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Transit amplifying cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894084/tbx3-dependent-amplifying-stem-cell-progeny-drives-interfollicular-epidermal-expansion-during-pregnancy-and-regeneration
#1
Ryo Ichijo, Hiroki Kobayashi, Saori Yoneda, Yui Iizuka, Hirokazu Kubo, Shigeru Matsumura, Satsuki Kitano, Hitoshi Miyachi, Tetsuya Honda, Fumiko Toyoshima
The skin surface area varies flexibly in response to body shape changes. Skin homeostasis is maintained by stem cells residing in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. However, how the interfollicular epidermal stem cells response to physiological body shape changes remains elusive. Here, we identify a highly proliferative interfollicular epidermal basal cell population in the rapidly expanding abdominal skin of pregnant mice. These cells express Tbx3 that is necessary for their propagation to drive skin expansion...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884763/on-the-role-of-topology-in-regulating-transcriptional-cascades
#2
Mahan Ghafari, Alireza Mashaghi
We study the impact of topology on the response of a transcriptional cascade with certain circuit topologies to a constant and time-varying input signal. We systematically analyze the response of the output to activating and repressing cascades. We identify two types of responses for a linear cascade, namely the "Decaying mode", where the input signal becomes exceedingly weaker as it propagates, and the "Bistable mode", where the input signal can either be amplified or die out in the pathway. We examine how the transition occurs from one mode to the other as we add coherent and/or incoherent feed-forward loops in an otherwise linear cascade...
September 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862741/radial-glia-in-the-ventral-telencephalon
#3
REVIEW
Miguel Turrero García, Corey Harwell
The ventral telencephalon is the developmental origin of the basal ganglia and the source of neuronal and glial cells that integrate into developing circuits in other areas of the brain. Radial glia in the embryonic subpallium give rise to an enormous diversity of mature cell types, either directly or through other transit-amplifying progenitors. Here, we review current knowledge about these subpallial neural stem cells and their progeny, focusing on the period of neurogenesis. We describe their cell biological features and the extrinsic and intrinsic molecular codes that guide their fate specification in defined temporal and spatial sequences...
September 1, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855334/plant-specific-histone-deacetylases-hdt%C3%A2-regulate-gibberellin-2-oxidase-2-expression-to-control-arabidopsis-root-meristem-cell-number
#4
Huchen Li, Jesus Torres-Garcia, David Latrasse, Moussa Benhamed, Stefan Schilderink, Wenkun Zhou, Olga Kulikova, Heribert Hirt, Ton Bisseling
Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells...
August 30, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854421/long-noncoding-rna-fal1-promotes-cell-proliferation-invasion-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-pten-akt-signaling-axis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Chunfeng Pan, Guoliang Yao, Bin Liu, Teng Ma, Yang Xia, Ke Wei, Jun Wang, Jin Xu, Liang Chen, Yijiang Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to have many biological effects in different cancer stages. Several studies have revealed that focally amplified lncRNA on chromosome 1 (FAL1) regulates cancer progression via p21. However, the expression and mechanism of FAL1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) still remain unclear. METHODS: We detected the FAL1 level in NSCLC tissues and in established cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR and evaluated the clinical significance...
August 31, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844904/germ-cell-cysts-and-simultaneous-sperm-and-oocyte-production-in-a-hermaphroditic-nematode
#6
Caitlin M McCaig, Xiaoxue Lin, Maureen Farrell, Kathryn Rehain-Bell, Diane C Shakes
Studies of gamete development in the self-fertile hermaphrodites of Caenorhabditis elegans have significantly contributed to our understanding of fundamental developmental mechanisms. However, evolutionary transitions from outcrossing males and females to self-fertile hermaphrodites have convergently evolved within multiple nematode sub-lineages, and whether the C. elegans pattern of self-fertile hermaphroditism and gamete development is representative remains largely unexplored. Here we describe a pattern of sperm production in the trioecious (male/female/hermaphrodite) nematode Rhabditis sp...
August 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835754/transit-amplifying-cells-in-the-fast-lane-from-stem-cells-towards-differentiation
#7
REVIEW
Emma Rangel-Huerta, Ernesto Maldonado
Stem cells have a high potential to impact regenerative medicine. However, stem cells in adult tissues often proliferate at very slow rates. During development, stem cells may change first to a pluripotent and highly proliferative state, known as transit-amplifying cells. Recent advances in the identification and isolation of these undifferentiated and fast-dividing cells could bring new alternatives for cell-based transplants. The skin epidermis has been the target of necessary research about transit-amplifying cells; this work has mainly been performed in mammalian cells, but further work is being pursued in other vertebrate models, such as zebrafish...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833104/low-folate-metabolic-stress-reprograms-dna-methylation-activated-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-to-mediate-cancer-stem-cell-like-signatures-and-invasive-tumour-stage-specific-malignancy-of-human-colorectal-cancers
#8
Hsin-Chun Feng, Jhuan-Yu Lin, Shu-Han Hsu, Wen-Yu Lan, Chang-Sheng Kuo, Yu-Feng Tian, Ding-Ping Sun, Rwei-Fen Syu Huang
The mechanistic role of colonic low folate metabolic stress (LFMS) in colorectal cancer (CRC) malignancy development remains unknown. Folate analysis on the 99 paired human CRC tissues localized LFMS to the deep invasive T3/T4 staged tumours with hypo-methylated sonic hedgehog (Shh) promoter region and amplified expressions of Shh ligand and Gli1 effectors, which coincided with deregulated expressions of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediators. Colonic folate levels of CR were inversely correlated with pluripotent expressions of the SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 markers (P < 0...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794059/evolution-and-development-of-monocot-stomata
#9
Paula J Rudall, Elisabeth D Chen, Erin Cullen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Leaves of monocots are typically linear with parallel venation, though a few taxa have broad leaves. Studies of stomatal patterning and development in monocots required updating in the context of rapidly improving knowledge of both the phylogenetic and development-genetic context of monocots that facilitate studies of character evolution. METHODS: We used an existing microscope-slide collection to obtain data on stomatal structure across all the major monocot clades, including some species with relatively broad leaves...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783244/loss-of-ampk-activation-promotes-the-invasion-and-metastasis-of-pancreatic-cancer-through-an-hsf1-dependent-pathway
#10
Ke Chen, Weikun Qian, Jie Li, Zhengdong Jiang, Liang Cheng, Bin Yan, Junyu Cao, Liankang Sun, Cancan Zhou, Meng Lei, Wanxing Duan, Jiguang Ma, Qingyong Ma, Zhenhua Ma
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy with a mortality rate that closely parallels its incidence rate, and a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the invasion and distant metastasis is required. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a very highly conserved factor in eukaryotes that regulates the protective heat shock response. Here, we show that HSF1 is abnormally activated in pancreatic cancer. The knockdown of HSF1 impaired the invasion and migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro; however, the upregulation of HSF1 showed the opposite effects...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759022/mir-151a-induces-partial-emt-by-regulating-e-cadherin-in-nsclc-cells
#11
I Daugaard, K J Sanders, A Idica, K Vittayarukskul, M Hamdorf, J D Krog, R Chow, D Jury, L L Hansen, H Hager, P Lamy, C L Choi, D Agalliu, D G Zisoulis, I M Pedersen
miR-151a and its host gene, focal adhesion kinase, FAK, are located in a region of chromosome 8q that is frequently amplified in solid tumors, including lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and metastasis remains the major challenge in battling lung cancer mortality. Here, we demonstrate that miR-151a is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient specimens, as compared to healthy lung. In addition, miR-151a overexpression promotes proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induces tumor cell migration and invasion of NSCLC cells...
July 31, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754713/ubap2l-is-amplified-in-a-large-subset-of-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-is-critical-for-epithelial-lung-cell-identity-and-tumor-metastasis
#12
Romain Aucagne, Simon Girard, Nadine Mayotte, Bernhard Lehnertz, Stéphane Lopes-Paciencia, Patrick Gendron, Geneviève Boucher, Jalila Chagraoui, Guy Sauvageau
The ubiquitin-associated protein 2-like (UBAP2L) gene remains poorly studied in human and mouse development. UBAP2L interacts with the Polycomb group protein B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1) and determines the activity of mouse hematopoietic stem cells in vivo Here we show that loss of Ubap2l leads to disorganized respiratory epithelium of mutant neonates, which die of respiratory failure. We also show that UBAP2L overexpression leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotype in a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line...
July 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753576/isoxazole-compound-ml327-blocks-myc-expression-and-tumor-formation-in-neuroblastoma
#13
Eric J Rellinger, Chandrasekhar Padmanabhan, Jingbo Qiao, Brian T Craig, Hanbing An, Jing Zhu, Hernán Correa, Alex G Waterson, Craig W Lindsley, R Daniel Beauchamp, Dai H Chung
Neuroblastomas are the most common extracranial solid tumors in children and arise from the embryonic neural crest. MYCN-amplification is a feature of ~30% of neuroblastoma tumors and portends a poor prognosis. Neural crest precursors undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to gain migratory potential and populate the sympathoadrenal axis. Neuroblastomas are posited to arise due to a blockade of neural crest differentiation. We have recently reported effects of a novel MET inducing compound ML327 (N-(3-(2-hydroxynicotinamido) propyl)-5-phenylisoxazole-3-carboxamide) in colon cancer cells...
July 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745003/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-the-systems-of-adaptive-immunity
#14
Viktor Müller, Rob J de Boer, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Eörs Szathmáry
We propose an evolutionary perspective to classify and characterize the diverse systems of adaptive immunity that have been discovered across all major domains of life. We put forward a new function-based classification according to the way information is acquired by the immune systems: Darwinian immunity (currently known from, but not necessarily limited to, vertebrates) relies on the Darwinian process of clonal selection to 'learn' by cumulative trial-and-error feedback; Lamarckian immunity uses templated targeting (guided adaptation) to internalize heritable information on potential threats; finally, shotgun immunity operates through somatic mechanisms of variable targeting without feedback...
July 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707354/additive-neurogenesis-supported-by-multiple-stem-cell-populations-mediates-adult-spinal-cord-development-a-spatio-temporal-statistical-mapping-analysis-in-a-teleost-model-of-indeterminate-growth
#15
Ruxandra F Sîrbulescu, Iulian Ilieş, Annette Meyer, Günther K H Zupanc
The knifefish Apteronotus leptorhynchus exhibits indeterminate growth throughout adulthood. This phenomenon extends to the spinal cord, presumably through the continuous addition of new neurons and glial cells. However, little is known about the developmental dynamics of cells added during adult growth. The present work characterizes the structural and functional development of the adult spinal cord in this model organism through a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the spatial and temporal dynamics of new cells at various developmental stages...
July 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694515/physical-binding-of-endothelial-mcam-and-neural-transmembrane-protease-matriptase-novel-cell-adhesion-in-neural-stem-cell-vascular-niche
#16
Hsiu-Hui Tung, Sheau-Ling Lee
Brain neural stem cells and transit amplifying cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles are in direct contact with the microvascular endothelium. The mechanisms/molecules of direct cell contact in the SVZ neurovascular niche are not fully understood. We previously showed that neural stem/progenitor (NS/P) cells induce brain endothelial signaling in direct cell contact through matriptase (MTP) on NS/P cell surface. In the present study, using pull-down and LC-MS/MS, we identified melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) the brain endothelial molecule that interacts with MTP...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670819/emerging-roles-of-transit-amplifying-cells-in-tissue-regeneration-and-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Bing Zhang, Ya-Chieh Hsu
Most regenerative tissues employ transit-amplifying cells (TACs) that are positioned in between stem cells and differentiated progeny. In a classical hierarchical model, stem cells undergo limited divisions to produce TACs, which then proliferate rapidly to expand the system and produce diverse differentiated cell types. Although TACs are indispensable for generating tissues, they have been largely viewed as a transit point between stem cells and downstream lineages. Studies in the past few years, however, have revealed some fascinating biology and unanticipated functions of TACs...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669884/determining-the-control-networks-regulating-stem-cell-lineages-in-colonic-crypts
#18
Jienian Yang, David E Axelrod, Natalia L Komarova
The question of stem cell control is at the center of our understanding of tissue functioning, both in healthy and cancerous conditions. It is well accepted that cellular fate decisions (such as divisions, differentiation, apoptosis) are orchestrated by a network of regulatory signals emitted by different cell populations in the lineage and the surrounding tissue. The exact regulatory network that governs stem cell lineages in a given tissue is usually unknown. Here we propose an algorithm to identify a set of candidate control networks that are compatible with (a) measured means and variances of cell populations in different compartments, (b) qualitative information on cell population dynamics, such as the existence of local controls and oscillatory reaction of the system to population size perturbations, and (c) statistics of correlations between cell numbers in different compartments...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#19
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649443/a-multiscale-model-of-early-cell-lineage-specification-including-cell-division
#20
Alen Tosenberger, Didier Gonze, Sylvain Bessonnard, Michel Cohen-Tannoudji, Claire Chazaud, Geneviève Dupont
Embryonic development is a self-organised process during which cells divide, interact, change fate according to a complex gene regulatory network and organise themselves in a three-dimensional space. Here, we model this complex dynamic phenomenon in the context of the acquisition of epiblast and primitive endoderm identities within the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo in the mouse. The multiscale model describes cell division and interactions between cells, as well as biochemical reactions inside each individual cell and in the extracellular matrix...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
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