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Microbiota and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927080/red-ginseng-powder-fermented-with-probiotics-exerts-antidiabetic-effects-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-mouse-diabetes-model
#1
Sun-Hee Jang, Jisang Park, Sae-Hae Kim, Kyung-Min Choi, Eun-Sil Ko, Jeong-Dan Cha, Young-Ran Lee, Hyonseok Jang, Yong-Suk Jang
CONTEXT: Red ginseng (heat-processed Panax ginseng) is a well-known alternative medicine with pharmacological antidiabetic activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by the intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal conditions and intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of orally administered red ginseng likely may vary among individuals. OBJECTIVE: To overcome this variation and produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we evaluated the antidiabetic effects of probiotic-fermented red ginseng in a mouse model...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924082/duodenal-endoluminal-barrier-sleeve-alters-gut-microbiota-of-zdf-rats
#2
T Kim, C L Holleman, T Ptacek, C D Morrow, K M Habegger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The combination of energy dense diets and reduced energy expenditure in modern society has escalated the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Among these disease-states, type-2 diabetics (T2D) are disproportionately associated with obesity, suggesting a shared etiology. In conjunction with defects in hormonal and inflammatory states, obesity and T2D are also characterized by dysbiosis. METHODS: We have recently described the beneficial effects of duodenal nutrient exclusion, as induced by the duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES); including body weight loss, prevented fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in the ZDF rat, a rodent model of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D)...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921044/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cause-or-effect-of-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Christoph Grander, Felix Grabherr, Alexander R Moschen, Herbert Tilg
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease throughout the world. Pathophysiological insights into this disease have recently illustrated that various factors such as insulin resistance, innate immunity, metabolic inflammation, and the microbiota are of relevance. NAFLD, metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) share many pathophysiological aspects, and inflammatory processes in the adipose tissue, gut, and liver have evolved to be of exceptional importance. Most of NAFLD patients are obese and encounter a high risk of developing MS and T2D...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920621/toxins-toxicity-and-endotoxemia-a-historical-and-clinical-perspective-for-chiropractors
#4
REVIEW
David R Seaman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this commentary is to review the notion of toxicity in the context of chiropractic practice. DISCUSSION: The belief that body toxicity is the cause of disease has been promoted for thousands of years. Prior to the emergence of the chiropractic profession, the medical profession embraced the notion that the body becomes "toxic," requiring detoxification interventions or surgery. The legacy of body toxicity within the chiropractic approach to patient care began with Daniel David Palmer...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912678/the-physiology-and-molecular-underpinnings-of-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-diabetes
#5
Simon S Evers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley
Bariatric surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy, produce significant and durable weight loss in both humans and rodents. Recently, these surgical interventions have also been termed metabolic surgery because they result in profound metabolic improvements that often surpass the expected improvement due to body weight loss alone. In this review we focus on the weight-loss independent effects of bariatric surgery, which encompass energy expenditure and macronutrient preference, the luminal composition of the gut (i...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909908/obesity-and-liver-cancer
#6
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899875/nutrition-considerations-for-microbiota-health-in-diabetes
#7
Meghan Jardine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898282/comparative-fingerprinting-of-the-human-microbiota-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Emanuel Vamanu, Diana Pelinescu, Ionela Sarbu
Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are associated with changes in the human gut microbiota. To better understand the relationships between diet, disease, and the colonic microbiome, we used the in vitro GIS1 system and repetitive element palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) to determine the microbial fingerprints in individuals with these diseases and compared them with the fingerprints in healthy controls. Clear differences were apparent in the three groups...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892954/a-purified-membrane-protein-from-akkermansia-muciniphila-or-the-pasteurized-bacterium-improves-metabolism-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#9
Hubert Plovier, Amandine Everard, Céline Druart, Clara Depommier, Matthias Van Hul, Lucie Geurts, Julien Chilloux, Noora Ottman, Thibaut Duparc, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Antonis Myridakis, Nathalie M Delzenne, Judith Klievink, Arnab Bhattacharjee, Kees C H van der Ark, Steven Aalvink, Laurent O Martinez, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Dominique Maiter, Audrey Loumaye, Michel P Hermans, Jean-Paul Thissen, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos, Patrice D Cani
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with low-grade inflammation and specific changes in gut microbiota composition. We previously demonstrated that administration of Akkermansia muciniphila to mice prevents the development of obesity and associated complications. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protective effect remain unclear. Moreover, the sensitivity of A. muciniphila to oxygen and the presence of animal-derived compounds in its growth medium currently limit the development of translational approaches for human medicine...
November 28, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892685/gut-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giancarlo Balercia, Luigi Barrea, Angelo Cignarelli, Francesco Giorgino, Jens J Holst, Daniela Laudisio, Francesco Orio, Giacomo Tirabassi, Annamaria Colao
The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884012/gut-microbiota-bacterial-translocation-and-interactions-with-diet-pathophysiological-links-between-major-depressive-disorder-and-non-communicable-medical-comorbidities
#11
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Felice N Jacka, Cristiano A Köhler, Tatiana Barichello, Roger S McIntyre, Michael Berk, Iria Grande, Jane A Foster, Eduard Vieta, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Persistent low-grade immune-inflammatory processes, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation are integral to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The microbiome, intestinal compositional changes, and resultant bacterial translocation add a new element to the bidirectional interactions of the gut-brain axis; new evidence implicates these pathways in the patho-aetiology of MDD. In addition, abnormalities in the gut-brain axis are associated with several chronic non-communicable disorders, which frequently co-occur in individuals with MDD, including but not limited to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 25, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874076/oligofructose-as-an-adjunct-in-treatment-of-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#12
Clement Chan, Colin M Hyslop, Vipul Shrivastava, Andrea Ochoa, Raylene A Reimer, Carol Huang
In type 1 diabetes, restoration of normoglycemia can be achieved if the autoimmune attack on beta cells ceases and insulin requirement is met by the residual beta cells. We hypothesize that an adjunctive therapy that reduces insulin demand by increasing insulin sensitivity will improve the efficacy of an immunotherapy in reversing diabetes. We tested the gut microbiota-modulating prebiotic, oligofructose (OFS), as the adjunctive therapy. We treated non-obese diabetic mice with an immunotherapy, monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody (aCD3), with or without concurrent dietary supplement of OFS...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864537/effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Vajihe Akbari, Fatemeh Hendijani
CONTEXT: The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes requires increased efforts to find effective therapeutic agents for this complex condition. Following the recent observation that the gut microbiota is altered in diabetic patients, researchers investigated the effect of probiotics in patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of probiotic consumption on glycemic control in diabetic patients. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science (formerly ISI Web of Knowledge), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863092/associations-between-changes-in-the-maternal-gut-microbiome-and-differentially-methylated-regions-of-diabetes-associated-genes-in-fetuses-a-pilot-study-from-a-birth-cohort-study
#14
Kaori Tachibana, Kenichi Sakurai, Masahiro Watanabe, Hidenobu Miyaso, Chisato Mori
Several intrauterine environmental factors may increase the future risk of type 2 diabetes. The microbiome can influence the balance between health and disease. However, the influence of the maternal gut microbiome on the future risk of diabetes in the fetus is unknown. The present study investigated the associations between maternal gut microbiome and differentially methylated regions of diabetes-associated genes in umbilical cord samples. This study included 10 pregnant participants from a birth cohort study...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836329/-pneumonia-caused-bycorynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum
#15
Daniela Furiasse, Ana M Gasparotto, Aída Monterisi, Gabriela Castellano, Marta Rocchi
Microorganisms of the genera Corynebacterium, specie pseudodiphtheriticum are a part of the indigenous microbiota of human skin and oropharinx. Nevertheless in recent decades these bacilli are emerging as opportunistic pathogens causing clinically significant infections in patients with previous compromise. We report the case of a 76 years old female patient, with a history of hypertension, hypothyroidism, type 2 diabetes and chronic renal failure, who presented pneumonia during their stay at the intensive care unit...
November 8, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832763/a-comparison-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-a-population-of-low-risk-infants-exposed-and-not-exposed-to-intrapartum-antibiotics-the-baby-microbiota-of-the-intestine-cohort-study-protocol
#16
Julia Simioni, Eileen K Hutton, Elizabeth Gunn, Alison C Holloway, Jennifer C Stearns, Helen McDonald, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Lehana Thabane, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences metabolic, nutritional, and immunologic processes and has been associated with a broad range of adverse health outcomes including asthma, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Early life exposures may alter the course of gut microbial colonization leading to differences in metabolic and immune regulation throughout life. Although approximately 50 % of low-risk full-term infants born in Canada are exposed to intrapartum antibiotics, little is known about the influence of this common prophylactic treatment on the developing neonatal intestinal microbiota...
November 10, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829988/targeting-gut-microbiota-a-potential-promising-therapy-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Zhonge Chen, Shuishan Zhu, Gaosi Xu
Conventional studies reveal a contributory role of gut microbiota in the process of diabetes mellitus (DM) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the mechanism through which gut microbiota influence diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is ignored. In the present article, we reviewed the changes in gut microbiota of patients with DM, DKD as well as ESRD, and how this may contribute to the progression of DKD. Although further studies are needed to either selectively change the composition of the gut microbiota or to pharmacologically control the metabolites of microbiota, the gut microbiota represents a new potential therapeutic target for DKD...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821438/akkermansia-muciniphila-improves-metabolic-profiles-by-reducing-inflammation-in-chow-diet-fed-mice
#18
Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Liu, Jiqiu Wang, Juan Shi, Yingkai Sun, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Ruixin Liu, Jie Hong
Abnormal shifts in the composition of gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The crosstalk between gut microbes and the host affects the inflammatory status and glucose tolerance of the individuals, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated completely. In this study, we treated the lean chow diet-fed mice with Akkermansia muciniphila, which is thought to be inversely correlated with inflammation status and body weight in rodents and humans, and we found that A...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818587/improved-glucose-metabolism-following-bariatric-surgery-is-associated-with-increased-circulating-bile-acid-concentrations-and-remodeling-of-the-gut-microbiome
#19
REVIEW
Lukasz Kaska, Tomasz Sledzinski, Agnieszka Chomiczewska, Agnieszka Dettlaff-Pokora, Julian Swierczynski
Clinical studies have indicated that circulating bile acid (BA) concentrations increase following bariatric surgery, especially following malabsorptive procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (RYGB). Moreover, total circulating BA concentrations in patients following RYGB are positively correlated with serum glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations and inversely correlated with postprandial glucose concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that the increased circulating BA concentrations following bariatric surgery - independently of calorie restriction and body-weight loss - could contribute, at least in part, to improvements in insulin sensitivity, incretin hormone secretion, and postprandial glycemia, leading to the remission of type-2 diabetes (T2DM)...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818484/gut-microbiota-and-coronary-artery-disease
#20
Tomoya Yamashita, Takuo Emoto, Naoto Sasaki, Ken-Ichi Hirata
Gut microbiota have been attracting increased attention in many fields of medicine recently. We can perform a comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota using next-generation sequencing techniques together with bioinformatics technology, which expands our knowledge of a large ecosystem consisting of a host and gut microbiota. We summarize some reports about the correlations between gut microbiota and metabolic disorders, particularly atherosclerosis, and discuss future directions for the diagnostic or therapeutic potential of gut microbiota...
November 4, 2016: International Heart Journal
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