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Microbiota and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#1
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725914/vascular-complications-in-diabetes-old-messages-new-thoughts
#2
REVIEW
Josephine M Forbes, Amelia K Fotheringham
In parallel with the growing diabetes pandemic, there is an increasing burden of micro- and macrovascular complications, occurring in the majority of patients. The identification of a number of synergistic accelerators of disease, providing therapeutic pathways, has stabilised the incidence of complications in most western nations. However, the primary instigators of diabetic complications and, thus, prevention strategies, remain elusive. This has necessitated a refocus on natural history studies, where tissue and plasma samples are sequentially taken to determine when and how disease initiates...
July 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724646/association-between-microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-type-2-diabetes
#3
Zhilei Shan, Taoping Sun, Hao Huang, Sijing Chen, Liangkai Chen, Cheng Luo, Wei Yang, Xuefeng Yang, Ping Yao, Jinquan Cheng, Frank B Hu, Liegang Liu
Background: The association of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent metabolite from dietary choline and carnitine, with type 2 diabetes was inconsistent.Objective: We evaluated the association of plasma TMAO with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the potential modification of TMAO-generating enzyme flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) polymorphisms.Design: This was an age- and sex-matched case-control study of 2694 participants: 1346 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes and 1348 controls. Concentrations of plasma TMAO were measured, and FMO3 E158K polymorphisms (rs2266782) were genotyped...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723981/intestinal-microbiota-in-digestive-diseases
#4
Maria do Carmo Friche Passos, Joaquim Prado Moraes-Filho
BACKGROUND: In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis) can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state...
July 6, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713266/significance-of-microbiota-in-obesity-and-metabolic-diseases-and-the-modulatory-potential-by-medicinal-plant-and-food-ingredients
#5
REVIEW
Hoda M Eid, Michelle L Wright, N V Anil Kumar, Abdel Qawasmeh, Sherif T S Hassan, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Atanas G Atanasov, Pierre S Haddad
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713163/microbiota-or-short-chain-fatty-acids-which-regulates-diabetes
#6
Chang H Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708466/a-bidirectional-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-cns-disease-in-a-biphasic-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Sara L Colpitts, Eli J Kasper, Abigail Keever, Caleb Liljenberg, Trevor Kirby, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704648/diabetes-enhances-il-17-expression-and-alters-the-oral-microbiome-to-increase-its-pathogenicity
#8
E Xiao, Marcelo Mattos, Gustavo Henrique Apolinário Vieira, Shanshan Chen, Jôice Dias Corrêa, Yingying Wu, Mayra Laino Albiero, Kyle Bittinger, Dana T Graves
Diabetes is a risk factor for periodontitis, an inflammatory bone disorder and the greatest cause of tooth loss in adults. Diabetes has a significant impact on the gut microbiota; however, studies in the oral cavity have been inconclusive. By 16S rRNA sequencing, we show here that diabetes causes a shift in oral bacterial composition and, by transfer to germ-free mice, that the oral microbiota of diabetic mice is more pathogenic. Furthermore, treatment with IL-17 antibody decreases the pathogenicity of the oral microbiota in diabetic mice; when transferred to recipient germ-free mice, oral microbiota from IL-17-treated donors induced reduced neutrophil recruitment, reduced IL-6 and RANKL, and less bone resorption...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704522/assessment-of-gut-microbiota-populations-in-lean-and-obese-zucker-rats
#9
Reza Hakkak, Soheila Korourian, Steven L Foley, Bruce D Erickson
Obesity has been on the rise in the US and worldwide for the last several decades. Obesity has been associated with chronic disease development, such as certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and liver diseases. Previously, we reported that obesity promotes DMBA-induced mammary tumor development using the obese Zucker rat model. The intestinal microbiota is composed of a diverse population of obligate and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, and these organisms carry out a broad range of metabolic activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704429/effects-of-coconut-oil-on-glycemia-inflammation-and-urogenital-microbial-parameters-in-female-ossabaw-mini-pigs
#10
Annie E Newell-Fugate, Katherine Lenz, Cassandra Skenandore, Romana A Nowak, Bryan A White, Andrea Braundmeier-Fleming
Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD) altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701081/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults
#11
K Lippert, L Kedenko, L Antonielli, I Kedenko, C Gemeier, M Leitner, A Kautzky-Willer, B Paulweber, E Hackl
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have become highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and the human gut microbiota, due to its influence on host energy metabolism, has been attributed an important role therein. This pilot study explores host-microbiota relationships in men and women affected by various types of glucose metabolism disorder. Among 20 individuals aged 58 to 71 years with either normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus the gut bacterial communities were compared based on barcoded 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples...
July 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696041/the-contribution-of-microbial-biotechnology-to-sustainable-development-goals-microbiome-therapies
#12
Paul W O'Toole, Max Paoli
Complex communities of microbes live on and in plants, humans and other animals. These communities are collectively referred to as the microbiota or microbiome. Plants and animals evolved to co-exist with these microbes. In mammals, particular kinds of alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) are associated with loss of health, most likely due to loss of microbial metabolites, signalling molecules, or regulators of host pathways. Modern life-style diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome have been linked to dysbiosis...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683791/in-vivo-administration-of-urolithin-a-and-b-prevents-the-occurrence-of-cardiac-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Monia Savi, Leonardo Bocchi, Pedro Mena, Margherita Dall'Asta, Alan Crozier, Furio Brighenti, Donatella Stilli, Daniele Del Rio
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that specific (poly)phenols may constitute new preventative strategies to counteract cell oxidative stress and myocardial tissue inflammation, which have a key role in the patho-physiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. In a rat model of early diabetes, we evaluated whether in vivo administration of urolithin A (UA) or urolithin B (UB), the main gut microbiota phenolic metabolites of ellagitannin-rich foods, can reduce diabetes-induced microenvironmental changes in myocardial tissue, preventing cardiac functional impairment...
July 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683297/fighting-fire-with-fiber-preventing-t-cell-infiltration-in-diabetes
#14
Sydney Lavoie, Wendy S Garrett
Diet can alter the gut microbiota and shift its production of metabolites, which affect systemic immune function. In Nature Immunology, Mariño et al. (2017) explore diet-gut microbiome interactions in type 1 diabetes and identify mechanisms by which short-chain fatty acids prevent T cell destruction of pancreatic β-cells.
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683295/will-gut-microbiota-help-design-the-next-generation-of-glp-1-based-therapies-for-type-2-diabetes
#15
Sandrine Paule Claus
Glucagon-like peptide one (GLP-1)-based therapies for reducing hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients are efficient, though some individuals develop GLP-1 resistance. In a recent issue of Cell Metabolism, Grasset et al. (2017) demonstrated that GLP-1 sensitivity is modulated by gut bacteria through NO signaling in the enteric nervous system.
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683293/a-specific-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-induces-glp-1-resistance-through-an-enteric-no-dependent-and-gut-brain-axis-mechanism
#16
Estelle Grasset, Anthony Puel, Julie Charpentier, Xavier Collet, Jeffrey E Christensen, François Tercé, Rémy Burcelin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682227/-gut-microbiota-and-efficacy-of-cancer-therapies
#17
Marie Vétizou, Romain Daillère, Laurence Zitvogel
The gut microbiota is known to affect digestion, protection against pathogens infection, immune system maturation and enteric nervous system development, but others links have also been established with diabetes, obesity, autism and cancer. Lately, bacterial species from the gut have been involved in tumor immunosurveillance. Natural or mediated by treatment such as chemotherapy or immunotherapy, anti-tumoral immune responses seem to rely on gut microbiota. The bacteria involved and their mechanisms of action are different according to the treatment of interest...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682223/-gut-microbiota-and-immune-crosstalk-in-metabolic-disease
#18
Rémy Burcelin
The aim of the review is to discuss about the role played by the defence crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system, in the development of metabolic disease focusing on obesity and diabetes. Starting from physiological and pathological stand points and based on the latest published data, this review is addressing how the concept of the hologenome theory of evolution can drive the fate of metabolic disease. The notion of "metabolic infection" to explain the "metabolic inflammation" is discussed...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678867/gut-bacterial-peptides-with-autoimmunity-potential-as-environmental-trigger-for-late-onset-complex-diseases-in-silico-study
#19
Sapna Negi, Harpreet Singh, Anirban Mukhopadhyay
Recent evidences suggest that human gut microbiota with major component as bacteria can induce immunity. It is also known that gut lining depletes with ageing and that there is increased risk of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders with ageing. It is therefore likely that both may be correlated as depletion of gut lining exposes the gut bacterial antigens to host immune mechanisms, which may induce immunity to certain bacterial proteins, but at the same time such immunity may also be auto-immunogenic to host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678744/gut-microbial-profile-analysis-by-miseq-sequencing-of-pancreatic-carcinoma-patients-in-china
#20
Zhigang Ren, Jianwen Jiang, Haiyang Xie, Ang Li, Haifeng Lu, Shaoyan Xu, Lin Zhou, Hua Zhang, Guangying Cui, Xinhua Chen, Yuanxing Liu, Liming Wu, Nan Qin, Ranran Sun, Wei Wang, Lanjuan Li, Weilin Wang, Shusen Zheng
Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is a lethal cancer. Gut microbiota is associated with some risk factors of PC, e.g. obesity and types II diabetes. However, the specific gut microbial profile in clinical PC in China has never been reported. This prospective study collected 85 PC and 57 matched healthy controls (HC) to analyze microbial characteristics by MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that gut microbial diversity was decreased in PC with an unique microbial profile, which partly attributed to its decrease of alpha diversity...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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