonstrated that conditional reprogramming (CR) allows the establishment of patient-derived normal and tumor epithelial cell cultures from a variety of tissue types including breast, lung, colon and prostate. Using CR, we have established matched normal and tumor cultures, GUMC-29 and GUMC-30 respectively, from a patient's prostatectomy specimen. These CR cells proliferate indefinitely in vitro and retain stable karyotypes. Most importantly, only tumor-derived CR cells (GUMC-30) produced tumors in xenografted SCID mice, demonstrating maintenance of the critical tumor phenotype...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993627/an-open-loop-approach-to-calculate-noise-induced-transitions
#6
Farzaneh Maleki, Attila Becskei
Bistability permits the co-existence of two distinct cell fates in a population of genetically identical cells. Noise induced transitions between two fates of a bistable system are difficult to calculate due to the intricate interplay between nonlinear dynamics and noise in bistable positive feedback loops. Here we opened multivariable feedback loops at the slowest variable to obtain the open-loop function and the fluctuations in the open-loop output. By the subsequent reclosing of the loop, we calculated the mean first passage time (MFPT) using the Fokker-Planck equation in good agreement with the exact stochastic simulation...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976414/low-testosterone-alters-the-activity-of-mouse-prostate-stem-cells
#7
Ye Zhou, Ben Copeland, Maya Otto-Duessel, Miaoling He, Susan Markel, Tim W Synold, Jeremy O Jones
BACKGROUND: Low serum testosterone (low T) has been repeatedly linked to worse outcomes in men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC). How low T contributes to these outcomes is unknown. Here we demonstrate that exposure to low T causes significant changes in the mouse prostate and prostate stem cells. METHODS: Mice were castrated and implanted with capsules to achieve castrate, normal, or sub-physiological levels of T. After 6 weeks of treatment, LC-MS/MS was used to quantify the levels of T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in serum and prostate tissue...
December 14, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966867/propelled-transnuclear-gene-transport-achieved-through-intracellularly-redox-responsive-and-acidity-accelerative-decomposition-of-supramolecular-florescence-quenchable-vectors
#8
Jing-Yi Zhu, Shuang-Shuang Wan, Di-Wei Zheng, Qi Lei, Ren-Xi Zhuo, Jun Feng, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Intracellularly biotriggered decomposition of gene vectors is generally thought to benefit transfection. However, the bioresponsiveness is far from satisfactory, and the exact role of biodecomposition in the transfection process remains unclear to date. To overcome the challenges, highly rapid bioresponse of vectors has to be achieved so as to greatly amplify the intracellular deviation compared with the noncontrolled pattern. To this end, a supramolecular polyrotaxane has been elaborately designed by integrating reversible dynamics of supramolecular assembly and chemically labile bonds, in order to effectively propel intracellular decomposition...
December 23, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935476/assessing-the-mechanism-and-therapeutic-potential-of-modulators-of-the-human-mediator-complex-associated-protein-kinases
#9
Paul A Clarke, Maria-Jesus Ortiz-Ruiz, Robert TePoele, Olajumoke Adeniji-Popoola, Gary Box, Will Court, Stephanie Czasch, Samer El Bawab, Christina Esdar, Ken Ewan, Sharon Gowan, Alexis De Haven Brandon, Phillip Hewitt, Stephen M Hobbs, Wolfgang Kaufmann, Aurélie Mallinger, Florence Raynaud, Toby Roe, Felix Rohdich, Kai Schiemann, Stephanie Simon, Richard Schneider, Melanie Valenti, Stefan Weigt, Julian Blagg, Andree Blaukat, Trevor C Dale, Suzanne A Eccles, Stefan Hecht, Klaus Urbahns, Paul Workman, Dirk Wienke
Mediator-associated kinases CDK8/19 are context-dependent drivers or suppressors of tumorigenesis. Their inhibition is predicted to have pleiotropic effects, but it is unclear whether this will impact on the clinical utility of CDK8/19 inhibitors. We discovered two series of potent chemical probes with high selectivity for CDK8/19. Despite pharmacodynamic evidence for robust on-target activity, the compounds exhibited modest, though significant, efficacy against human tumor lines and patient-derived xenografts...
December 9, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899395/functional-definition-of-progenitors-versus-mature-endothelial-cells-reveals-key-soxf-dependent-differentiation-process
#10
Jatin Patel, Elke J Seppanen, Mathieu P Rodero, Ho Yi Wong, Prudence Donovan, Zoltan Neufeld, Nicholas M Fisk, Mathias François, Kiarash Khosrotehrani
BACKGROUND: -During adult life, blood vessel formation is thought to occur via angiogenic processes involving branching from existing vessels. An alternate proposal suggests that neo-vessels form from endothelial progenitors able to assemble the intimal layers. We here aimed to define vessel-resident endothelial progenitors in vivo in a variety of tissues in physiological and pathological situations such as normal aorta, lungs, as well as wound healing, tumors and placenta. METHODS: -Based on protein expression levels of common endothelial markers using flow cytometry, three sub-populations of endothelial cells could be identified among VE-Cadherin+ and CD45- cells...
November 29, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895479/cationic-pegylated-liposomes-incorporating-an-antimicrobial-peptide-tilapia-hepcidin-2-3-an-adjuvant-of-epirubicin-to-overcome-multidrug-resistance-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#11
Vivian Juang, Hsin-Pin Lee, Anya Maan-Yuh Lin, Yu-Li Lo
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been recently evaluated as a new generation of adjuvants in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we designed PEGylated liposomes encapsulating epirubicin as an antineoplastic agent and tilapia hepcidin 2-3, an AMP, as a multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter suppressor and an apoptosis/autophagy modulator in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with PEGylated liposomal formulation of epirubicin and hepcidin 2-3 significantly increased the cytotoxicity of epirubicin...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864121/gene-amplification-of-ccne1-ccnd1-and-cdk6-in-gastric-cancers-detected-by-multiplex-ligation-dependent-probe-amplification-and-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization
#12
Akishi Ooi, Takeru Oyama, Ritsuko Nakamura, Ryousuke Tajiri, Hiroko Ikeda, Sachio Fushida, Yoh Dobashi
New and effective treatments for advanced gastric cancer are urgently needed. Cyclins E and D1 form a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), 4 or 6 to regulate G1-S transition. The G1-S regulatory genes encoding cyclin E (CCNE1), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and CDK6 (CDK6) are frequently amplified in gastric cancer and may therefore influence molecularly targeted therapies against ERBB2 or EGFR when co-amplified. A total of 179 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded gastric cancer specimens were examined for these gene amplifications by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
November 15, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862275/long-noncoding-rna-zfas1-promotes-the-progression-of-colonic-cancer-by-modulating-zeb1-expression
#13
Changyi Fang, Jianbao Zan, Ben Yue, Chenchen Liu, Chenglong He, Dongwang Yan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Long non-coding RNA ZFAS1 (zinc finger antisense 1) is frequently amplified in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes metastasis by increasing zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which can potentiate the progression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the expression pattern and role of ZFAS1 in colonic cancer remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of ZFAS1 and its clinical significance in colonic cancer. METHODS: Paired clinical colonic cancer tissue samples and clinicopathologic characteristics of 73 patients were analyzed...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851748/chromosomal-instability-estimation-based-on-next-generation-sequencing-and-single-cell-genome-wide-copy-number-variation-analysis
#14
Stephanie B Greene, Angel E Dago, Laura J Leitz, Yipeng Wang, Jerry Lee, Shannon L Werner, Steven Gendreau, Premal Patel, Shidong Jia, Liangxuan Zhang, Eric K Tucker, Michael Malchiodi, Ryon P Graf, Ryan Dittamore, Dena Marrinucci, Mark Landers
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer often associated with poor patient outcome and resistance to targeted therapy. Assessment of genomic instability in bulk tumor or biopsy can be complicated due to sample availability, surrounding tissue contamination, or tumor heterogeneity. The Epic Sciences circulating tumor cell (CTC) platform utilizes a non-enrichment based approach for the detection and characterization of rare tumor cells in clinical blood samples. Genomic profiling of individual CTCs could provide a portrait of cancer heterogeneity, identify clonal and sub-clonal drivers, and monitor disease progression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830350/longitudinal-changes-in-audiometric-phenotypes-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#15
Kenneth I Vaden, Lois J Matthews, Mark A Eckert, Judy R Dubno
Presbyacusis, or age-related hearing loss, can be characterized in humans as metabolic and sensory phenotypes, based on patterns of audiometric thresholds that were established in animal models. The metabolic phenotype is thought to result from deterioration of the cochlear lateral wall and reduced endocochlear potential that decreases cochlear amplification and produces a mild, flat hearing loss at lower frequencies coupled with a gradually sloping hearing loss at higher frequencies. The sensory phenotype, resulting from environmental exposures such as excessive noise or ototoxic drugs, involves damage to sensory and non-sensory cells and loss of the cochlear amplifier, which produces a 50-70 dB threshold shift at higher frequencies...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821095/treatment-of-a-chemoresistant-neuroblastoma-cell-line-with-the-antimalarial-ozonide-oz513
#16
Don W Coulter, Timothy R McGuire, John G Sharp, Erin M McIntyre, Yuxiang Dong, Xiaofang Wang, Shawn Gray, Gracey R Alexander, Nagendra K Chatuverdi, Shantaram S Joshi, Xiaoyu Chen, Jonathan L Vennerstrom
BACKGROUND: Evaluate the anti-tumor activity of ozonide antimalarials using a chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell line, BE (2)-c. METHODS: The activity of 12 ozonides, artemisinin, and two semisynthetic artemisinins were tested for activity against two neuroblastoma cell-lines (BE (2)-c and IMR-32) and the Ewing's Sarcoma cell line A673 in an MTT viability assay. Time course data indicated that peak effect was seen 18 h after the start of treatment thus 18 h pre-treatment was used for all subsequent experiments...
November 8, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819263/rest-regulation-of-gene-networks-in-adult-neural-stem-cells
#17
Shradha Mukherjee, Rebecca Brulet, Ling Zhang, Jenny Hsieh
Adult hippocampal neural stem cells generate newborn neurons throughout life due to their ability to self-renew and exist as quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs) before differentiating into transit-amplifying progenitors (TAPs) and newborn neurons. The mechanisms that control adult neural stem cell self-renewal are still largely unknown. Conditional knockout of REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) results in precocious activation of QNPs and reduced neurogenesis over time. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which REST regulates adult neural stem cells, we perform chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA-sequencing to identify direct REST target genes...
November 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807033/hair-follicles-transit-amplifying-cells-govern-concurrent-dermal-adipocyte-production-through-sonic-hedgehog
#18
Bing Zhang, Pai-Chi Tsai, Meryem Gonzalez-Celeiro, Oliver Chung, Benjamin Boumard, Carolina N Perdigoto, Elena Ezhkova, Ya-Chieh Hsu
Growth and regeneration of one tissue within an organ compels accommodative changes in the surrounding tissues. However, the molecular nature and operating logic governing these concurrent changes remain poorly defined. The dermal adipose layer expands concomitantly with hair follicle downgrowth, providing a paradigm for studying coordinated changes of surrounding lineages with a regenerating tissue. Here, we discover that hair follicle transit-amplifying cells (HF-TACs) play an essential role in orchestrating dermal adipogenesis through secreting Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)...
October 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796888/telocyte-behaviour-during-inflammation-repair-and-tumour-stroma-formation
#19
L Díaz-Flores, R Gutiérrez, M González-Gómez, L Díaz-Flores, F Valladares, N Rancel, F J Sáez, J F Madrid
In this chapter, we outline the role of human CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes (CD34+ SC/TCs) as progenitor cells during repair. The in vivo activation phenomena of CD34+ SC/TCs in this process include increased size; separation from the neighbouring structures (mainly of the vascular walls); association with inflammatory cells, predominantly macrophages; development of the organelles of synthesis (rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus); cell proliferation with presence of mitosis and high proliferative index (transit-amplifying cells); and fibroblastic and myofibroblastic differentiation...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783989/mfhas1-promotes-colorectal-cancer-progress-by-regulating-polarization-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-via-stat6-signaling-pathway
#20
Wankun Chen, Yajun Xu, Jing Zhong, Huihui Wang, Meilin Weng, Qian Cheng, Qichao Wu, Zhirong Sun, Hui Jiang, Minmin Zhu, Yu Ren, Pingbo Xu, Jiawei Chen, Changhong Miao
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequence 1 (MFHAS1) is a predicted oncoprotein that demonstrates tumorigenic activity in vivo; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Macrophages are divided into the pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory/protumoral M2 subtypes. Tumor cells can induce M2 polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to promote metastasis; but the underlying pathways require to be elucidated. In this study, we detected a positive association between MFHAS1 expression in TAMs and human colorectal cancer (CRC) TNM stage...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
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