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Transit amplifying cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285491/detection-of-met-amplification-in-gastroesophageal-tumor-specimens-using-iqfish
#1
Jan Trøst Jørgensen, Karsten Bork Nielsen, Jens Mollerup, Anna Jepsen, Ning Go
Background: The gene mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (MET) is a proto-oncogene that encodes a transmembrane receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity known as Met or cMet. MET is found to be amplified in several human cancers including gastroesophageal cancer. Methods: Here we report the MET amplification prevalence data from 159 consecutive tumor specimens from patients with gastric (G), gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and esophageal (E) adenocarcinoma, using a novel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, MET/CEN-7 IQFISH Probe Mix [an investigational use only (IUO) assay]...
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285230/gene-editing-of-the-extra-domain-a-positive-fibronectin-in-various-tumors-amplified-the-effects-of-crispr-cas-system-on-the-inhibition-of-tumor-progression
#2
Wan-Qi Lv, Hai-Cheng Wang, Jing Peng, Yi-Xiang Wang, Jiu-Hui Jiang, Cui-Ying Li
Background: The low efficiency of clustered, regularly interspaced, palindromic repeats-associated Cas (CRISPR/Cas) system editing genes in vivo limits the application. A components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the extra domain A positive fibronectin (EDA+FN), may be a target for CRISPR/Cas system for the pro-oncogenic effects. The exclusion of EDA exon would alter the microenvironment and inhibit tumor progression, even the frequency of gene editing is still limited. Results: The pro-oncogenic effects were confirmed by the exclusion of EDA exon from the fibronectin gene, as illustrated by the down-regulated proliferation, migration and invasion of CNE-2Z or SW480 cells (P<0...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280516/suppression-of-stat3-nh2-terminal-domain-chemosensitizes-medulloblastoma-cells-by-activation-of-protein-inhibitor-of-activated-stat3-via-de-repression-by-microrna-21
#3
Sutapa Ray, Don W Coulter, Shawn D Gray, Jason A Sughroue, Shrabasti Roychoudhury, Erin M McIntyre, Nagendra K Chaturvedi, Kishor K Bhakat, Shantaram S Joshi, Timothy R McGuire, John G Sharp
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant pediatric brain tumor with poor prognosis. Signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in MB where it functions as an oncoprotein, mediating cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we have delineated the functional role of activated STAT3 in MB, by using a cell permeable STAT3-NH2 terminal domain inhibitor (S3-NTDi) that specifically perturbs the structure/function of STAT3. We have implemented several biochemical experiments using human MB tumor microarray (TMA) and pediatric MB cell lines, derived from high-risk SHH-TP53-mutated and MYC-amplified Non-WNT/SHH tumors...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273633/otx1-regulates-cell-cycle-progression-of-neural-progenitors-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#4
Baoshan Huang, Xue Li, Xiaomeng Tu, Wei Zhao, Dan Zhu, Yue Feng, Xiang Si, Jie-Guang Chen
The progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex coordinate proliferation and mitotic exit to generate the correct number of neurons and glial cells during development. However, mechanisms for regulating the mitotic cycle of cortical progenitors are not fully understood. Otx1 is one of the homeobox-containing transcription factors frequently implicated in the development of the central nervous system. Mice bearing a targeted deletion of Otx1 exhibit brain hypoplasia and a decrease in the number of cortical neurons...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259703/prostaglandin-e2-ep2-signaling-as-a-node-of-chronic-inflammation-in-the-colon-tumor-microenvironment
#5
REVIEW
Tomohiro Aoki, Shuh Narumiya
Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer. Involvement of prostaglandin (PG) system in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer has been suggested from clinical studies demonstrating therapeutic effect of NSAIDs including aspirin or selective COX-2 inhibitors. However, mechanisms on how PG regulates inflammatory responses leading to colorectal cancer development remain obscure. Further, careful attention is needed to use these drugs for a long time because of adverse effects due to non-specific inhibition of physiological PG production in addition to pathological one, making the development of alternatives to aspirin important...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243212/controlling-centriole-numbers-geminin-family-members-as-master-regulators-of-centriole-amplification-and-multiciliogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Marina Arbi, Dafni-Eleftheria Pefani, Stavros Taraviras, Zoi Lygerou
To ensure that the genetic material is accurately passed down to daughter cells during mitosis, dividing cells must duplicate their chromosomes and centrosomes once and only once per cell cycle. The same key steps-licensing, duplication, and segregation-control both the chromosome and the centrosome cycle, which must occur in concert to safeguard genome integrity. Aberrations in genome content or centrosome numbers lead to genomic instability and are linked to tumorigenesis. Such aberrations, however, can also be part of the normal life cycle of specific cell types...
December 14, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241545/the-germline-linker-histone-dbigh1-and-the-translational-regulator-bam-form-a-repressor-loop-essential-for-male-germ-stem-cell-differentiation
#7
Albert Carbonell, Salvador Pérez-Montero, Paula Climent-Cantó, Oscar Reina, Fernando Azorín
Drosophila spermatogenesis constitutes a paradigmatic system to study maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of adult stem cell lineages. Each Drosophila testis contains 6-12 germ stem cells (GSCs) that divide asymmetrically to produce gonialblast cells that undergo four transit-amplifying (TA) spermatogonial divisions before entering spermatocyte differentiation. Mechanisms governing these crucial transitions are not fully understood. Here, we report the essential role of the germline linker histone dBigH1 during early spermatogenesis...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234338/transcript-profiling-identifies-gene-cohorts-controlled-by-each-signal-regulating-trans-differentiation-of-epidermal-cells-of-vicia-faba-cotyledons-to-a-transfer-cell-phenotype
#8
Hui-Ming Zhang, Simon L Wheeler, Xue Xia, Kim Colyvas, Christina E Offler, John W Patrick
Transfer cells (TCs) support high rates of membrane transport of nutrients conferred by a plasma membrane area amplified by lining a wall labyrinth comprised of an uniform wall layer (UWL) upon which intricate wall ingrowth (WI) papillae are deposited. A signal cascade of auxin, ethylene, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytosolic Ca2+ regulates wall labyrinth assembly. To identify gene cohorts regulated by each signal, a RNA- sequencing study was undertaken using Vicia faba cotyledons. When cotyledons are placed in culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously undergo trans-differentiation to epidermal TCs (ETCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224144/low-input-whole-genome-bisulfite-sequencing-using-a-post-bisulfite-adapter-tagging-approach
#9
Julian R Peat, Sébastien A Smallwood
The epigenetic mark 5-methylcytosine confers heritable regulation of gene expression that can be dynamically modulated during transitions in cell fate. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, it is now possible to obtain comprehensive genome-wide maps of the mammalian DNA methylation landscape, but the application of these techniques to limited material remains challenging. Here, we present an optimized protocol to perform whole-genome bisulfite sequencing on low inputs (100-5000 somatic cells) using a post-bisulfite adapter tagging approach...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207623/isoxazole-compound-ml327-blocks-myc-expression-and-tumor-formation-in-neuroblastoma
#10
Eric J Rellinger, Chandrasekhar Padmanabhan, Jingbo Qiao, Brian T Craig, Hanbing An, Jing Zhu, Hernán Correa, Alex G Waterson, Craig W Lindsley, R Daniel Beauchamp, Dai H Chung
Neuroblastomas are the most common extracranial solid tumors in children and arise from the embryonic neural crest. MYCN-amplification is a feature of ∼30% of neuroblastoma tumors and portends a poor prognosis. Neural crest precursors undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to gain migratory potential and populate the sympathoadrenal axis. Neuroblastomas are posited to arise due to a blockade of neural crest differentiation. We have recently reported effects of a novel MET inducing compound ML327 (N-(3-(2-hydroxynicotinamido) propyl)-5-phenylisoxazole-3-carboxamide) in colon cancer cells...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203613/nfe2l1-silenced-insulinoma-cells-acquire-aggressiveness-and-chemo-resistance
#11
Jingqi Fu, Hongzhi Zheng, Qi Cui, Chengjie Chen, Simeng Bao, Jing Sun, Lu Li, Bei Yang, Huihui Wang, Yongyong Hou, Yuanyuan Xu, Yuanhong Xu, Qiang Zhang, Jingbo Pi
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 1 (NFE2L1 or NRF1) is involved in various critical cell processes such as maintenance of ubiquitin-proteasome system and regulation of the cellular antioxidant response. We previously determined that pancreatic β-cell-specific Nfe2l1-knockout mice had hyperinsulinemia, and that silencing of Nfe2l1 in mouse islets or MIN6 insulinoma β-cells induced elevated basal insulin release and altered glucose metabolism. Hypoglycemia is a major issue with aggressive insulinomas, although a role of NFE2L1 in this pathology is not defined...
December 4, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199685/role-of-crizotinib-in-c-mesenchymal-epidermal-transition-positive-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#12
U Batra, A Jain, M Sharma, R Bajaj, M Suryavanshis
The increasing cases of NSCLC and improved understanding of its molecular biology has lead to identification of its varied driver mutations. cMET amplification has an important role as resistance mechanism for EGFR TKIs. Crizotinib is a drug which shows its anti-tumoral effect in cMET positive cases. Here we present a case series of three such patients who achieved were cMET amplified and showed partial response on Crizotinib.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191977/the-tumor-suppressor-brat-controls-neuronal-stem-cell-lineages-by-inhibiting-deadpan-and-zelda
#13
Ilka Reichardt, François Bonnay, Victoria Steinmann, Inga Loedige, Thomas R Burkard, Gunter Meister, Juergen A Knoblich
The TRIM-NHL protein Brain tumor (Brat) acts as a tumor suppressor in the Drosophila brain, but how it suppresses tumor formation is not completely understood. Here, we combine temperature-controlled brat RNAi with transcriptome analysis to identify the immediate Brat targets in Drosophila neuroblasts. Besides the known target Deadpan (Dpn), our experiments identify the transcription factor Zelda (Zld) as a critical target of Brat. Our data show that Zld is expressed in neuroblasts and required to allow re-expression of Dpn in transit-amplifying intermediate neural progenitors...
November 30, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163898/self-quenched-ferrocenyl-diketopyrrolopyrrole-organic-nanoparticles-with-amplifying-photothermal-effect-for-cancer-therapy
#14
Pingping Liang, Qianyun Tang, Yu Cai, Gongyuan Liu, Weili Si, Jinjun Shao, Wei Huang, Qi Zhang, Xiaochen Dong
Organic nanoparticles (NPs) with near-infrared absorbance possess high photothermal conversion (PTC) efficiency and an excellent photoacoustic signal, presenting a great prospect for photoacoustic imaging (PAI)-guided photothermal therapy (PTT). Herein, a novel diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative (DPPCN-Fc) is synthesized for use as a PTT agent with PAI performance. Due to photo-induced electron transfer (PET), the two flanked ferrocene moieties significantly quench the radiative decay and intersystem crossing process, resulting in an enhanced nonradiative transition, and an amplifying photothermal effect is observed...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155957/identification-of-cells-expressing-olfm4-and-lgr5-mrna-by-in-situ-hybridization-in-the-yolk-sac-and-small-intestine-of-embryonic-and-early-post-hatch-chicks
#15
H Zhang, E A Wong
The chicken yolk sac (YS) and small intestine are essential for nutrient absorption during the pre-hatch and post-hatch periods, respectively. Absorptive enterocytes and secretory cells line the intestinal villi and originate from stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. Similarly, in the YS, there are absorptive and secretory cells that presumably originate from a stem cell population. Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) and olfactomedin 4 (Olfm4) are 2 widely used markers for intestinal stem cells...
November 15, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142217/fbxo32-promotes-microenvironment-underlying-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-ctbp1-during-tumour-metastasis-and-brain-development
#16
Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu, Neha Tiwari, Abhijeet Pataskar, Yuan Zhuang, Marina Borisova, Mustafa Diken, Susanne Strand, Petra Beli, Vijay K Tiwari
The set of events that convert adherent epithelial cells into migratory cells are collectively known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is involved during development, for example, in triggering neural crest migration, and in pathogenesis such as metastasis. Here we discover FBXO32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to be critical for hallmark gene expression and phenotypic changes underlying EMT. Interestingly, FBXO32 directly ubiquitinates CtBP1, which is required for its stability and nuclear retention...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141874/s100a4-amplifies-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-a-pleural-mesothelial-cell-line
#17
Qian Ning, Feiyan Li, Lei Wang, Hong Li, Yan Yao, Tinghua Hu, Zhongmin Sun
Pleural fibrosis can dramatically lower the quality of life. Numerous studies have reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanism is inadequately understood. Fibroblast-specific protein-1 (S100A4) is a target of TGF-β signaling. In our previous study, we have reported that S100A4 is highly expressed in pleural fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that S100A4 took part in the TGF-β-induced EMT in pleural fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139621/paneth-and-intestinal-stem-cells-preserve-their-functional-integrity-during-worsening-of-acute-cellular-rejection-in-small-bowel-transplantation
#18
M Pucci Molineris, V Gonzalez Polo, F Perez, D Ramisch, M Rumbo, G E Gondolesi, D Meier
Graft survival after small bowel transplantation remains impaired due to acute cellular rejection (ACR), the leading cause of graft loss. Although it was shown that the number of enteroendocrine progenitor cells in intestinal crypts was reduced during mild ACR, no results of Paneth and intestinal stem cells localized at the crypt bottom have been shown so far. Therefore, we wanted to elucidate integrity and functionality of the Paneth and stem cells during different degrees of ACR, and to assess whether these cells are the primary targets of the rejection process...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109539/controllable-molecular-motors-engineered-from-myosin-and-rna
#19
Tosan Omabegho, Pinar S Gurel, Clarence Y Cheng, Laura Y Kim, Paul V Ruijgrok, Rhiju Das, Gregory M Alushin, Zev Bryant
Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure-function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems (1) or in living cells (2) . Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors (3-5) and modified natural protein motors (6-10) have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities...
November 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101245/area-specific-regulation-of-quiescent-neural-stem-cells-by-notch3-in-the-adult-mouse-subependymal-zone
#20
Hiroki Kawai, Daichi Kawaguchi, Benjamin D Kuebrich, Takeo Kitamoto, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Yukiko Gotoh, Shohei Furutachi
In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new neurons throughout lifetime. The balance between quiescence and active cell division among NSCs is crucial in producing appropriate numbers of neurons while maintaining the stem cell pool for a long period. The Notch signaling pathway plays a central role in both maintaining quiescent NSCs (qNSCs) and promoting cell division of active NSCs (aNSCs), although it remains elusive how this pathway regulates these apparently opposite functions. Notch1 has been shown to promote proliferation of aNSCs without affecting qNSCs in the adult mouse subependymal zone (SEZ)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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