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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335403/comparison-of-faunal-scavenging-of-submerged-carrion-in-two-seasons-at-a-depth-of-170-m-in-the-strait-of-georgia-british-columbia
#1
Gail S Anderson, Lynne S Bell
The taphonomy of carcasses submerged in the ocean is little understood, yet it is extremely important ecologically and forensically. The objectives of this study were to determine the fate of pig carcasses as human proxies in the Strait of Georgia at 170 m in spring and fall. Using Ocean Networks Canada's Victoria Experimental Network Underseas (VENUS) observatory, two carcasses per season were placed under a cabled platform hosting a webcam and instruments measuring water chemistry. Two minutes of video were recorded every 15 min...
March 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323483/taphonomy-of-microbial-biosignatures-in-spring-deposits-a-comparison-of-modern-quaternary-and-jurassic-examples
#2
Sally L Potter-McIntyre, Jason Williams, Charity Phillips-Lander, Laura O'Connell
On Earth, microorganisms commonly enhance mineral precipitation and mediate mineralogical and chemical compositions of resulting deposits, particularly at spring systems. However, preservation of any type of microbial fossil or chemical or textural biosignature depends on the degree of alteration during diagenesis and factors such as exposure to diagenetic fluids. Little is known about the transformation of biosignatures during diagenesis over geologic time. Ten Mile Graben, Utah, USA, hosts a cold spring system that is an exceptional site for evaluation of diagenetic alteration of biosignatures because of the presence of modern springs with actively precipitating microbial mats and a series of progressively older tufa terraces (<400 ka) preserved in the area from the same spring system...
March 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230893/the-effect-of-body-mass-on-outdoor-adult-human-decomposition
#3
Lindsey G Roberts, Jessica R Spencer, Gretchen R Dabbs
Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111481/taphonomy-and-palaeoecology-of-late-triassic-carnian-ammonoid-concentrations-from-the-taurus-mountains-turkey
#4
Susanne Mayrhofer, Alexander Lukeneder, Leopold Krystyn
The deposits of the Carnian Kasımlar Formation within the Taurus Platform Units of south-western Turkey represent an important archive of a Late Triassic ecosystem. New palaeontological information was obtained by analysing the Kasimlarceltites mass occurrence, located within the Kasımlar Formation and named after the Lower Carnian (Julian) ammonoid genus Kasimlarceltites. This is the dominant taxon (> 94%) within the mass occurrence: nearly 775 million ammonoids and 50 million gastropods were extrapolated for the whole extension (at least 5 km(2)) of the Kasimlarceltites beds...
January 2017: Lethaia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105632/the-micro-taphonomy-of-cold-differential-microcracking-in-response-to-experimental-cold-stresses
#5
Chantal Turpin
Cold is a central feature of environments at higher latitudes and elevations. Thus, cold-induced taphonomic changes are relevant in many forensic contexts. Fifty-two lamb bone segments were used to assess the impact of cold, freeze-thaw cycles, freeze-drying, and water immersion on microstructural cracking of bone in a series of controlled exposure experiments. For each bone segment, three thin sections were examined under a light microscope. Cold exposure caused taphonomic changes in the form of microscopic cracking...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063179/integrated-carbon-sulfur-and-nitrogen-isotope-chemostratigraphy-of-the-ediacaran-lantian-formation-in-south-china-spatial-gradient-ocean-redox-oscillation-and-fossil-distribution
#6
W Wang, C Guan, C Zhou, Y Peng, L M Pratt, X Chen, L Chen, Z Chen, X Yuan, S Xiao
The Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in South China is a prime target for geobiological investigation because it offers opportunities to integrate chemostratigraphic and paleobiological data. Previous studies were mostly focused on successions in shallow-water shelf facies, but data from deep-water successions are needed to fully understand basinal redox structures. Here, we report δ(13) Ccarb , δ(13) Corg , δ(34) Spyr , δ(34) SCAS , and δ(15) Nsed data from a drill core of the fossiliferous Lantian Formation, which is a deep-water equivalent of the Doushantuo Formation...
January 6, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035474/technical-note-early-post-mortem-changes-of-human-bone-in-taphonomy-with-%C3%AE-ct
#7
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Xavier Demondion, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018620/minerals-in-the-gut-scoping-a-cambrian-digestive-system
#8
K M Strang, H A Armstrong, D A T Harper
The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte of North Greenland contains the first exceptionally preserved mat-ground community of the Cambrian, dominated, in terms of abundance, by trilobites but particularly characterized by iconic arthropods and lobopods, some also occurring in the Burgess shale. High-resolution photography, scanning electron imaging and elemental mapping have been carried out on a variety of specimens of the non-mineralized arthropod Campanamuta mantonae (Budd 2011 J. Syst. Palaeontol.9, 217-260 (doi:10...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983518/impacts-of-curatorial-and-research-practices-on-the-preservation-of-fossil-hominid-remains
#9
Adeline Le Cabec, Michel Toussaint
Fossil remains are the only physical evidence of past forms of life which researchers can use to study the evolutionary biology of a species, especially regarding the human lineage. We review and consider the way in which the conditions surrounding a fossil's discovery and its use for scientific research impacts its long-term preservation. The deterioration of the body starts soon after death, continues in the sediments and only a subsample of the anatomical elements will persist and may finally be unearthed by archeologists...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941095/100-million-year-old-conifer-tissues-from-the-mid-cretaceous-amber-of-charente-western-france-revealed-by-synchrotron-microtomography
#10
Jean-David Moreau, Didier Néraudeau, Vincent Perrichot, Paul Tafforeau
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Terrestrial plant remains in fossilized tree resin are relatively common. However, histology and preservation of plants entombed in Cretaceous ambers remain poorly known. We report an exquisitely preserved conifer leafy axis from 100-million-year-old opaque amber of western France that is assignable to Glenrosa carentonensis Moreau, Néraudeau, Tafforeau & Dépré. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the taphonomy and the use of microtomography for studies of palaeobotanical remains in amber...
January 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886245/early-evidence-of-stone-tool-use-in-bone-working-activities-at-qesem-cave-israel
#11
Andrea Zupancich, Stella Nunziante-Cesaro, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, Emanuela Cristiani, Flavia Venditti, Cristina Lemorini, Ran Barkai, Avi Gopher
For a long while, the controversy surrounding several bone tools coming from pre-Upper Palaeolithic contexts favoured the view of Homo sapiens as the only species of the genus Homo capable of modifying animal bones into specialised tools. However, evidence such as South African Early Stone Age modified bones, European Lower Palaeolithic flaked bone tools, along with Middle and Late Pleistocene bone retouchers, led to a re-evaluation of the conception of Homo sapiens as the exclusive manufacturer of specialised bone tools...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853117/assessing-the-archaeoparasitological-potential-of-quids-as-a-source-material-for-immunodiagnostic-analyses
#12
Johnica J Morrow, Karl J Reinhard
In the present study, quids from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to ELISA tests for 2 protozoan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii (n=45) and Trypanosoma cruzi (n=43). The people who occupied CMC, the Loma San Gabriel, lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The known pathoecology of these people puts them into at-risk categories for the transmission of T. gondii and T. cruzi. Human antibodies created in response to these 2 parasites can be detected in modern saliva using ELISA kits intended for use with human serum...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845415/impact-of-small-scale-vegetation-structure-on-tephra-layer-preservation
#13
Nick A Cutler, Olivia M Shears, Richard T Streeter, Andrew J Dugmore
The factors that influence tephra layer taphonomy are poorly understood, but vegetation cover is likely to play a role in the preservation of terrestrial tephra deposits. The impact of vegetation on tephra layer preservation is important because: 1) the morphology of tephra layers could record key characteristics of past land surfaces and 2) vegetation-driven variability in tephra thickness could affect attempts to infer eruption and dispersion parameters. We investigated small- (metre-) scale interactions between vegetation and a thin (<10 cm), recent tephra layer...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678125/lake-sedimentary-dna-accurately-records-20-th-century-introductions-of-exotic-conifers-in-scotland
#14
Per Sjögren, Mary E Edwards, Ludovic Gielly, Catherine T Langdon, Ian W Croudace, Marie Kristine Føreid Merkel, Thierry Fonville, Inger Greve Alsos
Sedimentary DNA (sedDNA) has recently emerged as a new proxy for reconstructing past vegetation, but its taphonomy, source area and representation biases need better assessment. We investigated how sedDNA in recent sediments of two small Scottish lakes reflects a major vegetation change, using well-documented 20(th) Century plantations of exotic conifers as an experimental system. We used next-generation sequencing to barcode sedDNA retrieved from subrecent lake sediments. For comparison, pollen was analysed from the same samples...
January 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647420/x-rays-and-virtual-taphonomy-resolve-the-first-cissus-vitaceae-macrofossils-from-africa-as-early-diverging-members-of-the-genus
#15
Neil F Adams, Margaret E Collinson, Selena Y Smith, Marion K Bamford, Félix Forest, Panagiota Malakasi, Federica Marone, Dan Sykes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fossilized seeds similar to Cissus (Vitaceae) have been recognized from the Miocene of Kenya, though some were previously assigned to the Menispermaceae. We undertook a comparative survey of extant African Cissus seeds to identify the fossils and consider their implications for the evolution and biogeography of Cissus and for African early Miocene paleoenvironments. METHODS: Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) were used to study seed morphology and anatomy...
September 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501076/beyond-taphonomy-exploring-craniometric-variation-among-anatomical-material
#16
Joseph T Hefner, Brian F Spatola, Nicholas V Passalacqua, Timothy P Gocha
Anatomical crania are occasionally encountered in forensic anthropology laboratories when that material is mistaken for forensically significant human remains. Using craniometric analyses and statistical measures of sample homogeneity, we determine whether anatomical material can be described as a single, homogenous group or as a diverse mix of populations. Twenty-one interlandmark distances were collected from 85 anatomical preparations. Distance measures were calculated between all pairs using a pooled within-sample variance/covariance matrix and then subjected to a Defrise-Gussenhoven test between each paired distance to test whether each pair was drawn randomly from the same population...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499814/systematics-phylogeny-and-taphonomy-of-ghost-shrimps-decapoda-a-perspective-from-the-fossil-record
#17
Matúš Hyžný, Adiël A Klompmaker
Ghost shrimps of Callianassidae and Ctenochelidae are soft-bodied, usually heterochelous decapods representing major bioturbators of muddy and sandy (sub)marine substrates. Ghost shrimps have a robust fossil record spanning from the Early Cretaceous (~ 133 Ma) to the Holocene and their remains are present in most assemblages of Cenozoic decapod crustaceans. Their taxonomic interpretation is in flux, mainly because the generic assignment is hindered by their insufficient preservation and disagreement in the biological classification...
December 2015: Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499556/fossilization-of-melanosomes-via-sulfurization
#18
Maria E McNamara, Bart E van Dongen, Nick P Lockyer, Ian D Bull, Patrick J Orr
Fossil melanin granules (melanosomes) are an important resource for inferring the evolutionary history of colour and its functions in animals. The taphonomy of melanin and melanosomes, however, is incompletely understood. In particular, the chemical processes responsible for melanosome preservation have not been investigated. As a result, the origins of sulfur-bearing compounds in fossil melanosomes are difficult to resolve. This has implications for interpretations of original colour in fossils based on potential sulfur-rich phaeomelanosomes...
May 2016: Palaeontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441102/new-occurrences-of-fossilized-feathers-systematics-and-taphonomy-of-the-santana-formation-of-the-araripe-basin-cretaceous-ne-brazil
#19
Gustavo M E M Prado, Luiz Eduardo Anelli, Setembrino Petri, Guilherme Raffaeli Romero
Here we describe three fossil feathers from the Early Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe Basin, Brazil. Feathers are the most complex multiform vertebrate integuments; they perform different functions, occurring in both avian and non-avian dinosaurs. Despite their rarity, fossil feathers have been found across the world. Most of the Brazilian feather fossil record comes from the Santana Formation. This formation is composed of two members: Crato (lake) and Romualdo (lagoon); both of which are predominantly reduced deposits, precluding bottom dwelling organisms, resulting in exceptional preservation of the fossils...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381450/neandertal-cannibalism-and-neandertal-bones-used-as-tools-in-northern-europe
#20
Hélène Rougier, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Cédric Beauval, Cosimo Posth, Damien Flas, Christoph Wißing, Anja Furtwängler, Mietje Germonpré, Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Patrick Semal, Johannes van der Plicht, Hervé Bocherens, Johannes Krause
Almost 150 years after the first identification of Neandertal skeletal material, the cognitive and symbolic abilities of these populations remain a subject of intense debate. We present 99 new Neandertal remains from the Troisième caverne of Goyet (Belgium) dated to 40,500-45,500 calBP. The remains were identified through a multidisciplinary study that combines morphometrics, taphonomy, stable isotopes, radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses. The Goyet Neandertal bones show distinctive anthropogenic modifications, which provides clear evidence for butchery activities as well as four bones having been used for retouching stone tools...
July 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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