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hairy root

Chen Geng, Tengfei Zhao, Chunxian Yang, Qiaozhuo Zhang, Feng Bai, Junlan Zeng, Fangyuan Zhang, Xiaoqiang Liu, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
N-methylputrescine is the precursor of nicotine and pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of putrescine to form N-methylputrescine. While the role of PMT in nicotine biosynthesis is clear, knowledge of PMT in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids (TAs) and the regulation of polyamines remains limited. We characterized a PMT gene from Hyoscyamus niger, designated HnPMT that was specifically expressed in roots, especially in the secondary roots and dramatically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA)...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Diego Hidalgo, Raul Sanchez, Liliana Lalaleo, Mercedes Bonfill, Purificacion Corchete, Javier Palazon
BACKGROUND: Plant biofactories are biotechnological platforms based on plant cell and organ cultures used for the production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals, although to date only a few of these systems have successfully been implemented at an industrial level. Metabolic engineering is possibly the most straightforward strategy to boost pharmaceutical production in plant biofactories, but social opposition to the use of GMOs means empirical approaches are still being used. Plant secondary metabolism involves thousands of different enzymes, some of which catalyze specific reactions, giving one product from a particular substrate, whereas others can yield multiple products from the same substrate...
March 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Chitra Srikantan, G K Suraishkumar, Smita Srivastava
The study demonstrates for the first time that light influences the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of a dye by root culture system. The azo dye (Reactive Red 120) adsorption by the hairy roots of H. annuus followed a pseudo first-order kinetic model and the adsorption equilibrium parameters were best estimated using Langmuir isotherm. The maximum dye adsorption capacity of the roots increased 6-fold, from 0.26 mg g-1 under complete dark conditions to 1.51 mg g-1 under 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod...
February 20, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Karthikeyan Alagarsamy, Lubobi Ferdinand Shamala, Shu Wei
Background: Camellia sinensis var. sinensis is widely grown for tea beverages that possess significant health promoting effects. Studies on tea plant genetics and breeding are hindered due to its recalcitrance to Agrobacterium -mediated genetic transformation. Among the possible reasons, oxidation of phenolics released from explant tissues and bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols during the process of transformation play a role in the plant recalcitrance. The aim of the present study was to alleviate the harmful effects of phenolic compounds using in - planta transformation...
2018: Plant Methods
Somaieh Zafari, Mohsen Sharifi, Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi
The callus and hairy root cultures of Prosopis farcta were established to develop effective strategies to enhance its valuable and medicinally important flavonoid compounds. For callus induction, the hypocotyl, cotyledon and shoot explants were subjected to different plant hormones, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Greater callus induction was obtained from hypocotyl explants on MS medium containing 3.0 mg L-1 NAA + 2.0 mg L-1 BAP. With the addition of 0...
February 19, 2018: Cytotechnology
Muthusamy Balasubramanian, Murugesan Anbumegala, Ramasamy Surendran, Muthukrishnan Arun, Girija Shanmugam
An efficient protocol for hairy root induction in radish was established by optimizing several parameters that affect the efficiency of Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformations. Explants wounded using sterile hypodermic needle, infected with Agrobacterium suspension (0.6 OD 600 ) for 10 min and co-cultivated in 1/2 MS medium containing acetosyringone (100 µM) for 2 days displayed maximum percentage of hairy root induction using MTCC 2364 (77.6%) and MTCC 532 (67.6%). On further experiments with MTCC 2364 initiated hairy roots, maximum biomass accumulation (fresh weight = 9...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Zheng Zhou, Hexin Tan, Qing Li, Junfeng Chen, Shouhong Gao, Yun Wang, Wansheng Chen, Lei Zhang
The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated) system is a powerful genome editing tool that has been used in many species. In this study, we focused on the phenolic acid metabolic pathway in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit the rosmarinic acid synthase gene (SmRAS) in the water-soluble phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. The single guide RNA (sgRNA) was designed to precisely edit the most important SmRAS gene, which was selected from 11 family members through a bioinformatics analysis...
April 2018: Phytochemistry
Zahra Shakeran, Mehrnaz Keyhanfar, Mustafa Ghanadian
The (-)-hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine (hyoscine) are three valuable tropane alkaloids while scopolamine is the most important member of this group for the pharmaceutical industry due to its higher demand compared to hyoscyamine and atropine. Scopolamine is an anticholinergic reagent with several therapeutic applications. In the current study, the hairy roots culture of Daturametel was used as an advantageous method for production of scopolamine. The hairy roots are formed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and have genetic stability, high growth rate and lateral branching...
December 2017: Molecular Biology Research Communications
Xiaozhong Lan, Junlan Zeng, Ke Liu, Fangyuan Zhang, Ge Bai, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao, Luqi Huang
Scopolia lurida, a medicinal plant native to the Tibetan Plateau, is among the most effective producers of pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids (TAs). The hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase genes of Hyoscyamus niger (HnH6H) and S. lurida (SlH6H) were cloned and respectively overexpressed in hairy root cultures of S. lurida, to compare their effects on promoting the production of TAs, especially the high-value scopolamine. Root cultures with SlH6H/HnH6H overexpression were confirmed by PCR and real-time quantitative PCR, suggesting that the enzymatic steps defined by H6H were strongly elevated at the transcriptional level...
January 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jana Kohanová, Michal Martinka, Marek Vaculík, Philip J White, Marie-Theres Hauser, Alexander Lux
Background and Aims: Root hairs increase the contact area of roots with soil and thereby enhance the capacity for solute uptake. The strict hair/non-hair pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana can change with nutrient deficiency or exposure to toxic elements, which modify root hair density. The effects of root hair density on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in shoots of arabidopsis genotypes with altered root hair development and patterning were studied. Methods: Arabidopsis mutants that are unable to develop root hairs (rhd6-1 and cpc/try) or produce hairy roots (wer/myb23) were compared with the ecotype Columbia (Col-0)...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kalpana Nanjareddy, Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Alma-Leticia Aguirre, Brenda-Mariana Gómez, Miguel Lara
The upstream sequences of gene coding sequences are termed as promoter sequences. Studying the expression patterns of promoters are very significant in understanding the gene regulation and spatiotemporal expression patterns of target genes. On the other hand, it is also critical to establish promoter evaluation tools and genetic transformation techniques that are fast, efficient, and reproducible. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression pattern of the rhizobial symbiosis-specific nodule inception (NIN) promoter of Phaseolus vulgaris in the transgenic hairy roots...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Guo-Quan Wang, Jun-Feng Chen, Bo Yi, He-Xin Tan, Lei Zhang, Wan-Sheng Chen
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Hydrophilic phenolic acids, including rosmarinic acid (RA) and lithospermic acid B (LAB), are its primary medicinal ingredients. However, the biosynthetic pathway of RA and LAB in S. miltiorrhiza is still poorly understood. In the present study, we accomplished the isolation and characterization of a novel S. miltiorrhiza Hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase (HPPR) gene, SmHPPR, which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of RA...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Weiwei Wu, Yan Lin, Pandao Liu, Qianqian Chen, Jiang Tian, Cuiyue Liang
Plant root cell walls are dynamic systems that serve as the first plant compartment responsive to soil conditions, such as phosphorus (P) deficiency. To date, evidence for the regulation of root cell wall proteins (CWPs) by P deficiency remains sparse. In order to gain a better understanding of the roles played by CWPs in the roots of soybean (Glycine max) in adaptation to P deficiency, we conducted an iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) proteomic analysis. A total of 53 CWPs with differential accumulation in response to P deficiency were identified...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Maheswor Gautam, Mohamed Elhiti, Inge S Fomsgaard
Hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes are well established models to study the metabolism of xenobiotics in plants for phytoremediation purposes. However, the model requires special skills and resources for growing and is a time-consuming process. The roots induction process alters the genetic construct of a plant and is known to express genes that are normally absent from the non-transgenic plants. In this study, we propose and establish a non-transgenic maize root model to study xenobiotic metabolism in plants for phytoremediation purpose using azoxystrobin as a xenobiotic compound...
December 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Tianlin Pei, Pengda Ma, Kai Ding, Sijia Liu, Yanyan Jia, Mei Ru, Juane Dong, Zongsuo Liang
Jasmonates (JAs) are important plant hormones that regulate a variety of plant development and defense processes, including secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins act as negative regulators in the JA signaling pathways of plants. We first verified that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) enhanced the accumulation of both salvianolic acids and tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) hairy roots by inducing the expression of their biosynthetic pathway genes. Nine JAZ genes were cloned from Danshen and their expression levels in hairy roots were all elevated by treatment with MeJA...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Shasmita, Manoj K Rai, Soumendra K Naik
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves...
December 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Yan Yang, Yuan Zhou, Yingjun Chi, Baofang Fan, Zhixiang Chen
WRKY proteins are a superfamily of plant transcription factors with important roles in plants. WRKY proteins have been extensively analyzed in plant species including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we report characterization of soybean WRKY gene family and their functional analysis in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the most important soybean pathogen. Through search of the soybean genome, we identified 174 genes encoding WRKY proteins that can be classified into seven groups as established in other plants...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tomasz Wróbel, Mariola Dreger, Karolina Wielgus, Ryszard Słomski
Cannabinoids have considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the production of medicines from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in most countries is restricted by law. Large-scale, field cultivation of hemp is difficult to control. Cannabinoid content in plants is variable and depends on multiple factors. Therefore, alternative methods of production have been investigated. The development of micropropagation techniques is a necessary step for genetic modification. Promising results have been obtained for certain narcotic genotypes...
December 16, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Meng-Die Qi, Jian Wang, Xiao-Jing Ma, Quan Zhang, Fang-Fang Wang, Ying Kang, Yong Liu, Hui-Xin Lin
Protein complexes are involved in the synthesis of multiple secondary metabolites in plants, and their separation is essential to elucidate plant secondary metabolism and improve in vitro catalytic efficiency. In this study, the transgenic hairy roots of CYP76AH1, a key enzyme of tanshinone synthesis pathway, was constructed and the transgenic hairy roots of Danshen overexpressing CYP76AH1 protein were screened by Western blotting and used as a tissue culture material for the subsequent extraction of protein complex in tanshinone synthesis pathway...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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