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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048375/construction-of-a-bivalent-thrombin-binding-aptamer-and-its-antidote-with-improved-properties
#1
Quintin W Hughes, Bao T Le, Grace Gilmore, Ross I Baker, Rakesh N Veedu
Aptamers are short synthetic DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that adopt secondary and tertiary conformations based on Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions and can be used to target a range of different molecules. Two aptamers, HD1 and HD22, that bind to exosites I and II of the human thrombin molecule, respectively, have been extensively studied due to their anticoagulant potentials. However, a fundamental issue preventing the clinical translation of many aptamers is degradation by nucleases and reduced pharmacokinetic properties requiring higher dosing regimens more often...
October 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045475/association-between-rna-binding-protein-ptbp2-and-germ-cell-injury-in-an-experimentally-induced-unilateral-cryptorchidism-murine-model
#2
Xianming Dou, Jingjing Gao, Pan Gao, Dongdong Tang, Dangwei Peng, Jun Mao, Zhenyu Huang, Peng Chen, He Chen, Shengwei Ke, Chaozhao Liang, Xiansheng Zhang
RNA binding protein polypyrimidine tract binding protein 2 (Ptbp2) as a key alternative splicing regulator for male germ cell development is well established. However, its expression levels and role in cryptorchidism testes tissues has not been explored. Additionally, the molecular mechanism of heat stress impacts the correct proliferation and differentiation of germ cells is unclear. To investigate whether changes in Ptbp2 expression are correlated with heat stress-induced germ cell injury in testicular tissue, we used a murine model of intraperitoneal cryptorchidism with surgical operation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044697/atrae1-is-involved-in-degradation-of-aba-receptor-rcar1-and-negatively-regulates-aba-signaling-in-arabidopsis
#3
Dekuan Li, Liang Zhang, Xiaoyi Li, Xiangge Kong, Xiaoyu Wang, Ying Li, Zhibin Liu, Jianmei Wang, Xufeng Li, Yi Yang
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in regulating plant growth, development and adaption to various environmental stresses. Regulatory components of ABA receptors (RCARs, also known as PYR/PYLs) sense ABA and initiate ABA signaling through inhibiting the activities of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) in Arabidopsis. However, the way in which ABA receptors are regulated is not well known. A DWD protein AtRAE1 (for RNA export factor 1 in Arabidopsis), which may act as a substrate receptor of CUL4-DDB1 E3 ligase, is an interacting partner of RCAR1/PYL9...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043327/stacking-interactions-involving-non-watson-crick-basepairs-dispersion-corrected-density-functional-theory-studies
#4
Satyabrata Maiti, Dhananjay Bhattacharyya
The G:A basepair, stabilized by hydrogen bonding through the sugar edge of guanine and Hoogsteen edge of adenine in trans orientation (G:A S:HT), appears very frequently in the solved RNA structures and is very stable. We have carried out stacking energy analyses of two sequences, namely C:G W:WC::G:A S:HT and G:C W:WC::G:A S:HT (':' represents basepairing and '::' represents stacking interactions), formed by this non-Watson-Crick basepair, by DFT-D. We have scanned nearly the complete phase space by modeling structures of these sequences using different values of the basepair orientation parameters to determine the most stable conformations...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042774/reductive-nanocomplex-encapsulation-of-crgd-sirna-conjugates-for-enhanced-targeting-to-cancer-cells
#5
Zhaoxiu Zhou, Shuang Liu, Yanfen Zhang, Xiantao Yang, Yuan Ma, Zhu Guan, Yun Wu, Lihe Zhang, Zhenjun Yang
In this study, through covalent conjugation and lipid material entrapment, a combined modification strategy was established for effective delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Single strands of siRNA targeting to BRAF(V600E) gene (siMB3) conjugated with cRGD peptide at 3'-terminus or 5'-terminus via cleavable disulfide bond was synthesized and then annealed with corresponding strands to obtain single and bis-cRGD-siRNA conjugates. A cationic lipid material (CLD) developed by our laboratory was mixed with the conjugates to generate nanocomplexes; their uniformity and electrical property were revealed by particle size and zeta potential measurement...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042409/recq-like-helicases-sgs1-and-blm-regulate-r-loop-associated-genome-instability
#6
Emily Yun-Chia Chang, Carolina A Novoa, Maria J Aristizabal, Yan Coulombe, Romulo Segovia, Richa Chaturvedi, Yaoqing Shen, Christelle Keong, Annie S Tam, Steven J M Jones, Jean-Yves Masson, Michael S Kobor, Peter C Stirling
Sgs1, the orthologue of human Bloom's syndrome helicase BLM, is a yeast DNA helicase functioning in DNA replication and repair. We show that SGS1 loss increases R-loop accumulation and sensitizes cells to transcription-replication collisions. Yeast lacking SGS1 accumulate R-loops and γ-H2A at sites of Sgs1 binding, replication pausing regions, and long genes. The mutation signature of sgs1Δ reveals copy number changes flanked by repetitive regions with high R-loop-forming potential. Analysis of BLM in Bloom's syndrome fibroblasts or by depletion of BLM from human cancer cells confirms a role for Sgs1/BLM in suppressing R-loop-associated genome instability across species...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040738/nf90-nf45-is-a-selective-rna-chaperone-that-rearranges-viral-and-cellular-riboswitches-biochemical-analysis-of-a-virus-host-factor-activity
#7
Tobias Schmidt, Susann Friedrich, Ralph Peter Golbik, Sven-Erik Behrens
The heterodimer NF90-NF45 is an RNA-binding protein complex that modulates the expression of various cellular mRNAs on the post-transcriptional level. Furthermore, it acts as a host factor that supports the replication of several RNA viruses. The molecular mechanisms underlying these activities have yet to be elucidated. Recently, we showed that the RNA-binding capabilities and binding specificity of NF90 considerably improves when it forms a complex with NF45. Here, we demonstrate that NF90 has a substrate-selective RNA chaperone activity (RCA) involving RNA annealing and strand displacement activities...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040648/molecular-basis-for-asymmetry-sensing-of-sirnas-by-the-drosophila-loqs-pd-dcr-2-complex-in-rna-interference
#8
Jan-Niklas Tants, Stephanie Fesser, Thomas Kern, Ralf Stehle, Arie Geerlof, Christoph Wunderlich, Michael Juen, Christoph Hartlmüller, Romy Böttcher, Stefan Kunzelmann, Oliver Lange, Christoph Kreutz, Klaus Förstemann, Michael Sattler
RNA interference defends against RNA viruses and retro-elements within an organism's genome. It is triggered by duplex siRNAs, of which one strand is selected to confer sequence-specificity to the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). In Drosophila, Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) and the double-stranded RNA binding domain (dsRBD) protein R2D2 form the RISC loading complex (RLC) and select one strand of exogenous siRNAs according to the relative thermodynamic stability of base-pairing at either end. Through genome editing we demonstrate that Loqs-PD, the Drosophila homolog of human TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) and a paralog of R2D2, forms an alternative RLC with Dcr-2 that is required for strand choice of endogenous siRNAs in S2 cells...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039931/profiling-cytidine-acetylation-with-specific-affinity-and-reactivity
#9
Wilson R Sinclair, Daniel Arango, Jonathan H Shrimp, Thomas T Zengeya, Justin M Thomas, David C Montgomery, Stephen D Fox, Thorkell Andresson, Shalini Oberdoerffer, Jordan L Meier
The human acetyltransferase NAT10 has recently been shown to catalyze formation of N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C), a minor nucleobase known to alter RNA structure and function. In order to better understand the role of RNA acetyltransferases in biology and disease, here we report the development and application of chemical methods to study ac4C. First, we demonstrate that ac4C can be conjugated to carrier proteins using optimized protocols. Next, we describe methods to access ac4C-containing RNAs, enabling the screening of anti-ac4C antibodies...
October 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039643/exploring-the-ph-sensitivity-of-poly-allylamine-phosphate-supramolecular-nanocarriers-for-intracellular-sirna-delivery
#10
Patrizia Andreozzi, Eleftheria Diamanti, Karen Rapp Py-Daniel, Paolin Rocio Cáceres-Vélez, Chiara Martinelli, Nikolaos Politakos, Ane Escobar, Marco Muzi Falconi, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo, Sergio Moya
Silencing RNA (siRNA) technologies emerge as a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of multiple diseases. An ideal nanocarrier (NC) for siRNAs should be stable at physiological pH and release siRNAs in acidic endosomal pH, fulfilling siRNA delivery only inside cells. Here, we show a novel application of polyamine phosphate NCs (PANs) based on their capacity to load negatively charged nucleic acids and their pH stability. PANs are fabricated by complexation of phosphate anions from phosphate buffer solution (PB) with the amine groups of poly(allylamine) hydrochloride as carriers for siRNAs...
October 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038488/mcm2-regulated-functional-networks-in-lung-cancer-by-multi-dimensional-proteomic-approach
#11
Chantal Hoi Yin Cheung, Chia-Lang Hsu, Kai-Pu Chen, Siao-Ting Chong, Chang-Hsun Wu, Hsuan-Cheng Huang, Hsueh-Fen Juan
DNA replication control is vital for maintaining genome stability and the cell cycle, perhaps most notably during cell division. Malignancies often exhibit defective minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2), a cancer proliferation biomarker that serves as a licensing factor in the initiation of DNA replication. MCM2 is also known to be one of the ATPase active sites that facilitates conformational changes and drives DNA unwinding at the origin of DNA replication. However, the biological networks of MCM2 in lung cancer cells via protein phosphorylation remain unmapped...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038169/low-dose-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation-deregulates-the-brain-specific-mir-134-in-interventional-cardiologists
#12
Andrea Borghini, Cecilia Vecoli, Antonella Mercuri, Clara Carpeggiani, Emanuela Piccaluga, Giulio Guagliumi, Eugenio Picano, Maria Grazia Andreassi
In recent years, there has been a growing concern about the health risks for contemporary interventional cardiologists who have a high and unprecedented levels of occupational ionizing radiation (IR) exposure.microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short and highly conserved non-coding RNA molecules (~22 nucleotides), have been shown to become dysregulated in many human diseases.The stability and tissue specificity of circulating miRNAs make them ideal biomarkers to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between chronic low-dose radiation exposure and potential disease risk...
October 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036456/role-of-free-dna-ends-and-protospacer-adjacent-motifs-for-crispr-dna-uptake-in-pyrococcus-furiosus
#13
Masami Shiimori, Sandra C Garrett, Dwain P Chambers, Claiborne V C Glover, Brenton R Graveley, Michael P Terns
To acquire CRISPR-Cas immunity against invasive mobile genetic elements, prokaryotes must first integrate fragments of foreign DNA into their genomic CRISPR arrays for use in future invader silencing. Here, we found that the hyperthermophilic archaeaon, Pyrococcus furiosus, actively incorporates DNA fragments (spacers) from both plasmid (foreign) and host genome (self) sequences into its seven CRISPR loci. The majority of new spacers were derived from DNA immediately downstream from a 5'-CCN-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) that is critical for invader targeting...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035868/comparative-analysis-of-codon-usage-pattern-and-its-influencing-factors-in-schistosoma-japonicum-and-ascaris-suum
#14
Gulshana A Mazumder, Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Schistosoma japonicum and Ascaris suum are considered as the major parasites of human which cause various life threatening diseases such as schistomiasis and ascariasis. The codon usage bias (CUB) is known as the phenomenon of more usage of a specific codon than the other synonymous codons for an amino acid. The factors that influence the codon usage bias are mutation pressure, natural selection, gene expression, gene length, GC content, RNA stability, recombination rates, codon position etc. Here we had used various bioinformatic tools and statistical analyses to understand the compositional features, expression level and codon usage bias in the genes of these two species...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035529/md-and-qm-mm-study-of-the-quaternary-hutp-homohexamer-complex-with-mrna-l-histidine-ligand-and-mg-2
#15
Pavlína Pokorná, Miroslav Krepl, Holger Kruse, Jiri Sponer
The HutP protein from B. subtilis regulates histidine metabolism by interacting with an antiterminator mRNA hairpin in response to the binding of L-histidine and Mg(2+). We studied the functional ligand-bound HutP hexamer complexed with two mRNAs using all-atom micro-second-scale explicit-solvent MD simulations performed with the Amber force fields. The experimentally observed protein-RNA interface exhibited good structural stability in the simulations with the exception of some fluctuations in an unusual adenine-threonine interaction involving two closely-spaced H-bonds...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035162/effects-of-osmolytes-on-stable-uucg-tetraloops-and-their-preference-for-a-cg-closing-base-pair
#16
Michelle E Whittum, Joshua M Blose
Osmolytes have the potential to affect the stability of secondary structure motifs and alter preferences for conserved nucleic acid sequences in the cell. To contribute to the understanding of the in vivo function of RNA we observed the effects of different classes of osmolytes on the UNCG tetraloop motif. UNCG tetraloops are the most common and stable of the RNA tetraloops and are nucleation sites for RNA folding. They also have a significant thermodynamic preference for a CG closing base pair. The thermal denaturation of model hairpins containing UUCG loops was monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy in the presence of osmolytes with different chemical properties...
October 16, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034944/power-of-protein-trna-functional-assembly-against-aberrant-aggregation
#17
Charles Bou-Nader, Ludovic Pecqueur, David Cornu, Murielle Lombard, Manuela Dezi, Magali Nicaise, Christophe Velours, Marc Fontecave, Djemel Hamdane
Understanding the mechanisms of protein oligomerization and aggregation is a major concern for biotechnology and medical purposes. However, significant challenges remain in determining the mechanism of formation of these superstructures and the environmental factors that can precisely modulate them. Notably the role that a functional ligand plays in the process of protein aggregation is largely unexplored. We herein address these issues with an original flavin-dependent RNA methyltransferase (TrmFO) used as a protein model since this protein employs a complex set of cofactors and ligands for catalysis...
October 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034245/handshakes-and-fights-the-regulatory-interplay-of-rna-binding-proteins
#18
REVIEW
Erik Dassi
What drives the flow of signals controlling the outcome of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression? This regulatory layer, presiding to processes ranging from splicing to mRNA stability and localization, is a key determinant of protein levels and thus cell phenotypes. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) form a remarkable army of post-transcriptional regulators, strong of more than 1,500 genes implementing this expression fine-tuning plan and implicated in both cell physiology and pathology. RBPs can bind and control a wide array of RNA targets...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034140/regulation-of-gene-expression-by-translation-factor-eif5a-hypusine-modified-eif5a-enhances-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-in-human-cells
#19
Mainul Hoque, Ji Yeon Park, Yun-Juan Chang, Augusto D Luchessi, Tavane D Cambiaghi, Raghavendra Shamanna, Hartmut M Hanauske-Abel, Bart Holland, Tsafi Pe'ery, Bin Tian, Michael B Mathews
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) couples protein synthesis to mRNA turnover. It eliminates defective transcripts and controls the abundance of certain normal mRNAs. Our study establishes a connection between NMD and the translation factor eIF5A (eukaryotic initiation factor 5A) in human cells. eIF5A modulates the synthesis of groups of proteins (the eIF5A regulon), and undergoes a distinctive two-step post-translational modification (hypusination) catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase...
2017: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032448/effect-of-single-residue-bulges-on-rna-double-helical-structures-crystallographic-database-analysis-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-studies
#20
Angana Ray, Ankita Agarwal, Dhananjay Bhattacharyya
Asymmetric bulge loop motifs are widely dispersed in all types of functional RNAs. They are frequently occurring structural motifs in folded RNA structures and appear commonly in pre-microRNA and ribosomes, where they are involved in specific RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions. It is therefore necessary to understand such motifs from a structural point of view. We analyzed all available RNA structures and identified quite a few fragments of double helices that contain bulges. We found that these discontinuities often introduce kinks into the double helices, which also affects the stacking overlap between the base pairs across the irregularity...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
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