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Microbiota and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437527/first-victim-later-aggressor-how-the-intestinal-microbiota-drives-the-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-dietary-emulsifiers
#1
Emilie Viennois, Benoit Chassaing
The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of bacteria, collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. Composed of 500-1000 distinct species, the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in immunity and metabolism. However, alterations in its composition are associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Among many other factors, our diet impacts microbiota composition and function, in either beneficial or detrimental ways...
February 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434314/elevated-circulating-levels-of-succinate-in-human-obesity-are-linked-to-specific-gut-microbiota
#2
Carolina Serena, Victoria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Noelia Keiran, Maria Isabel Queipo-Ortuño, Rosa Bernal, Ricardo Gomez-Huelgas, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Mónica Sabater, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Andres Moya, Francisco J Tinahones, Jose Manuel Fernández-Real, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Gut microbiota-related metabolites are potential clinical biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Circulating succinate, a metabolite produced by both microbiota and the host, is increased in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to analyze systemic levels of succinate in obesity, a major risk factor for CVD, and its relationship with gut microbiome. We explored the association of circulating succinate with specific metagenomic signatures in cross-sectional and prospective cohorts of Caucasian Spanish subjects...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433995/precision-nutrition-for-prevention-and-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Precision nutrition aims to prevent and manage chronic diseases by tailoring dietary interventions or recommendations to one or a combination of an individual's genetic background, metabolic profile, and environmental exposures. Recent advances in genomics, metabolomics, and gut microbiome technologies have offered opportunities as well as challenges in the use of precision nutrition to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes. Nutrigenomics studies have identified genetic variants that influence intake and metabolism of specific nutrients and predict individuals' variability in response to dietary interventions...
February 9, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432772/the-effects-of-synbiotic-supplementation-on-insulin-resistance-sensitivity-lipid-profile-and-total-antioxidant-capacity-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Zohoor Nabhani, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami Hezaveh, Elham Razmpoosh, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari
AIMS: The role of gut microbiota in the management of diabetes is shown. In this randomized clinical trial we assessed the effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin, lipid profile and antioxidative status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Ninety pregnant women with GDM were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either a daily synbiotic capsule - consisting of L.acidophilus, L.plantarum, L.fermentum, L.Gasseri (1.5-7.0×10 9-10 CFU/g) - with fructooligosaccharide (38...
February 9, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429278/-the-relationship-between-gut-microbiota-and-diet-and-nutrition-related-diseases
#5
M Q Wang, Y Li, C H Sun
The human gastro-intestinal tract is not only the habitat of gut microbiota, but also the main place that the body gets available nutrients. Therefore, the gut microbiota of human can be inseparable associated with the human nutrition. The common technologies used among gut microbiota research included metageonomic, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics. The research of gut microbiota based on above omics methods confirmed that diets were the main factors influencing the composition and expression of gut microbiota...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423018/erratum-targeting-gut-microbiota-a-potential-promising-therapy-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#6
Zhonge Chen, Shuishan Zhu, Gaosi Xu
[This corrects the article on p. 4009 in vol. 8, PMID: 27829988.].
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421872/a-perspective-of-advanced-glycation-endproducts-ages-on-human-health
#7
Jer-An Lin, Chi-Hao Wu, Gow-Chin Yen
In the last 20 years, the effects of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) on health have received increasing attention. High AGE levels in the body correlate with the progression of many diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. However, whether AGEs are a cause of these diseases or represent accompanying symptoms of these diseases still needs to be elucidated by more comprehensive research. Recently, many researchers have begun to investigate the effects of AGE intake-induced variations of gut microbiota on disease progression, which will further explain the impact of AGEs on health and open a new chapter in AGE research...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410236/gut-microbiota-and-probiotics-intervention-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-management-of-cardiometabolic-disorders-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Marinaldo Pacífico Cavalcanti Neto, Jailane de Souza Aquino, Larissa de Fátima Romão da Silva, Ruanniere de Oliveira Silva, Keyth Sulamitta de Lima Guimarães, Yohana de Oliveira, Evandro Leite de Souza, Marciane Magnani, Hubert Vidal, José Luiz de Brito Alves
The gut microbiota plays an important role in host metabolism and its dysregulation have been related to cardiometabolic disorders (CMD), such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, as well as to chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The implication of the gut microbiota on systemic disorders has been associated with changes in its composition (dysbiosis) as a result of the oxidative unbalance in the body. This alteration may be the result of the adoption of unhealthy lifestyle behavior, including lack of physical activity and fat- or sugar-rich diets, which are largely associated with increased incidence of CMD and CKD...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397563/insulin-resistance-in-obesity-an-overview-of-fundamental-alterations
#9
REVIEW
Rocco Barazzoni, Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Maurizio Ragni, Enzo Nisoli
Obesity is a major health risk factor, and obesity-induced morbidity and complications account for huge costs for affected individuals, families, healthcare systems, and society at large. In particular, obesity is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance, which in turn plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated cardiometabolic complications, including metabolic syndrome components, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Insulin sensitive tissues, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver, are profoundly affected by obesity both at biomolecular and functional levels...
February 3, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393043/new-determinants-for-gallstone-disease
#10
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh
Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified until now...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391233/effects-of-qijian-mixture-on-type-2-diabetes-assessed-by-metabonomics-gut-microbiota-and-network-pharmacology
#11
Kuo Gao, Ran Yang, Jian Zhang, Zhiyong Wang, Caixia Jia, Feilong Zhang, Shaojing Li, Jinping Wang, Ghulam Murtaza, Hua Xie, Huihui Zhao, Wei Wang, Jianxin Chen
Qijian mixture, a new traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula comprising of Astragalus membranaceus, Ramulus euonymi, Coptis chinensis and Pueraria lobata, was designed to ameliorate the type 2 diabetes (T2D), and its safety and efficacy were evaluated in the research by metabonomics, gut microbiota and system pharmacology. To study the hypoglycemic effect of Qijian mixture, male KKay mice (28-30 g, 8-9 week) and C57/BL6 mice (18-19 g, 8-9 week) were used. Thirty KKay diabetic mice were randomly distributed into 5 groups, abbreviated as Model group (Model), Low Qijian Mixture group (QJM(L)), High Qijian Mixture group (QJM(H)), Chinese Medicine (Gegen Qinlian Decoction) Positive group (GGQL), and Western Medicine (Metformin hydrochloride) Positive group (Metformin)...
January 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384067/interplay-of-gut-microbiota-probiotics-in-obesity-a-review
#12
Ramesh Pothuraju, Raj Kumar Sharma
Excess caloric intake and less energy expenditure (eg. physical inactivity) are associated with acquired metabolic disorders due to sedentary life style. Pharmacological treatments are less effective in preventing obesity. Type of diet influence the gut microbiome alteration and it is interrelated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Modified gut microbiota by the harmful bacterial components (eg: lipopolysaccharides) is linked with the metabolic endotoxemia (low-grade inflammation) which results in damage to the gut barrier function...
January 30, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379988/aberrant-intestinal-microbiota-in-individuals-with-prediabetes
#13
Kristine H Allin, Valentina Tremaroli, Robert Caesar, Benjamin A H Jensen, Mads T F Damgaard, Martin I Bahl, Tine R Licht, Tue H Hansen, Trine Nielsen, Thomas M Dantoft, Allan Linneberg, Torben Jørgensen, Henrik Vestergaard, Karsten Kristiansen, Paul W Franks, Torben Hansen, Fredrik Bäckhed, Oluf Pedersen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota. However, recent studies suggest that metformin alters the composition and functional potential of gut microbiota, thereby interfering with the diabetes-related microbial signatures. We tested whether specific gut microbiota profiles are associated with prediabetes (defined as fasting plasma glucose of 6.1-7.0 mmol/l or HbA1c of 42-48 mmol/mol [6.0-6.5%]) and a range of clinical biomarkers of poor metabolic health...
January 29, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378901/gut-as-an-emerging-organ-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes
#14
Martin Haluzik, Helena Kratochvílová, Denisa Haluzíková, Milos Mraz
Increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its accompanying pathologies such as obesity, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia represents one of the most important challenges of current medicine. Despite intensive efforts, high percentage of patients with type 2 diabetes does not achieve treatment goals and struggle with increasing body weight and poor glucose control. While novel classes of antidiabetic medications such as incretin-based therapies and gliflozins have some favorable characteristics compared to older antidiabetics, the only therapeutic option shown to substantially modify the progression of diabetes or to achieve its remission is bariatric surgery...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378044/impact-of-dietary-fiber-consumption-on-insulin-resistance-and-the-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
Martin O Weickert, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
Large prospective cohort studies consistently show associations of a high dietary fiber intake (>25 g/d in women and >38 g/d in men) with a 20-30% reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), after correction for confounders. It is less well recognized that these effects appear to be mainly driven by high intakes of whole grains and insoluble cereal fibers, which typically are nonviscous and do not relevantly influence postprandial glucose responses [i.e., glycemic index (GI)] or are strongly fermented by the gut microbiota in the colon...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374557/molecular-paths-linking-metabolic-diseases-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-enterobacteria-infections
#16
REVIEW
Matteo Serino
Alterations of both ecology and functions of gut microbiota are conspicuous traits of several inflammatory pathologies, notably metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the proliferation of enterobacteria, subdominant members of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, has been shown to be favoured by western diet, the strongest inducer of both metabolic diseases and gut microbiota dysbiosis. The inner interdependence between the host and the gut microbiota is based on a plethora of molecular mechanisms by which host and intestinal microbes modify each other...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372208/protective-effect-of-rosmarinic-acid-and-carnosic-acid-against-streptozotocin-induced-oxidation-glycation-inflammation-and-microbiota-imbalance-in-diabetic-rats
#17
Juanying Ou, Junqing Huang, Danyue Zhao, Bin Du, Mingfu Wang
This study evaluated the protective effects of two rosemary components, rosmarinic acid (RA) and carnosic acid (CA), against hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and an imbalanced gut microbiota architecture in diabetic rats. Treatment with RA and CA (30 mg kg-1) decreased the levels of fasting plasma glucose (23.7%, 15.6%), total cholesterol (30.4%, 14.1%) and triglyceride (65.7%, 47.8%) at 15 weeks. RA and CA also exhibited an anti-oxidative and anti-glycative effect by lowering the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced glycation end products...
January 26, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356343/metataxonomic-approach-to-decipher-the-polymicrobial-burden-in-diabetic-foot-ulcer-and-its-biofilm-mode-of-infection
#18
Karthika Suryaletha, Joby John, Megha Periyappilly Radhakrishnan, Sanil George, Sabu Thomas
Chronic diabetic foot is a global burden affecting millions of people, and the chronicity of an ulcer is directly linked to the diverse bacterial burden and its biofilm mode of infection. The bacterial diversity of 100 chronic diabetic ulcer samples was profiled via traditional culturing method as well as metagenomic approach by sequencing the 16S rRNA V3 hyper-variable region on Illumina Miseq Platform (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA). All the relevant clinical metadata, including duration of diabetes, grade of ulcer, presence of neuropathy, and glycaemic level, were noted and correlated with the microbiota...
January 22, 2018: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351480/mechanistically-different-effects-of-fat-and-sugar-on-insulin-resistance-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#19
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Lidia Atienza, Josefina Casas, Olga Jáuregui, Susana Amézqueta, Gabriel Dasilva, Isabel Medina, Maria Rosa Nogués, Marta Romeu, Josep Lluís Torres
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are the first manifestations of diet-induced metabolic alterations leading to type-2 diabetes, while hypertension is the deadliest risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The roles of dietary fat and fructose in the development of IR, IGT and hypertension are controversial. We tested the long-term effects of an excess of fat or sucrose (fructose/glucose) on healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fat affects IR and IGT earlier than fructose through low-grade systemic inflammation evidenced by liver inflammatory infiltration, increased levels of plasma interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2 and reduced levels of protective short-chain fatty acids without triggering hypertension...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341448/beneficial-actions-of-microbiota-derived-tryptophan-metabolites
#20
REVIEW
J J Galligan
Tryptophan is an important dietary amino acid and it is the precursor for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the nervous system and by enterochromaffin cells in the gut mucosa. Tryptophan is also metabolized by enzymes in the gut mucosa and also by enzymes produced by the gut microbiome. Diet and the microbiome can contribute to metabolic disease in part by causing intestinal inflammation and increased permeability. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Jennis et al. test the hypothesis that indole tryptophan metabolites produced by gut bacteria might be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic effects of the gut microbiome and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for weight loss by obese patients...
February 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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