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Transit amplifying cells

Xiangmei Ren, Xiao Xiao, Ben Wang, Yiya Zhang, Mei Yi, Ji Li, Wei Shi
To explore the role ofDNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in mouse skin aging.
 Methods: Epidermal conditional K14 Cre-mediated DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) knockout mice (Mut group, n=4) and the littermate normal mice with the same age (WT group) n=4) were used in this study. HE staining was used to detect the pathological changes of skin; the changes of number in the dermal elastic fibers were detected by Gomori aldehyde fuchsin staining, the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled transit amplifying cells (TAC) in epidermis were detected by immunohistochemical staining; the number of chlorodeoxyuridine (CldU)-label-retaining cells (LRC) in epidermis were detected by immunofluorescent staining...
April 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Samuel Rogers, Rachael A McCloy, Benjamin L Parker, David Gallego-Ortega, Andrew M K Law, Venessa T Chin, James R W Conway, Dirk Fey, Ewan K A Millar, Sandra O'Toole, Niantao Deng, Alexander Swarbrick, Paul D Chastain, Anthony J Cesare, Paul Timpson, C Elizabeth Caldon, David R Croucher, David E James, D Neil Watkins, Andrew Burgess
MASTL kinase is essential for correct progression through mitosis, with loss of MASTL causing chromosome segregation errors, mitotic collapse and failure of cytokinesis. However, in cancer MASTL is most commonly amplified and overexpressed. This correlates with increased chromosome instability in breast cancer and poor patient survival in breast, ovarian and lung cancer. Global phosphoproteomic analysis of immortalised breast MCF10A cells engineered to overexpressed MASTL revealed disruption to desmosomes, actin cytoskeleton, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and p38 stress kinase signalling pathways...
May 10, 2018: Oncogene
Abdel Rahman Abdel Fattah, Sarah Mishriki, Tobias Kammann, Rakesh P Sahu, Fei Geng, Ishwar K Puri
Contrasting agents (CAs) that are administered to patients during magnetic resonance imaging to facilitate tumor identification are generally considered harmless. However, gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents can be retained in the body, inflicting specific cell line cytotoxicity. We investigate the effect of Gadopentatic acid (Gd-DTPA) on human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. These cells exhibit a toggle switch response: exposure to 0.1 and 1 mM concentrations of Gd-DTPA enhances proliferation, which is hindered at a higher 10 mM concentration...
May 5, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Michal Shoshkes-Carmel, Yue J Wang, Kirk J Wangensteen, Beáta Tóth, Ayano Kondo, Efi E Massassa, Shalev Itzkovitz, Klaus H Kaestner
Tissues that undergo rapid cellular turnover, such as the mammalian haematopoietic system or the intestinal epithelium, are dependent on stem and progenitor cells that proliferate to provide differentiated cells to maintain organismal health. Stem and progenitor cells, in turn, are thought to rely on signals and growth factors provided by local niche cells to support their function and self-renewal. Several cell types have been hypothesized to provide the signals required for the proliferation and differentiation of the intestinal stem cells in intestinal crypts1-6 ...
May 2, 2018: Nature
Manasa Srivillibhuthur, Bailey N Warder, Natalie H Toke, Pooja P Shah, Qiang Feng, Nan Gao, Edward M Bonder, Michael P Verzi
During development, the embryo transitions from a metabolism favoring glycolysis to a metabolism favoring mitochondrial respiration. How metabolic shifts regulate developmental processes, or how developmental processes regulate metabolic shifts, remains unclear. To test the requirement of mitochondrial function in developing endoderm-derived tissues, we genetically inactivated the mitochondrial transcription factor, Tfam, using the Shh-Cre driver. Tfam mutants did not survive postnatally, exhibiting defects in lung development...
April 20, 2018: Developmental Biology
Tessa Lord, Jon M Oatley
Historically, research in spermatogonial biology has been hindered by a lack of validated approaches to identify and isolate pure populations of the various spermatogonial subsets for in-depth analysis. In particular, although a number of markers of the undifferentiated spermatogonial population have now been characterized, standardized methodology for assessing their specificity to the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) and transit amplifying progenitor pools has been lacking. To date, SSC content within an undefined population of spermatogonia has been inferred using either lineage tracing or spermatogonial transplantation analyses which generate qualitative and quantitative data, respectively...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Rahul R Dutta, Michael A Taffe, Chitra D Mandyam
The detrimental effects of amphetamines on developmental stages of NPCs are limited to rodent brain and it is not known if these effects occur in nonhuman primates which are the focus of the current investigation. Young adult rhesus macaques either experienced MDMA only, a combination of amphetamines (MDMA, MDA and methamphetamine) or no amphetamines (controls) and hippocampal tissue was processed for immunohistochemical analysis. Quantitative stereological analysis showed that intermittent exposure to MDMA or the three amphetamines over 9...
March 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Thomas D Carroll, Ian P Newton, Yu Chen, J Julian Blow, Inke Näthke
During late mitosis and the early G1 phase, the origins of replication are licensed by binding to double hexamers of MCM2-7. In this study, we investigated how licensing and proliferative commitment are coupled in the epithelium of the small intestine. We developed a method for identifying cells in intact tissue containing DNA-bound MCM2-7. Interphase cells above the transit-amplifying compartment had no DNA-bound MCM2-7, but still expressed the MCM2-7 protein, suggesting that licensing is inhibited immediately upon differentiation...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Yusuke Hirose, Mamiko Onuki, Yuri Tenjimbayashi, Seiichiro Mori, Yoshiyuki Ishii, Takamasa Takeuchi, Nobutaka Tasaka, Toyomi Satoh, Tohru Morisada, Takashi Iwata, Shingo Miyamoto, Koji Matsumoto, Akihiko Sekizawa, Iwao Kukimoto
Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) causes cervical cancer, accompanied with the accumulation of somatic mutations into the host genome. There are concomitant genetic changes in the HPV genome during viral infection; however, their relevance to cervical carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Here we explored within-host genetic diversity of HPV by performing deep sequencing analyses of viral whole-genome sequences in clinical specimens. The whole genomes of HPV types 16, 52 and 58 were amplified by type-specific PCR from total cellular DNA of cervical exfoliated cells collected from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC), and were deep-sequenced...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jiangjun Cao, Zonghui Wu, Tingting Tong, Qingzong Zhu, Erhu Zhao, Hongjuan Cui
As a receptor tyrosine kinase, mesenchymal to epithelial transition factor (MET) is the membrane receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is related with a series of biological functions, such as cell proliferation, progression, apoptosis, metastasis and morphological changes. As research continues, MET is amplified or overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and closely related with worse prognosis. Therefore, various MET inhibitors are currently being developed as potential treatments for a variety of cancers...
March 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Natalia Mora, Carlos Oliva, Mark Fiers, Radoslaw Ejsmont, Alessia Soldano, Ting-Ting Zhang, Jiekun Yan, Annelies Claeys, Natalie De Geest, Bassem A Hassan
The importance of producing the correct numbers of neurons during development is illustrated by both evolutionary enhancement of cognitive capacities in larger brains, and developmental disorders of brain size. In humans, increased neuronal numbers during development is speculated to partly derive from a unique subtype of neural stem cells (NSCs) that undergo a phase of expansion through symmetric self-amplifying divisions before generating neurons. Symmetric amplification also appears to underlie adult neural stem maintenance in the mouse...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Cell
Kenjiro Matsumoto, Hiroki Kawanaka, Masatoshi Hori, Kosuke Kusamori, Daichi Utsumi, Takuya Tsukahara, Kikuko Amagase, Syunji Horie, Akira Yamamoto, Hiroshi Ozaki, Yasuo Mori, Shinichi Kato
In this study, we investigated the role of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a nonselective cation channel abundantly expressed in inflammatory cells such as macrophages, in the development of post-operative ileus, a complication of abdominal surgery characterized by gastrointestinal dysmotility. In wild type mice, we found that intestinal manipulation, a maneuver that elicits symptoms typical of post-operative ileus, delays the transit of fluorescein-labeled dextran, promotes the infiltration of CD68+ macrophages, Ly6B...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Udesh Dhawan, Ming-Wen Sue, Kuan Chun Lan, Waradee Buddhakosai, Pao Hui Huang, Yi Cheng Chen, Po-Chun Chen, Wen-Liang Chen
Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly orchestrated process motivated by the nature of physical, chemical composition of Tumor Microenvironment (TME). The role of physical framework of the tumor microenvironment in guiding cells towards EMT is poorly understood. To investigate this, breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were cultured on nanochips comprising of Tantalum oxide nanodots ranging in diameter from 10 to 200nm, fabricated through electrochemical approach and collectively referred to as artificial microenvironments...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Patrick J Atkinson, Yaodong Dong, Shuping Gu, Wenwen Liu, Elvis Huarcaya Najarro, Tomokatsu Udagawa, Alan G Cheng
During development, Sox2 is indispensable for cell division and differentiation, yet its roles in regenerating tissues are less clear. Here, we used combinations of transgenic mouse models to reveal that Sox2 haploinsufficiency (Sox2haplo) increases rather than impairs cochlear regeneration in vivo. Sox2haplo cochleae had delayed terminal mitosis and ectopic sensory cells, yet normal auditory function. Sox2haplo amplified and expanded domains of damage-induced Atoh1+ transitional cell formation in neonatal cochlea...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Andrea Galli, Helene Mens, Judith M Gottwein, Jan Gerstoft, Jens Bukh
Ribavirin (RBV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral active against a wide range of RNA viruses. Despite having been used for decades in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the precise mechanism of action of RBV is unknown. In other viruses, it inhibits propagation by increasing the rate of G-to-A and C-to-U transitions. Here, we utilized the J6/JFH1 HCV cell-culture system to investigate whether RBV inhibits HCV through the same mechanism. Infected Huh7.5 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of RBV or its phosphorylated forms...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Beat Siegenthaler, Claudia Defila, Sukalp Muzumdar, Hans-Dietmar Beer, Michael Meyer, Sandra Tanner, Wilhelm Bloch, Volker Blank, Matthias Schäfer, Sabine Werner
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, but the biological functions of the related Nrf3 protein are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate a novel pro-apoptotic function of Nrf3 in mouse and human keratinocytes. In response to UV irradiation, Nrf3-deficient keratinocytes were protected from apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The protective function was also seen under oxidative or hyperosmotic stress conditions, but not when apoptosis was induced by disruption of cell-matrix interactions...
February 27, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Jung-Ho Park, Jae-Woo Lee, Hoonsung Choi, Sun Keun Jung, Jeom Sun Kim, Kyung-Woon Kim, Keon Bong Oh, Hyeon Yang, Sung June Byun
Previously, Escherichia coli harboring the codon-optimized 3D8scFv gene (E. coli 3D8scFv) was developed as a feed additive for use in preventing norovirus infection. Here, we evaluated whether the 3D8scFv gene affects the colonization of E coli when E. coli 3D8scFv passes through the mouse gastrointestinal tract. To determine the colonization ability of E. coli 3D8scFv, E. coli cells with or without the 3D8scFv gene were fed to mice. Total DNA was extracted from the animals' stools, stomach, small intestine and colon...
April 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Tessa Lord, Melissa J Oatley, Jon M Oatley
Spermatogenesis requires retinoic acid (RA) induction of the undifferentiated to differentiating transition in transit amplifying (TA) progenitor spermatogonia, whereas continuity of the spermatogenic lineage relies on the RA response being suppressed in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Here, we discovered that, in mouse testes, both spermatogonial populations possess intrinsic RA-response machinery and exhibit hallmarks of the differentiating transition following direct exposure to RA, including loss of SSC regenerative capacity...
February 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Olga A Sukocheva
Sphingolipids, sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes, and their receptors network are being recognized as part of the signaling mechanisms, which govern breast cancer cell growth, migration, and survival during chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER) positive and, thus, rely on estrogen signaling. Estrogen activates an intracellular network composed of many cytoplasmic and nuclear mediators. Some estrogen effects can be mediated by sphingolipids. Estrogen activates sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and amplifies the intracellular concentration of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in breast cancer cells during stimulation of proliferation and survival...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alejandro Jose Fendrik, Lilia Romanelli, Ernesto Rotondo
The self renewal process in colonic crypts is the object of several studies. We present here a new compartment model with the following characteristics: a) We distinguish different classes of cells: stem cells, 6 generations of transit amplifying cells and the differentiated cells. b) In order to take into account the monoclonal character of the crypts in homeostatic regime we include symmetric divisions of the stem cells. We first consider the dynamic differential equations that describe the evolution of the mean values of the populations but the small observed value of the total number of cells involved plus the huge dispersion of experimental 
 data found in the literature leads us to study the stochastic discrete process...
January 30, 2018: Physical Biology
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