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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721556/using-taphonomy-to-infer-differences-in-soft-tissues-between-taxa-an-example-using-basal-and-derived-forms-of-solnhofen-pterosaurs
#1
S R Beardmore, E Lawlor, D W E Hone
In fossilised vertebrates, the presence of soft tissues is the most obvious way to determine aspects of anatomy and functional morphology; however, occurrences are rare and other lines of evidence must be sought to indicate its extent and strength. For example, pterosaurs possessed a large wing membrane that enabled powered flight but other tissues are not widely preserved. A semi-quantitative analysis comparing skeletal articulation and completeness of the pterodactyloid Pterodactylus and non-pterodactyloid pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus from Solnhofen-type deposits implies there were anatomical differences between soft-tissue structure and attachments articulating skeletal joints of each...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603668/new-data-towards-the-development-of-a-comprehensive-taphonomic-framework-for-the-late-jurassic-cleveland-lloyd-dinosaur-quarry-central-utah
#2
Joseph E Peterson, Jonathan P Warnock, Shawn L Eberhart, Steven R Clawson, Christopher R Noto
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry (CLDQ) is the densest deposit of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs discovered to date. Unlike typical Jurassic bone deposits, it is dominated by the presence of Allosaurus fragilis. Since excavation began in the 1920s, numerous hypotheses have been put forward to explain the taphonomy of CLDQ, including a predator trap, a drought assemblage, and a poison spring. In an effort to reconcile the various interpretations of the quarry and reach a consensus on the depositional history of CLDQ, new data is required to develop a robust taphonomic framework congruent with all available data...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489871/anatomy-taphonomy-and-phylogenetic-implications-of-a-new-specimen-of-eolambia-caroljonesa-dinosauria-ornithopoda-from-the-cedar-mountain-formation-utah-usa
#3
Andrew T McDonald, Terry A Gates, Lindsay E Zanno, Peter J Makovicky
BACKGROUND: Eolambia caroljonesa is the most abundant dinosaur in the lower Cenomanian Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah, and one of the most completely known non-hadrosaurid iguanodontians from North America. In addition to the large holotype and paratype partial skulls, copious remains of skeletally immature individuals, including three bonebeds, have been referred to E. caroljonesa. Nevertheless, aspects of the postcranial anatomy of this taxon, particularly the pelvic girdle, have remained ambiguous due to the lack of associated postcranial material of larger, more mature individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474765/assessment-of-statistical-agreement-of-three-techniques-for-the-study-of-cut-marks-3d-digital-microscope-laser-scanning-confocal-microscopy-and-micro-photogrammetry
#4
Miguel Ángel Maté-González, Julia Aramendi, José Yravedra, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, Diego González-Aguilera, Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo
In the last few years, the study of cut marks on bone surfaces has become fundamental for the interpretation of prehistoric butchery practices. Due to the difficulties in the correct identification of cut marks, many criteria for their description and classification have been suggested. Different techniques, such as three-dimensional digital microscope (3D DM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and micro-photogrammetry (M-PG) have been recently applied to the study of cut marks. Although the 3D DM and LSCM microscopic techniques are the most commonly used for the 3D identification of cut marks, M-PG has also proved to be very efficient and a low-cost method...
September 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449842/critical-issues-in-the-historical-and-contemporary-development-of-forensic-anthropology-in-australia-an-international-comparison
#5
Xanthé Mallett, Martin P Evison
The aim of this brief critical qualitative analysis is to examine the development of forensic anthropology in Australia, at a time of significant change in the discipline. It will briefly summarise its historical establishment, making comparative reference to other regions-particularly the United Kingdom and United States, and the influence of the Bali Bombings of 2002, Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami of 2004 and Black Saturday Bushfires of 2009. The analysis goes on to consider key factors in research in forensic anthropology in the United States, and the development of standards and regulation in the US and UK...
March 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413719/intra-specific-variation-and-allometry-of-the-skull-of-late-cretaceous-side-necked-turtle-bauruemys-elegans-pleurodira-podocnemididae-and-how-to-deal-with-morphometric-data-in-fossil-vertebrates
#6
Thiago F Mariani, Pedro S R Romano
BACKGROUND: Previous quantitative studies on Bauruemys elegans (Suárez, 1969) shell variation, as well as the taphonomic interpretation of its type locality, have suggested that all specimens collected in this locality may have belonged to the same population. We rely on this hypothesis in a morphometric study of the skull. Also, we tentatively assessed the eating preference habits differentiation that might be explained as due to ontogenetic changes. METHODS: We carried out an ANOVA testing 29 linear measurements from 21 skulls of B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397387/a-geochemical-study-of-the-ediacaran-discoidal-fossil-aspidella-preserved-in-limestones-implications-for-its-taphonomy-and-paleoecology
#7
N Bykova, B C Gill, D Grazhdankin, V Rogov, S Xiao
The Ediacara biota features the rise of macroscopic complex life immediately before the Cambrian explosion. One of the most abundant and widely distributed elements of the Ediacara biota is the discoidal fossil Aspidella, which is interpreted as a subsurface holdfast possibly anchoring a frondose epibenthic organism. It is a morphologically simple fossil preserved mainly in siliciclastic rocks, which are unsuitable for comprehensive stable isotope geochemical analyses to decipher its taphonomy and paleoecology...
April 11, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335403/comparison-of-faunal-scavenging-of-submerged-carrion-in-two-seasons-at-a-depth-of-170-m-in-the-strait-of-georgia-british-columbia
#8
Gail S Anderson, Lynne S Bell
The taphonomy of carcasses submerged in the ocean is little understood, yet it is extremely important ecologically and forensically. The objectives of this study were to determine the fate of pig carcasses as human proxies in the Strait of Georgia at 170 m in spring and fall. Using Ocean Networks Canada's Victoria Experimental Network Underseas (VENUS) observatory, two carcasses per season were placed under a cabled platform hosting a webcam and instruments measuring water chemistry. Two minutes of video were recorded every 15 min...
March 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323483/taphonomy-of-microbial-biosignatures-in-spring-deposits-a-comparison-of-modern-quaternary-and-jurassic-examples
#9
Sally L Potter-McIntyre, Jason Williams, Charity Phillips-Lander, Laura O'Connell
On Earth, microorganisms commonly enhance mineral precipitation and mediate mineralogical and chemical compositions of resulting deposits, particularly at spring systems. However, preservation of any type of microbial fossil or chemical or textural biosignature depends on the degree of alteration during diagenesis and factors such as exposure to diagenetic fluids. Little is known about the transformation of biosignatures during diagenesis over geologic time. Ten Mile Graben, Utah, USA, hosts a cold spring system that is an exceptional site for evaluation of diagenetic alteration of biosignatures because of the presence of modern springs with actively precipitating microbial mats and a series of progressively older tufa terraces (<400 ka) preserved in the area from the same spring system...
March 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230893/the-effect-of-body-mass-on-outdoor-adult-human-decomposition
#10
Lindsey G Roberts, Jessica R Spencer, Gretchen R Dabbs
Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111481/taphonomy-and-palaeoecology-of-late-triassic-carnian-ammonoid-concentrations-from-the-taurus-mountains-turkey
#11
Susanne Mayrhofer, Alexander Lukeneder, Leopold Krystyn
The deposits of the Carnian Kasımlar Formation within the Taurus Platform Units of south-western Turkey represent an important archive of a Late Triassic ecosystem. New palaeontological information was obtained by analysing the Kasimlarceltites mass occurrence, located within the Kasımlar Formation and named after the Lower Carnian (Julian) ammonoid genus Kasimlarceltites. This is the dominant taxon (> 94%) within the mass occurrence: nearly 775 million ammonoids and 50 million gastropods were extrapolated for the whole extension (at least 5 km(2)) of the Kasimlarceltites beds...
January 2017: Lethaia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105632/the-micro-taphonomy-of-cold-differential-microcracking-in-response-to-experimental-cold-stresses
#12
Chantal Turpin
Cold is a central feature of environments at higher latitudes and elevations. Thus, cold-induced taphonomic changes are relevant in many forensic contexts. Fifty-two lamb bone segments were used to assess the impact of cold, freeze-thaw cycles, freeze-drying, and water immersion on microstructural cracking of bone in a series of controlled exposure experiments. For each bone segment, three thin sections were examined under a light microscope. Cold exposure caused taphonomic changes in the form of microscopic cracking...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063179/integrated-carbon-sulfur-and-nitrogen-isotope-chemostratigraphy-of-the-ediacaran-lantian-formation-in-south-china-spatial-gradient-ocean-redox-oscillation-and-fossil-distribution
#13
W Wang, C Guan, C Zhou, Y Peng, L M Pratt, X Chen, L Chen, Z Chen, X Yuan, S Xiao
The Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in South China is a prime target for geobiological investigation because it offers opportunities to integrate chemostratigraphic and paleobiological data. Previous studies were mostly focused on successions in shallow-water shelf facies, but data from deep-water successions are needed to fully understand basinal redox structures. Here, we report δ(13) Ccarb , δ(13) Corg , δ(34) Spyr , δ(34) SCAS , and δ(15) Nsed data from a drill core of the fossiliferous Lantian Formation, which is a deep-water equivalent of the Doushantuo Formation...
January 6, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035474/technical-note-early-post-mortem-changes-of-human-bone-in-taphonomy-with-%C3%AE-ct
#14
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Xavier Demondion, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018620/minerals-in-the-gut-scoping-a-cambrian-digestive-system
#15
K M Strang, H A Armstrong, D A T Harper
The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte of North Greenland contains the first exceptionally preserved mat-ground community of the Cambrian, dominated, in terms of abundance, by trilobites but particularly characterized by iconic arthropods and lobopods, some also occurring in the Burgess shale. High-resolution photography, scanning electron imaging and elemental mapping have been carried out on a variety of specimens of the non-mineralized arthropod Campanamuta mantonae (Budd 2011 J. Syst. Palaeontol.9, 217-260 (doi:10...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983518/impacts-of-curatorial-and-research-practices-on-the-preservation-of-fossil-hominid-remains
#16
Adeline Le Cabec, Michel Toussaint
Fossil remains are the only physical evidence of past forms of life which researchers can use to study the evolutionary biology of a species, especially regarding the human lineage. We review and consider the way in which the conditions surrounding a fossil's discovery and its use for scientific research impacts its long-term preservation. The deterioration of the body starts soon after death, continues in the sediments and only a subsample of the anatomical elements will persist and may finally be unearthed by archeologists...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941095/100-million-year-old-conifer-tissues-from-the-mid-cretaceous-amber-of-charente-western-france-revealed-by-synchrotron-microtomography
#17
Jean-David Moreau, Didier Néraudeau, Vincent Perrichot, Paul Tafforeau
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Terrestrial plant remains in fossilized tree resin are relatively common. However, histology and preservation of plants entombed in Cretaceous ambers remain poorly known. We report an exquisitely preserved conifer leafy axis from 100-million-year-old opaque amber of western France that is assignable to Glenrosa carentonensis Moreau, Néraudeau, Tafforeau & Dépré. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the taphonomy and the use of microtomography for studies of palaeobotanical remains in amber...
January 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886245/early-evidence-of-stone-tool-use-in-bone-working-activities-at-qesem-cave-israel
#18
Andrea Zupancich, Stella Nunziante-Cesaro, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, Emanuela Cristiani, Flavia Venditti, Cristina Lemorini, Ran Barkai, Avi Gopher
For a long while, the controversy surrounding several bone tools coming from pre-Upper Palaeolithic contexts favoured the view of Homo sapiens as the only species of the genus Homo capable of modifying animal bones into specialised tools. However, evidence such as South African Early Stone Age modified bones, European Lower Palaeolithic flaked bone tools, along with Middle and Late Pleistocene bone retouchers, led to a re-evaluation of the conception of Homo sapiens as the exclusive manufacturer of specialised bone tools...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853117/assessing-the-archaeoparasitological-potential-of-quids-as-a-source-material-for-immunodiagnostic-analyses
#19
Johnica J Morrow, Karl J Reinhard
In the present study, quids from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to ELISA tests for 2 protozoan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii (n=45) and Trypanosoma cruzi (n=43). The people who occupied CMC, the Loma San Gabriel, lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The known pathoecology of these people puts them into at-risk categories for the transmission of T. gondii and T. cruzi. Human antibodies created in response to these 2 parasites can be detected in modern saliva using ELISA kits intended for use with human serum...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845415/impact-of-small-scale-vegetation-structure-on-tephra-layer-preservation
#20
Nick A Cutler, Olivia M Shears, Richard T Streeter, Andrew J Dugmore
The factors that influence tephra layer taphonomy are poorly understood, but vegetation cover is likely to play a role in the preservation of terrestrial tephra deposits. The impact of vegetation on tephra layer preservation is important because: 1) the morphology of tephra layers could record key characteristics of past land surfaces and 2) vegetation-driven variability in tephra thickness could affect attempts to infer eruption and dispersion parameters. We investigated small- (metre-) scale interactions between vegetation and a thin (<10 cm), recent tephra layer...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
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