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Transit amplifying cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163898/self-quenched-ferrocenyl-diketopyrrolopyrrole-organic-nanoparticles-with-amplifying-photothermal-effect-for-cancer-therapy
#1
Pingping Liang, Qianyun Tang, Yu Cai, Gongyuan Liu, Weili Si, Jinjun Shao, Wei Huang, Qi Zhang, Xiaochen Dong
Organic nanoparticles (NPs) with near-infrared absorbance possess high photothermal conversion (PTC) efficiency and an excellent photoacoustic signal, presenting a great prospect for photoacoustic imaging (PAI)-guided photothermal therapy (PTT). Herein, a novel diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative (DPPCN-Fc) is synthesized for use as a PTT agent with PAI performance. Due to photo-induced electron transfer (PET), the two flanked ferrocene moieties significantly quench the radiative decay and intersystem crossing process, resulting in an enhanced nonradiative transition, and an amplifying photothermal effect is observed...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155957/identification-of-cells-expressing-olfm4-and-lgr5-mrna-by-in-situ-hybridization-in-the-yolk-sac-and-small-intestine-of-embryonic-and-early-post-hatch-chicks
#2
H Zhang, E A Wong
The chicken yolk sac (YS) and small intestine are essential for nutrient absorption during the pre-hatch and post-hatch periods, respectively. Absorptive enterocytes and secretory cells line the intestinal villi and originate from stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. Similarly, in the YS, there are absorptive and secretory cells that presumably originate from a stem cell population. Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) and olfactomedin 4 (Olfm4) are 2 widely used markers for intestinal stem cells...
November 15, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142217/fbxo32-promotes-microenvironment-underlying-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-ctbp1-during-tumour-metastasis-and-brain-development
#3
Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu, Neha Tiwari, Abhijeet Pataskar, Yuan Zhuang, Marina Borisova, Mustafa Diken, Susanne Strand, Petra Beli, Vijay K Tiwari
The set of events that convert adherent epithelial cells into migratory cells are collectively known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is involved during development, for example, in triggering neural crest migration, and in pathogenesis such as metastasis. Here we discover FBXO32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to be critical for hallmark gene expression and phenotypic changes underlying EMT. Interestingly, FBXO32 directly ubiquitinates CtBP1, which is required for its stability and nuclear retention...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141874/s100a4-amplifies-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-a-pleural-mesothelial-cell-line
#4
Qian Ning, Feiyan Li, Lei Wang, Hong Li, Yan Yao, Tinghua Hu, Zhongmin Sun
Pleural fibrosis can dramatically lower the quality of life. Numerous studies have reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanism is inadequately understood. Fibroblast-specific protein-1 (S100A4) is a target of TGF-β signaling. In our previous study, we have reported that S100A4 is highly expressed in pleural fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that S100A4 took part in the TGF-β-induced EMT in pleural fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139621/paneth-and-intestinal-stem-cells-preserve-their-functional-integrity-during-worsening-of-acute-cellular-rejection-in-small-bowel-transplantation
#5
M Pucci Molineris, V Gonzalez Polo, Federico Perez, D Ramisch, M Rumbo, G E Gondolesi, D Meier
Graft survival after small bowel transplantation remains impaired due to acute cellular rejection (ACR), the leading cause of graft loss. Although it was shown that the number of enteroendocrine progenitor cells in intestinal crypts was reduced during mild ACR, no results of Paneth and intestinal stem cells localized at the crypt bottom have been shown so far. Therefore, we wanted to elucidate integrity and functionality of the Paneth and stem cells during different degrees of ACR, and to assess whether these cells are the primary targets of the rejection process...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109539/controllable-molecular-motors-engineered-from-myosin-and-rna
#6
Tosan Omabegho, Pinar S Gurel, Clarence Y Cheng, Laura Y Kim, Paul V Ruijgrok, Rhiju Das, Gregory M Alushin, Zev Bryant
Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure-function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems (1) or in living cells (2) . Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors (3-5) and modified natural protein motors (6-10) have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities...
November 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101245/area-specific-regulation-of-quiescent-neural-stem-cells-by-notch3-in-the-adult-mouse-subependymal-zone
#7
Hiroki Kawai, Daichi Kawaguchi, Benjamin D Kuebrich, Takeo Kitamoto, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Yukiko Gotoh, Shohei Furutachi
In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new neurons throughout lifetime. The balance between quiescence and active cell division among NSCs is crucial in producing appropriate numbers of neurons while maintaining the stem cell pool for a long period. The Notch signaling pathway plays a central role in both maintaining quiescent NSCs (qNSCs) and promoting cell division of active NSCs (aNSCs), although it remains elusive how this pathway regulates these apparently opposite functions. Notch1 has been shown to promote proliferation of aNSCs without affecting qNSCs in the adult mouse subependymal zone (SEZ)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093440/quantitative-microscopy-of-the-drosophila-ovary-shows-multiple-niche-signals-specify-progenitor-cell-fate
#8
Wei Dai, Amy Peterson, Thomas Kenney, Haley Burrous, Denise J Montell
Adult stem cells commonly give rise to transit-amplifying progenitors, whose progeny differentiate into distinct cell types. It is unclear if stem cell niche signals coordinate fate decisions within the progenitor pool. Here we use quantitative analysis of Wnt, Hh, and Notch signalling reporters and the cell fate markers Eyes Absent (Eya) and Castor (Cas) to study the effects of hyper-activation and loss of niche signals on progenitor development in the Drosophila ovary. Follicle stem cell (FSC) progeny adopt distinct polar, stalk, and main body cell fates...
November 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081737/seven-in-absentia-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-central-regulators-of-neural-cell-fate-and-neuronal-polarity
#9
REVIEW
Taren Ong, David J Solecki
During neural development, neural precursors transition from a proliferative state within their germinal niches to a migratory state as they relocate to their final laminar positions. Transitions across these states are coupled with dynamic alterations in cellular polarity. This key feature can be seen throughout the developing vertebrate brain, in which neural stem cells give rise to multipolar or unpolarized transit-amplifying progenitors. These transit-amplifying progenitors then expand to give rise to mature neuronal lineages that become polarized as they initiate radial migration to their final laminar positions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064479/recurrent-patterns-of-microdiversity-in-a-temperate-coastal-marine-environment
#10
Meghan Chafee, Antonio Fernàndez-Guerra, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Gunnar Gerdts, A Murat Eren, Hanno Teeling, Rudolf I Amann
Temperate coastal marine environments are replete with complex biotic and abiotic interactions that are amplified during spring and summer phytoplankton blooms. During these events, heterotrophic bacterioplankton respond to successional releases of dissolved organic matter as algal cells are lysed. Annual seasonal shifts in the community composition of free-living bacterioplankton follow broadly predictable patterns, but whether similar communities respond each year to bloom disturbance events remains unknown owing to a lack of data sets, employing high-frequency sampling over multiple years...
October 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058667/control-of-plant-cell-fate-transitions-by-transcriptional-and-hormonal-signals
#11
Christophe Gaillochet, Thomas Stiehl, Christian Wenzl, Juan-José Ripoll, Lindsay J Bailey-Steinitz, Lanxin Li, Anne Pfeiffer, Andrej Miotk, Jana P Hakenjos, Joachim Forner, Martin F Yanofsky, Anna Marciniak-Czochra, Jan U Lohmann
Plant meristems carry pools of continuously active stem cells, whose activity is controlled by developmental and environmental signals. After stem cell division, daughter cells that exit the stem cell domain acquire transit amplifying cell identity before they are incorporated into organs and differentiate. In this study, we used an integrated approach to elucidate the role of HECATE (HEC) genes in regulating developmental trajectories of shoot stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our work reveals that HEC function stabilizes cell fate in distinct zones of the shoot meristem thereby controlling the spatio-temporal dynamics of stem cell differentiation...
October 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042502/lipopolysaccharide-from-crypt-specific-core-microbiota-modulates-the-colonic-epithelial-proliferation-to-differentiation-balance
#12
Tomoaki Naito, Céline Mulet, Cristina De Castro, Antonio Molinaro, Azadeh Saffarian, Giulia Nigro, Marion Bérard, Mélanie Clerc, Amy B Pedersen, Philippe J Sansonetti, Thierry Pédron
We identified a crypt-specific core microbiota (CSCM) dominated by strictly aerobic, nonfermentative bacteria in murine cecal and proximal colonic (PC) crypts and hypothesized that, among its possible functions, it may affect epithelial regeneration. In the present work, we isolated representative CSCM strains using selective media based upon our initial 16S rRNA-based molecular identification (i.e., Acinetobacter, Delftia, and Stenotrophomonas). Their tropism for the crypt was confirmed, and their influence on epithelial regeneration was demonstrated in vivo by monocolonization of germfree mice...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034209/bridge-induced-translocation-between-nup145-and-top2-yeast-genes-models-the-genetic-fusion-between-the-human-orthologs-associated-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
Valentina Tosato, Nicole West, Jan Zrimec, Dmitri V Nikitin, Giannino Del Sal, Roberto Marano, Michael Breitenbach, Carlo V Bruschi
In mammalian organisms liquid tumors such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are related to spontaneous chromosomal translocations ensuing in gene fusions. We previously developed a system named bridge-induced translocation (BIT) that allows linking together two different chromosomes exploiting the strong endogenous homologous recombination system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The BIT system generates a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and severe aberrant phenotypes reminiscent of a cancerogenic transformation...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019741/activation-of-mtorc1-signaling-is-required-for-timely-hair-follicle-regeneration-from-radiation-injury
#14
Wei-Hung Wang, Ting-Han Chien, Sabrina Mai-Yi Fan, Wen-Yen Huang, Shih-Fan Lai, June-Tai Wu, Sung-Jan Lin
Transit amplifying cells (TACs) are highly proliferative in nature and tend to be sensitive to ionizing radiation. Due to the abundance of TACs that support the elongation of hair shafts, growing hair follicles are highly sensitive to radiation injury. How hair follicles repair themselves after radiation injury is unclear. In this study, we observed that in 4 Gy irradiated mice, hair follicle dystrophy was induced with apoptosis-driven loss of hair matrix cells, which are the TACs that fuel hair growth. The dystrophy was repaired within 96 h without significant hair loss, indicating that a regenerative attempt successfully restored the TAC population to resume anagen growth...
October 11, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963597/osteopontin-gene-polymorphism-association-with-milk-traits-and-its-expression-analysis-in-milk-of-riverine-buffalo
#15
Sidra Manzoor, Asif Nadeem, Javed Maryam, Abu Saeed Hashmi, Muhammad Imran, Masroor Ellahi Babar
Osteopontin gene is regarded as a plausible candidate in mammary gland differentiation and development, expressed by variety of cells, tissues, and biological fluids including milk. The current study was performed in two phases. In the first phase, Osteopontin gene polymorphisms were identified and associated with milk composition such as ash, milk fat, SNF, lactose, and protein. In the second phase, milk samples from five healthy mastitis-free Nili Ravi buffaloes were analyzed for expression of Osteopontin gene at transition (day 15), mid (day 90), and end (day 250) stage of their second lactation...
September 30, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939680/mobilizing-transit-amplifying-cell-derived-ectopic-progenitors-prevents-hair-loss-from-chemotherapy-or-radiation-therapy
#16
Wen-Yen Huang, Shih-Fan Lai, Hsien-Yi Chiu, Michael Chang, Maksim V Plikus, Chih-Chieh Chan, You-Tzung Chen, Po-Nien Tsao, Tsung-Lin Yang, Hsuan-Shu Lee, Peter Chi, Sung-Jan Lin
Genotoxicity-induced hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy is often encountered in cancer treatment, and there is a lack of effective treatment. In growing hair follicles (HF), quiescent stem cells (SC) are maintained in the bulge region, and hair bulbs at the base contain rapidly dividing, yet genotoxicity-sensitive transit-amplifying cells (TAC) that maintain hair growth. How genotoxicity-induced HF injury is repaired remains unclear. We report here that HFs mobilize ectopic progenitors from distinct TAC compartments for regeneration in adaptation to the severity of dystrophy induced by ionizing radiation (IR)...
September 22, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931595/cell-cycle-transitions-a-common-role-for-stoichiometric-inhibitors
#17
Michael Hopkins, John J Tyson, Béla Novák
The cell division cycle is the process by which eukaryotic cells replicate their chromosomes and partition them to two daughter cells. To maintain the integrity of the genome, proliferating cells must be able to block progression through the division cycle at key transition points (called "checkpoints") if there have been problems in the replication of the chromosomes or their biorientation on the mitotic spindle. These checkpoints are governed by protein-interaction networks, composed of phase-specific cell-cycle activators and inhibitors...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931019/the-role-of-backward-cell-migration-in-two-hit-mutants-production-in-the-stem-cell-niche
#18
Audrey Bollas, Leili Shahriyari
It has been discovered that there are two stem cell groups in the intestinal crypts: central stem cells (CeSCs), which are at the very bottom of the crypt, and border stem cells (BSCs), which are located between CeSCs and transit amplifying cells (TAs). Moreover, backward cell migration from BSCs to CeSCs has been observed. Recently, a bi-compartmental stochastic model, which includes CeSCs and BSCs, has been developed to investigate the probability of two-hit mutant production in the stem cell niche. In this project, we improve this stochastic model by adding the probability of backward cell migration to the model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927757/connective-tissue-growth-factor-regulates-transition-of-primary-bronchial-fibroblasts-to-myofibroblasts-in-asthmatic-subjects
#19
Katarzyna Wójcik-Pszczoła, Bogdan Jakieła, Hanna Plutecka, Paulina Koczurkiewicz, Zbigniew Madeja, Marta Michalik, Marek Sanak
Fibroblast to myofibroblast transition (FMT) contributes to bronchial wall remodelling in persistent asthma. Among other numerous factors involved, transforming growth factor type β (TGF-β) plays a pivotal role. Recently it has been demonstrated that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a matricellular protein, combines with TGF-β in the pathomechanism of many fibrotic disorders. However, it is not clear whether this interaction takes place in asthma as well. Primary cultures of human bronchial fibroblasts from asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects were used to investigate the impact of CTGF and TGF-β1 on the fibroblast to myofibroblast transition...
September 15, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894084/tbx3-dependent-amplifying-stem-cell-progeny-drives-interfollicular-epidermal-expansion-during-pregnancy-and-regeneration
#20
Ryo Ichijo, Hiroki Kobayashi, Saori Yoneda, Yui Iizuka, Hirokazu Kubo, Shigeru Matsumura, Satsuki Kitano, Hitoshi Miyachi, Tetsuya Honda, Fumiko Toyoshima
The skin surface area varies flexibly in response to body shape changes. Skin homeostasis is maintained by stem cells residing in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. However, how the interfollicular epidermal stem cells response to physiological body shape changes remains elusive. Here, we identify a highly proliferative interfollicular epidermal basal cell population in the rapidly expanding abdominal skin of pregnant mice. These cells express Tbx3 that is necessary for their propagation to drive skin expansion...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
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