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Microbiota and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664215/the-plasma-bile-acid-alterations-of-type-2-diabetes-correlated-with-insulin-secretion-in-two-step-hyperglycemic-clamp
#1
Shujie Wang, Yuying Deng, Xiaoyan Xie, Jing Ma, Min Xu, Xinjie Zhao, Weiqiong Gu, Jie Hong, Weiqing Wang, Guowang Xu, Guang Ning, Yanyun Gu, Yifei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Bile acids (BAs) conduct crucial signals in human metabolism. Correlations between human plasma BA alterations and insulin secretion defects and type 2 diabetes (T2D) progression have been insufficiently studied. This study was performed to explore the trajectories of human plasma BA alterations and their association with the insulin secretion dynamics during a two-step hyperglycemic clamp. METHODS: Eleven healthy (NGT) and 33 drug-naïve T2D subjects (T2Ds) were enrolled to undertake a two-step hyperglycemic clamp...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661926/disruptions-in-gut-microbial-host-co-metabolism-and-the-development-of-metabolic-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
The microbial-mammalian metabolic axis has become recognized as an important component governing the overall homeostatic balance of the mammalian host. Disruption of the state of homeostasis among the gut microbiota has been shown to be causally linked to the development of host metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This disruption is often referred to as gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis leads to altered metabolic products derived from the microbiota and these in turn, typically shift the homeostatic metabolic balance of the host towards a low-grade chronic inflammation, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657308/characteristics-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-adult-patients-with-type-1-and-2-diabetes-based-on-the-analysis-of-a-fragment-of-16s-rrna-gene-using-next-generation-sequencing
#3
Dominika Salamon, Agnieszka Sroka-Oleksiak, Przemysław Kapusta, Magdalena Szopa, Sandra Mrozińska, Agnieszka H Ludwig-Słomczyńska, Paweł P Wołkow, Małgorzata Bulanda, Tomasz Klupa, Maciej T Małecki, Tomasz Gosiewski
INTRODUCTION    Scientific data indicate  a possible influence of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota on the development of type 1 (T1DM) and 2 (T2DM) diabetes. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA identified several hundred bacterial species of the intestinal ecosystem, most of which cannot be cultured. OBJECTIVES    We aimed at evaluating the composition of the gut microbiota in adult patients with T1DM and T2DM and establishing a link between data obtained from microbiological testing and the patients' clinical data...
April 15, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653264/helminth-infection-in-mice-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#4
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651674/intestinal-microbiota-and-kidney-diseases
#5
Ao Xie, Jie Sheng, Feng Zheng
Kidney diseases are common and the incidence rate is increasing. Gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune regulation of the host. Genetic, alimentary and environmental disease factors may change gut flora and increase opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria, contributing to immune or non-immune mediated kidney diseases including IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy. Additionally, bacterial metabolites may be a source of uremic toxins. Thus, identififi cation of diversity, composition, and metabolic and immunologic features of gut bacteria in chronic kidney diseases may help understand pathogenetic mechanism and develop therapy for diseases...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648525/foreword-the-year-in-review-comments-on-plants-cyclodextrins-microbiota-and-diabetes
#6
EDITORIAL
William A Banks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#7
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628262/chitosan-oligosaccharides-improve-the-disturbance-in-glucose-metabolism-and-reverse-the-dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-in-diabetic-mice
#8
Junping Zheng, Xubing Yuan, Gong Cheng, Siming Jiao, Cui Feng, Xiaoming Zhao, Heng Yin, Yuguang Du, Hongtao Liu
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wild type C57BL/6J mice or diabetic db/db mice were treated with vehicle or COS for three months. COS treatment significantly decreased the blood glucose (P < 0.01) and reversed the insulin resistance (P < 0.05) in db/db mice, which was accompanied by suppressing the inflammation mediators (P < 0.05), down-regulating the lipogenesis (P < 0.01) and inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation (P < 0...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623708/-gut-microbiota-its-development-and-relation-to-certain-diseases
#9
Hana Kiňová Sepová, Boris Dudík, Andrea Bilková
Coexistence of humans with microorganisms is well known for a long time. Besides the association with infectious diseases, personal microbiota is important for human health, possibly for some non-infectious diseases. Colonization of the human body with appropriate microorganisms after delivery is essential for physiological immune system maturation and also has an influence on central nervous system development. The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by the mode of delivery, early life nutrition and last but not least by lifestyle and drug, especially antibiotics intake...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616249/anti-aging-potential-of-tree-nuts-with-a-focus-on-the-phytochemical-composition-molecular-mechanisms-and-thermal-stability-of-major-bioactive-compounds
#10
REVIEW
Marius Emil Rusu, Ana-Maria Gheldiu, Andrei Mocan, Laurian Vlase, Daniela-Saveta Popa
Tree nuts, complete functional foods, contain macro- and micronutrients of high biological value. These bioactive compounds have a synergistic effect in preventing and delaying many age-related pathologies (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, certain types of cancer, and several neurodegenerative diseases). Tree nuts are low in carbohydrates, but they abound in healthy fatty acids, in optimal proportion for a good plasma lipid profile, and are a good source of proteins, rich in proteinogenic amino acids...
April 4, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615808/long-term-western-diet-fed-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-rats-exhibit-only-modest-early-atherosclerotic-characteristics
#11
Ida Rune, Bidda Rolin, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Łukasz Krych, Jenny E Kanter, Karin E Bornfeldt, Pernille Kihl, Karsten Buschard, Knud Josefsen, Johannes Josef Fels, Alan Mortensen, Berit Christoffersen, Rikke Kaae Kirk, Axel Kornerup Hansen
In the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse, the gut microbiota has an impact on the development of atherosclerosis, but whether such correlations are also present in rats requires investigation. Therefore, we studied female SD-Apoetm1sage (Apoe-/- ) rats fed either a Western diet or a low-fat control diet with or without gluten, which is known to promote gut microbiota changes, until 20 weeks of age. We hypothesized that the manifestation of atherosclerosis would be more severe in Apoe-/- rats fed the Western high-fat diet, as compared with rats fed the low-fat diet, and that atherosclerosis would be accelerated by gluten...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611319/fecal-enterobacteriales-enrichment-is-associated-with-increased-in-vivo-intestinal-permeability-in-humans
#12
Camilla Pedersen, Umer Z Ijaz, Edith Gallagher, Felicity Horton, Richard J Ellis, Etana Jaiyeola, Thibaut Duparc, David Russell-Jones, Paul Hinton, Patrice D Cani, Roberto M La Ragione, M Denise Robertson
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been linked with increased intestinal permeability, but the clinical significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential link between glucose control, intestinal permeability, diet and intestinal microbiota in patients with T2D. Thirty-two males with well-controlled T2D and 30 age-matched male controls without diabetes were enrolled in a case-control study. Metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, endotoxemia, and intestinal microbiota in individuals subdivided into high (HP) and normal (LP) colonic permeability groups, were the main outcomes...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596446/gut-microbiota-varies-by-opioid-use-circulating-leptin-and-oxytocin-in-african-american-men-with-diabetes-and-high-burden-of-chronic-disease
#13
Elena Barengolts, Stefan J Green, Yuval Eisenberg, Arfana Akbar, Bharathi Reddivari, Brian T Layden, Lara Dugas, George Chlipala
OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota is known to be related to type 2 diabetes (T2D), psychiatric conditions, and opioid use. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that variability in gut microbiota in T2D is associated with psycho-metabolic health. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among African American men (AAM) (n = 99) that were outpatients at a Chicago VA Medical Center. The main outcome measures included fecal microbiota ecology (by 16S rRNA gene sequencing), psychiatric disorders including opioid use, and circulating leptin and oxytocin as representative hormone biomarkers for obesity and psychological pro-social behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593681/intestinal-microbiota-influences-non-intestinal-related-autoimmune-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Maria C Opazo, Elizabeth M Ortega-Rocha, Irenice Coronado-Arrázola, Laura C Bonifaz, Helene Boudin, Michel Neunlist, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis, Claudia A Riedel
The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590046/gut-bacteria-selectively-promoted-by-dietary-fibers-alleviate-type-2-diabetes
#15
Liping Zhao, Feng Zhang, Xiaoying Ding, Guojun Wu, Yan Y Lam, Xuejiao Wang, Huaqing Fu, Xinhe Xue, Chunhua Lu, Jilin Ma, Lihua Yu, Chengmei Xu, Zhongying Ren, Ying Xu, Songmei Xu, Hongli Shen, Xiuli Zhu, Yu Shi, Qingyun Shen, Weiping Dong, Rui Liu, Yunxia Ling, Yue Zeng, Xingpeng Wang, Qianpeng Zhang, Jing Wang, Linghua Wang, Yanqiu Wu, Benhua Zeng, Hong Wei, Menghui Zhang, Yongde Peng, Chenhong Zhang
The gut microbiota benefits humans via short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from carbohydrate fermentation, and deficiency in SCFA production is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a randomized clinical study of specifically designed isoenergetic diets, together with fecal shotgun metagenomics, to show that a select group of SCFA-producing strains was promoted by dietary fibers and that most other potential producers were either diminished or unchanged in patients with T2DM. When the fiber-promoted SCFA producers were present in greater diversity and abundance, participants had better improvement in hemoglobin A1c levels, partly via increased glucagon-like peptide-1 production...
March 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584630/gut-microbiota-and-type-1-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Hui Han, Yuying Li, Jun Fang, Gang Liu, Jie Yin, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
Recently, the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased rapidly and became a major public health concern worldwide. Various factors are associated with the development of T1D, such as diet, genome, and intestinal microbiota. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host homeostasis and metabolic diseases. Recent evidence shows that altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) is highly associated with the pathogenesis of insulin dysfunction and T1D and, thus, targeting gut microbiota may serve as a therapeutic potential for T1D patients...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577618/flavan-3-ol-procyanidin-metabolomics-in-rat-urine-using-hplc-quadrupole-tof-ms
#17
Saeko Masumoto, Shiori Aoki, Tomisato Miura, Toshihiko Shoji
SCOPE: Several studies have demonstrated that flavan-3-ol/procyanidins are associated with biological functions in the prevention of various chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes. Knowledge of their mechanisms including bioavailability has significantly progressed in the last decade. However, the differences of the metabolic signatures among flavan-3-ol/procyanidins remain ambiguous. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the metabolites in urine over time after acute administration of three typical flavan-3-ol/procyanidins (epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and procyanidin dimer) in view of the chemical structure by HPLC-quadrupole TOF/MS...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576577/erratum-to-characterizations-of-oral-microbiota-in-elderly-nursing-home-residents-with-diabetes
#18
Taiji Ogawa, Mariko Honda-Ogawa, Kazunori Ikebe, Yumiko Notomi, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Itsuki Shirobayashi, Seiko Hata, Masahito Kibi, Shizuko Masayasu, Satoshi Sasaki, Shigetada Kawabata, Yoshinobu Maeda
The publisher regrets that in the above-mentioned article, there was an error in the list of references. The reference numbers "29-32" should be "28-31".
2018: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574759/humanizing-the-mouse-immune-system-to-study-splanchnic-organ-inflammation
#19
Brianyell McDaniel, Matthew B Grisham
It is well known that alterations in splanchnic organ perfusion and/or immune regulation may produce inflammatory tissue injury similar to that observed in several human disorders such as ischemia and reperfusion injury, food allergies, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. Mouse models have been tremendously important in defining the roles of the circulation, leukocyte trafficking, inflammatory mediator generation, immune regulation and the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammation...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572583/insights-into-the-human-oral-microbiome
#20
REVIEW
Digvijay Verma, Pankaj Kumar Garg, Ashok Kumar Dubey
Human oral cavity harbors the second most abundant microbiota after the gastrointestinal tract. The expanded Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD) that was last updated on November 22, 2017, contains the information of approximately 772 prokaryotic species, where 70% is cultivable, and 30% belong to the uncultivable class of microorganisms along with whole genome sequences of 482 taxa. Out of 70% culturable species, 57% have already been assigned to their names. The 16S rDNA profiling of the healthy oral cavity categorized the inhabitant bacteria into six broad phyla, viz...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
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