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hairy root

Chengchen Li, Caifeng Li, Haiyan Zhang, Hong Liao, Xiurong Wang
Induction of secreted and intracellular purple acid phosphatases (PAPs; EC is widely recognized as an adaptation of plants to phosphorus (P) deficiency. The secretion of PAPs plays important roles in P acquisition. However, little is known about the functions of intracellular PAP in plants and nodules. In this work, we identified a novel PAP gene GmPAP21 in soybean. Expression of GmPAP21 was induced by P limitation in nodules, roots and old leaves, and increased in roots with increasing duration of P starvation...
October 20, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Carmen V Ozuna, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Hugo E Cruz-Hipolito, José A Domínguez-Valenzuela, Francisco Barro, Rafael De Prado
In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Suvi T Häkkinen, Elisabeth Moyano, Rosa M Cusidó, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey
Plants remain a major source of new drugs, leads and fine chemicals. Cell cultures deriving from plants offer a fascinating tool to study plant metabolic pathways and offer large scale production systems for valuable compounds - commercial examples include compounds such as paclitaxel. The major constraint with undifferentiated cell cultures is that they are generally considered to be genetically unstable and cultured cells tend to produce low yields of secondary metabolites especially over time. Hairy roots, a tumor tissue caused by infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a relevant alternative for plant secondary metabolite production for being fast growing, able to grow without phytohormones, and displaying higher stability than undifferentiated cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jingyu Lin, Dan Wang, Xinlu Chen, Tobias G Köllner, Mitra Mazarei, Hong Guo, Vincent R Pantalone, Prakash Arelli, Charles Neal Stewart, Ningning Wang, Feng Chen
Plant terpene synthase genes (TPSs) have roles in diverse biological processes. Here we report the functional characterization of one member of the soybean TPS gene family, which was designated GmAFS. Recombinant GmAFS produced in Escherichia coli catalyzed the formation of a sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene. GmAFS is closely related to (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase gene from apple, both phylogenetically and structurally. GmAFS was further investigated for its biological role in defense against nematodes and insects...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Jan Mertens, Alex Van Moerkercke, Robin Vanden Bossche, Jacob Pollier, Alain Goossens
Plants produce many bioactive, specialized metabolites to defend themselves when facing various stress situations. Their biosynthesis is directed by a tightly controlled regulatory circuit that is elicited by phytohormones such as jasmonate (JA). The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) and Triterpene Saponin Activating Regulator (TSAR) 1 and 2, from Catharanthus roseus and Medicago truncatula, respectively, all belong to clade IVa of the bHLH protein family and activate distinct terpenoid pathways, thereby mediating monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) and triterpene saponin (TS) accumulation, respectively, in these two species...
October 1, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jing Zhang, Yan-Bo Huo, Yan Liu, Jun-Tao Feng, Zhi-Qing Ma, Chuan-Shu Zhu, Xing Zhang
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. is the traditional medicinal plants in China. Triptolide, wilforgine, and wilforine are the bioactive compounds in T. wilfordii. In this study, the contents of three metabolites and transcription levels of 21 genes involved in three metabolites biosynthesis in T. wilfordii were examined using high-performance liquid chromatography and reverse transcription PCR after application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on hairy roots in time course experiment (3-24 h). The results indicated that application of MeJA inhibited triptolide accumulation and promoted wilforgine and wilforine metabolites biosynthesis...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Shahin Mardani-Nejad, Ramazan Ali Khavari-Nejad, Sara Saadatmand, Farzaneh Najafi, Parviz Aberoomand Azar
Free radicals play an important role in pathological processes such as aging and developing cancer; hence, natural products inhibit free radical production, and can play an important role in preventing diseases. We aimed to evaluate the scavenging activity of free radicals, reducing power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and the antioxidant composition of rolB-transformed hairy roots and leaf callus of Catharanthus roseus. Hairy roots of the Catharanthus roseus were induced using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 to transfer the rolB gene...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
D P Brown, D T Rogers, S K Gunjan, G A Gerhardt, J M Littleton
Plants are a source of complex bioactive compounds, with value as pharmaceuticals, or leads for synthetic modification. Many of these secondary metabolites have evolved as defenses against competing organisms and their pharmaceutical value is "accidental", resulting from homology between target proteins in these competitors, and human molecular therapeutic targets. Here we show that it is possible to use mutation and selection of plant cells to re-direct their "evolution" toward metabolites that interact with the therapeutic target proteins themselves...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Longxiang Wang, Longlong Wang, Qian Tan, Qiuling Fan, Hui Zhu, Zonglie Hong, Zhongming Zhang, Deqiang Duanmu
The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation) related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Begoña Miras-Moreno, Ana Belén Sabater-Jara, M A Pedreño, Lorena Almagro
Phytosterols are a kind of plant metabolite belonging to the triterpene family. These compounds are essential biomolecules for human health, and so they must be taken from foods. β-Sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol are the main phytosterols found in plants. Phytosterols have beneficial effects on human health since they are able to reduce plasma cholesterol levels and have antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. However, there are many difficulties in obtaining them, since the levels of these compounds produced from plant raw materials are low and their chemical synthesis is not economically profitable for commercial exploitation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Aya Shimomura, Ayumi Naka, Nobuyuki Miyazaki, Sayaka Moriuchi, Susumu Arima, Shusei Sato, Hideki Hirakawa, Makoto Hayashi, Maskit Maymon, Ann M Hirsch, Akihiro Suzuki
In many legumes, roots that are exposed to light do not form nodules. Here, we report that blue light inhibits nodulation in Lotus japonicus roots inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti. Using RNA interference, we suppressed the expression of phototropin and cryptochrome genes in L. japonicus hairy roots. Under blue light, plants transformed with an empty vector did not develop nodules, whereas plants exhibiting suppressed expression of cry1 and cry2 genes formed nodules. We also measured rhizobial growth to investigate whether the inhibition of nodulation could be caused by a reduced population of rhizobia in response to light...
September 9, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Danxia Ke, Xiangyong Li, Yapeng Han, Lin Cheng, Hongyu Yuan, Lei Wang
Roots of leguminous plants perceive Nod factor signals, and then root hair deformation responses such as swelling and curling are activated. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of such root hair deformation. We have previously shown that LjROP6, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, was identified as an NFR5 (Nod Factor Receptor 5)-interacting protein and participated in symbiotic nodulation in Lotus japonicus. In this study, we identified ten LjROP GTPases including LjROP6, and they were distributed into groups II, III, IV but not group I by phylogenetic analysis...
August 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Anica Bjelica, Meghan L Haggitt, Kathlyn N Woolfson, Daniel P N Lee, Abdullah B Makhzoum, Mark A Bernards
Potato StCYP86A33 complements the Arabidopsis AtCYP86A1 mutant, horst - 1. Suberin is a cell-wall polymer that comprises both phenolic and aliphatic components found in specialized plant cells. Aliphatic suberin is characterized by bi-functional fatty acids, typically ω-hydroxy fatty acids and α,ω-dioic acids, which are linked via glycerol to form a three-dimensional polymer network. In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), over 65 % of aliphatics are either ω-hydroxy fatty acids or α,ω-dioic acids. Since the biosynthesis of α,ω-dioic acids proceeds sequentially through ω-hydroxy fatty acids, the formation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids represents a significant metabolic commitment during suberin deposition...
August 26, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Mrinalini Srivastava, Swati Sharma, Pratibha Misra
BACKGROUND: Rauwolfia serpentina and Solanum khasianum are well-known medicinally important plants contained important alkaloids in their different parts. Elicitation of these alkaloids is important because of associated pharmaceutical properties. Targeted metabolites were ajmaline and ajmalicine in R. serpentina; solasodine and α-solanine in S. khasianum. OBJECTIVE: Enhancement of secondary metabolites through biotic and abiotic elicitors in hairy root cultures of R...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Sumita Jha
This review provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of the in vitro culture of Tylophora species, which have medicinal properties. Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. is a climbing perennial vine with medicinal properties. The tissue culture and genetic transformation of T. indica, which has been extensively studied, is reviewed. Micropropagation using nodal explants has been reported in 25 % of all publications. Leaf explants from field-grown plants has been the explant of choice of independent research groups, which reported direct and callus-mediated organogenesis as well as callus-mediated somatic embryogenesis...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Chang Ha Park, Young Seon Kim, Xiaohua Li, Haeng Hoon Kim, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Sook Young Lee, Sang Un Park
Carbohydrate sources play important roles in energy and growth of plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the optimal carbohydrate source in hairy root cultures (HRCs) of Scutellaria baicalensis infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1000. The hairy roots were cultured in half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with seven different carbohydrates sources (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, sorbitol, mannitol and maltose), each at a concentration of 100 mM, in order to identify the best carbon sources for the production of major flavones, such as wogonin, baicalin and baicalein...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
Qing-Yan Gai, Jiao Jiao, Meng Luo, Wei Wang, Li-Ping Yao, Yu-Jie Fu
A novel biotechnology approach by combining deacetylation biocatalysis with elicitation of immobilized Penicillium canescens (IPC) in Astragalus membranaceus hairy root cultures (AMHRCs) was proposed for the elevated production of astragaloside IV (AG IV). The highest AG IV accumulation was achieved in 36 day-old AMHRCs co-cultured with IPC for 60 h, which resulted in the enhanced production of AG IV by 14.59-fold in comparison to that in control (0.193 ± 0.007 mg/g DW). Meanwhile, AG IV precursors were almost transformed to AG IV by IPC deacetylation...
August 12, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Kanade Tatsumi, Mariko Yano, Kenta Kaminade, Akifumi Sugiyama, Mayuko Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Takashi Aoyama, Fumihiko Sato, Kazufumi Yazaki
Shikonin derivatives are specialized lipophilic metabolites, secreted in abundant amounts from the root epidermal cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Because they have anti-microbial activities, these compounds, which are derivatives of red naphthoquinone, are thought to serve as a chemical barrier for plant roots. The mechanism by which they are secreted from cells is, however, largely unknown. The shikonin production system in L. erythrorhizon is an excellent model for studying the mechanism by which lipophilic compounds are secreted from plant cells, because of the abundant amounts of these compounds produced by L...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peipei Wei, Longchao Wang, Ailin Liu, Bingjun Yu, Hon-Ming Lam
The family of chloride channel proteins that mediate Cl(-) transportation play vital roles in plant nutrient supply, cellular action potential and turgor pressure adjustment, stomatal movement, hormone signal recognition and transduction, Cl(-) homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The anionic toxicity, mainly caused by chloride ions (Cl(-)), on plants under salt stress remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the function of soybean Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter GmCLC1 under salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, soybean, and yeast...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jose A Valdes Franco, Ray Collier, Yi Wang, Naxin Huo, Yong Gu, Roger Thilmony, James G Thomson
This work reports the draft genome sequence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain NCPPB2659 (also known as strain K599). The assembled genome contains 5,277,347 bp, composed of one circular chromosome, the pRi2659 virulence plasmid, and 17 scaffolds pertaining to the linear chromosome. The wild-type strain causes hairy root disease in dicots and has been used to make transgenic hairy root cultures and composite plants (nontransgenic shoots with transgenic roots). Disarmed variants of the strain have been used to produce stable transgenic monocot and dicot plants...
2016: Genome Announcements
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