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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421329/characterization-of-two-tt2-type-myb-transcription-factors-regulating-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-tetraploid-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum
#1
Nan Lu, Marissa Roldan, Richard A Dixon
Two TT2-type MYB transcription factors identified from tetraploid cotton are involved in regulating proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, providing new strategies for engineering condensed tannins in crops. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites involved in stress resistance in plants, and are health supplements that help to reduce cholesterol levels. As one of the most widely grown crops in the world, cotton provides the majority of natural fabrics and is a supplemental food for ruminant animals...
April 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411083/overexpression-of-gma-mir1510a-b-suppresses-the-expression-of-a-nb-lrr-domain-gene-and-reduces-resistance-to-phytophthora-sojae
#2
Xiaoxia Cui, Qiang Yan, Shuping Gan, Dong Xue, Daolong Dou, Na Guo, Han Xing
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are universal regulators that repress target gene expression in eukaryotes and play essential roles in plant immune responses. miRNAs were recently found to be involved in soybean and Phytophthora sojae interactions. Here, we screened miR1510, which was repressed in soybean during infection with P. sojae, indicating that it might be involved in soybean response to pathogens. To further uncover the roles of miRNAs in soybean, gma-miR1510a/b was overexpressed in the hairy roots of soybean using an Arabidopsis miR319a precursor as the backbone...
April 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401459/optimizing-culture-conditions-for-establishment-of-hairy-root-culture-of-semecarpus-anacardium-l
#3
Bhuban Mohan Panda, Urmil J Mehta, Sulekha Hazra
Semecarpus anacardium L. is a tree species which produces secondary metabolites of medicinal importance. Roots of the plant have been traditionally used in folk medicines. Different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4, ATCC15834 and LBA 9402) were used for induction of hairy roots in in vitro grown tissues of the plant. Hairy root initiation was observed after 25-30 days of infection. Optimum transformation frequency of 61% was achieved on leaf explants with ATCC15834 strain. Infection time of 30 min resulted in greater transformation frequency compared to 10 and 20 min, respectively...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400855/ex-vitro-hairy-root-induction-in-detached-peanut-leaves-for-plant-nematode-interaction-studies
#4
Larissa Arrais Guimaraes, Bruna Medeiros Pereira, Ana Claudia Guerra Araujo, Patricia Messenberg Guimaraes, Ana Cristina Miranda Brasileiro
BACKGROUND: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) production is largely affected by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne arenaria that causes yield losses worldwide. Transcriptome studies of wild Arachis species, which harbor resistance to a number of pests and diseases, disclosed several candidate genes for M. arenaria resistance. Peanut is recalcitrant to genetic transformation, so the use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-derived hairy roots emerged as an alternative for in-root functional characterization of these candidate genes...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393691/biotechnological-approaches-for-production-of-anti-cancerous-compounds-resveratrol-podophyllotoxin-and-zerumbone
#5
Krishnadas Nandagopal, Mihir Halder, Biswabhusan Dash, Sanghamitra Nayak, Sumita Jha
Secondary metabolites from numerous plant sources have been developed as anti-cancer reagents and compounds such as resveratrol, podophyllotoxin and zerumbone are of particular importance in this regard. Since their de novo chemical synthesis is both arduous and commercially expensive, there has been an impetus to develop viable, biotechnological methods of production. Accordingly, this review focuses on recent developments in the field, highlighting the use of micropropagation, cell suspension cultures, callus cultures, hairy root cultures, recombinant microbes and genetically modified higher plants...
April 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382027/potential-for-biocontrol-of-hairy-root-disease-by-a-paenibacillus-clade
#6
Lien Bosmans, Irene De Bruijn, Saskia Gerards, Rob Moerkens, Lore Van Looveren, Lieve Wittemans, Bart Van Calenberge, Anneleen Paeleman, Stefan Van Kerckhove, René De Mot, Jef Rozenski, Hans Rediers, Jos M Raaijmakers, Bart Lievens
Rhizogenic Agrobacterium biovar 1 is the causative agent of hairy root disease (HRD) in the hydroponic cultivation of tomato and cucumber causing significant losses in marketable yield. In order to prevent and control the disease chemical disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide or hypochlorite are generally applied to sanitize the hydroponic system and/or hydroponic solution. However, effective control of HRD sometimes requires high disinfectant doses that may have phytotoxic effects. Moreover, several of these chemicals may be converted to unwanted by-products with human health hazards...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370629/a-group-of-grapevine-myba-transcription-factors-located-in-chromosome-14-control-anthocyanin-synthesis-in-vegetative-organs-with-different-specificities-compared-to-the-berry-color-locus
#7
José Tomás Matus, Erika Cavallini, Rodrigo Loyola, Janine Höll, Laura Finezzo, Silvia Dal Santo, Sandrine Vialet, Mauro Commisso, Federica Roman, Andrea Schubert, José Antonio Alcalde, Jochen Bogs, Agnès Ageorges, Giovanni Battista Tornielli, Patricio Arce-Johnson
Grapevine organs accumulate anthocyanins in a cultivar-specific and environmentally induced manner. The MYBA1-A2 genes within the berry color locus in chromosome 2 represent the major genetic determinants of fruit color. The simultaneous occurrence of transposon insertions and point mutations in these genes is responsible for most white-skinned phenotypes. However, red pigmentation found in vegetative organs suggests the presence of additional regulators. This work describes a genomic region of chromosome 14 containing three closely related R2R3-MYB genes, named MYBA5, MYBA6 and MYBA7...
April 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359867/plant-tissue-cultures-as-sources-of-new-ene-and-ketoreductase-activities
#8
Cynthia Magallanes-Noguera, Francisco M Cecati, María Laura Mascotti, Guillermo F Reta, Elizabeth Agostini, Alejandro A Orden, Marcela Kurina-Sanz
While many redox enzymes are nowadays available for synthetic applications, the toolbox of ene-reductases is still limited. Consequently, the screening for these enzymes from diverse sources in the search of new biocatalyst suitable for green chemistry approaches is needed. Among 13 plant tissue cultures, Medicago sativa and Tessaria absinthioides calli, as well as Capsicum annuum hairy roots, were selected due to their ability to hydrogenate the CC double bond of the model substrate 2-cyclohexene-1-one. The three axenic plant cultures showed more preference toward highly activated molecules such as nitrostyrene and maleimide rather than the classical substrates of the well-known Old Yellow Enzymes, resembling the skills of the NAD(P)H-dependent flavin-independent enzymes...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358854/validation-of-a-hairy-roots-system-to-study-soybean-soybean-aphid-interactions
#9
Stephanie C Morriss, Matthew E Studham, Gregory L Tylka, Gustavo C MacIntosh
The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is one of the main insect pests of soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. Genomics approaches have provided important data on transcriptome changes, both in the insect and in the plant, in response to the plant-aphid interaction. However, the difficulties to transform soybean and to rear soybean aphid on artificial media have hindered our ability to systematically test the function of genes identified by those analyses as mediators of plant resistance to the insect. An efficient approach to produce transgenic soybean material is the production of transformed hairy roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes; however, soybean aphids colonize leaves or stems and thus this approach has not been utilized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356012/synthesis-of-novel-imine-stilbene-analogues-exhibiting-potent-anticancer-activity
#10
Raju Naini, Ravikumar Eslavath, Singh S Surya, Rama Krishna Kancha, Venkateswara Rao Khareedu, Dashavantha Reddy Vudem
Novel imine stilbenes have been synthesized using green chemistry mediated condensation reaction between aldehydes and amines in the ethanolic extract of Psoralea corylifolia hairy roots. These analogues differed in the number and/or position of hydroxyl and methoxy functional groups. Ethanol containing 1% of P. corylifolia hairy root extract facilitated instant reaction and yielded more than 99% product(s). The synthetic imine stilbene analogues and reasveratrol (RV) have been analysed for their anticancer potential...
March 27, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345676/bioconversion-of-stilbenes-in-genetically-engineered-root-and-cell-cultures-of-tobacco
#11
Diego Hidalgo, Ascensión Martínez-Márquez, Elisabeth Moyano, Roque Bru-Martínez, Purificación Corchete, Javier Palazon
It is currently possible to transfer a biosynthetic pathway from a plant to another organism. This system has been exploited to transfer the metabolic richness of certain plant species to other plants or even to more simple metabolic organisms such as yeast or bacteria for the production of high added value plant compounds. Another application is to bioconvert substrates into scarcer or biologically more interesting compounds, such as piceatannol and pterostilbene. These two resveratrol-derived stilbenes, which have very promising pharmacological activities, are found in plants only in small amounts...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338719/the-legume-mir1514a-modulates-a-nac-transcription-factor-transcript-to-trigger-phasirna-formation-in-response-to-drought
#12
Guadalupe Sosa-Valencia, Miguel Palomar, Alejandra A Covarrubias, José L Reyes
Recent studies have identified microRNAs as post-transcriptional regulators involved in stress responses. miR1514a is a legume microRNA that is induced in response to drought stress in Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and shows differential accumulation levels in roots during water deficit in two cultivars with different drought tolerance phenotypes. A recent degradome analysis revealed that miR1514a targets the transcripts of two NAC transcription factors (TFs), Phvul.010g121000 and Phvul.010g120700. Furthermore, expression studies and small RNA-seq data indicate that only Phvul...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330254/enhanced-production-of-an-anti-malarial-compound-artesunate-by-hairy-root-cultures-and-phytochemical-analysis-of-artemisia-pallens-wall
#13
Zarna Pala, Vishnu Shukla, Anshu Alok, Subhash Kudale, Neetin Desai
Artemisinin and its derivatives are still one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of malaria. Artemisia pallens commonly known as Dhavanam, is an aromatic herb belonging to the family Asteraceae. Increasing the artemisinin content of A. pallens by genetic engineering would improve the availability of this much needed drug. In the present study, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (strain NCIM 5140) mediated genetic transformation of Artemisia pallens were carried out for hairy root induction. The effect of different media (Half MS, MS, MS along with BAP 0...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330247/production-of-glucosinolates-phenolic-compounds-and-associated-gene-expression-profiles-of-hairy-root-cultures-in-turnip-brassica-rapa-ssp-rapa
#14
Ill-Min Chung, Kaliyaperumal Rekha, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) is an important vegetable crop producing glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenolic compounds. The GSLs, phenolic compound contents and transcript levels in hairy root cultures, as well as their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity were studied in turnip. Transgenic hairy root lines were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR. GSLs levels (glucoallysin, glucobrassicanapin, gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) and their gene expression levels (BrMYB28, BrMYB29, BrMYB34, BrMYB51, BrMYB122, CYP79 and CYP83) significantly increased in hairy roots compared with that in non-transformed roots...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299544/biotechnology-of-the-medicinal-plant-rhazya-stricta-a-little-investigated-member-of-the-apocynaceae-family
#15
REVIEW
Amir Akhgari, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey, Heiko Rischer
Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant that is widely distributed in the Middle East and Indian sub-continent. It produces a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) some of which possess important pharmacological properties. However, the yields of these compounds are very low. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient transformation method and induction of hairy roots system is a vital prerequisite for application of biotechnology in order to improve secondary metabolite yields...
March 15, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299323/addressing-challenges-to-enhance-the-bioactives-of-withania-somnifera-through-organ-tissue-and-cell-culture-based-approaches
#16
REVIEW
Pritika Singh, Rupam Guleri, Amrita Angurala, Kuldeep Kaur, Kulwinder Kaur, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa, Pratap Kumar Pati
Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271384/hairy-root-culture-optimization-and-resveratrol-production-from-vitis-vinifera-subsp-sylvesteris
#17
Sayed Mehdi Hosseini, Bahman Bahramnejad, Hamed Douleti Baneh, Aryo Emamifar, Paul H Goodwin
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound produced in very low levels in grapes. To achieve high yield of resveratrol in wild grape, three Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402, were used to induce hairy roots following infection of internodes, nodes or petioles of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris accessions W2 and W16, and cultivar Rasha. The effects of inoculation time, age of explants, bacterial concentration and co-cultivation times were examined on the efficiency of the production of hairy roots...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256553/targeted-mutagenesis-in-the-medicinal-plant-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#18
Bin Li, Guanghong Cui, Guoan Shen, Zhilai Zhan, Luqi Huang, Jiachun Chen, Xiaoquan Qi
CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful genome editing tool that has been extensively used in model plants and crops, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, wheat, and soybean. Here, we report the use of CRISPR/Cas9 to precisely knock out the committed diterpene synthase gene (SmCPS1) involved in tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with significant pharmacological activities, such as vasorelaxation, protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and antiarrhythmic effects. Three homozygous and eight chimeric mutants were obtained from 26 independent transgenic hairy root lines by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256030/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-quinolinic-acid-phosphoribosyl-transferase-qpt-gene-of-nicotiana-tabacum
#19
Sana Khan, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Jyotshna, Karuna Shanker, Feroz Khan, Laiq Ur Rahman
The quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QPT) is a key enzyme that converts quinolinic acid into nicotinic acid mononucleotide. The QPT gene plays an essential role in the pyridine nucleotide cycle as well as in the biosynthetic pathway of the alkaloid nicotine. However, a clear role for QPT is yet to be characterized to validate the actual function of this gene in planta. In the present study, an RNAi approach was used to reveal the functional role of QPT. Transformation and analysis of the hairy roots of the Nicotiana leaf explants was used, followed by plant regeneration and analysis...
March 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243841/genome-wide-analysis-of-expansin-superfamily-in-wild-arachis-discloses-a-stress-responsive-expansin-like-b-gene
#20
Larissa Arrais Guimaraes, Ana Paula Zotta Mota, Ana Claudia Guerra Araujo, Lucio Flavio de Alencar Figueiredo, Bruna Medeiros Pereira, Mario Alfredo de Passos Saraiva, Raquel Bispo Silva, Etienne G J Danchin, Patricia Messenberg Guimaraes, Ana Cristina Miranda Brasileiro
Expansins are plant cell wall-loosening proteins involved in adaptive responses to environmental stimuli and various developmental processes. The first genome-wide analysis of the expansin superfamily in the Arachis genus identified 40 members in A. duranensis and 44 in A. ipaënsis, the wild progenitors of cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea). These expansins were further characterized regarding their subfamily classification, distribution along the genomes, duplication events, molecular structure, and phylogeny...
February 27, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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