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hairy root

Léon Otten
The transfer of T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium to plant cells is a well-understood process of natural genetic engineering. The expression of T-DNA genes in plants leads to tumors, hairy roots, or transgenic plants. The transformed cells multiply and synthesize small molecules, called opines, used by Agrobacteria for their growth. Several T-DNA genes stimulate or influence plant growth. Among these, iaaH and iaaM encode proteins involved in auxin synthesis, whereas ipt encodes a protein involved in cytokinin synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Tania Ho-Plágaro, Raúl Huertas, María I Tamayo-Navarrete, Juan A Ocampo, José M García-Garrido
Background: Solanum lycopersicum , an economically important crop grown worldwide, has been used as a model for the study of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in non-legume plants for several years and several cDNA array hybridization studies have revealed specific transcriptomic profiles of mycorrhizal tomato roots. However, a method to easily screen candidate genes which could play an important role during tomato mycorrhization is required. Results: We have developed an optimized procedure for composite tomato plant obtaining achieved through Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation...
2018: Plant Methods
Zhandong Cai, Yanbo Cheng, Peiqi Xian, Qibin Ma, Ke Wen, Qiuju Xia, Gengyun Zhang, Hai Nian
Map-based cloning identified GmHAD1, a gene which encodes a HAD-like acid phosphatase, associated with soybean tolerance to low phosphorus stress. Phosphorus (P) deficiency in soils is a major limiting factor for crop growth worldwide. Plants may adapt to low phosphorus (LP) conditions via changes to root morphology, including the number, length, orientation, and branching of the principal root classes. To elucidate the genetic mechanisms for LP tolerance in soybean, quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to root morphology responses to LP were identified via hydroponic experiments...
May 12, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Shuang Guo, Yi Yang, Xing Liu, Neng-Biao Wu
In order to study the mechanism of nitrogen metabolism and secondary metabolism in Atropa belladonna hairy roots treated with yeast extract, yeast extract(YE) was added to the culture medium. Then the changes of physiological and biochemical indexes of A. belladonna hairy roots after treatment with YE were detected. The results are as follows,the activity of key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism changed differently. Compared with the control group (CK), the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were significantly increased, while the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was not changed significantly...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Nevena Mitić, Mariana Stanišić, Jelena Savić, Tatjana Ćosić, Nemanja Stanisavljević, Jovanka Miljuš-Đukić, Marija Marin, Svetlana Radović, Slavica Ninković
Chenopodium murale L. is an invasive weed species significantly interfering with wheat crop. However, the complete nature of its allelopathic influence on crops is not yet fully understood. In the present study, the focus is made on establishing the relation between plant morphophysiological changes and oxidative stress, induced by allelopathic extract. Phytotoxic medium of C. murale hairy root clone R5 reduced the germination rate (24% less than control value) of wheat cv. Nataša seeds, as well as seedling growth, diminishing shoot and root length significantly, decreased total chlorophyll content, and induced abnormal root gravitropism...
May 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Lin Liu, Dongfeng Yang, Bingcong Xing, Haihua Zhang, Zongsuo Liang
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known traditional Chinese herb which is used to treat heart disease. Salvia castanea is a substitute product for S. miltiorrhiza in the medicinal field. Previous study has shown that phosphate (Pi) deficiency could promote the accumulation of secondary metabolism in herbs, and it has also developed a strategy for saving Pi resources and increasing the yield of active substances in herbs. In the present study, the hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza and S. castanea were used to identify the Pi deficiency response mechanisms of these two Salvia species...
May 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Min Shi, Fenfen Huang, Changping Deng, Yao Wang, Guoyin Kai
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen in Chinese), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant, which is used as not only human medicine but also health-promotion food. Danshen has been extensively used for the treatment of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. As a major group of bioactive constituents from S. miltiorrhiza, water-soluble phenolic acids such as salvianolic acid B possessed good bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and other health-promoting activities...
May 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Masaru Nakayasu, Ryota Akiyama, Hyoung Jae Lee, Keishi Osakabe, Yuriko Osakabe, Bunta Watanabe, Yukihiro Sugimoto, Naoyuki Umemoto, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka, Masaharu Mizutani
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major food crop, while the most tissues of potato accumulates steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) α-solanine and α-chaconine. Since SGAs confer a bitter taste on human and show the toxicity against various organisms, reducing the SGA content in the tubers is requisite for potato breeding. However, generation of SGA-free potato has not been achieved yet, although silencing of several SGA biosynthetic genes led a decrease in SGAs. Here, we show that the knockout of St16DOX encoding a steroid 16α-hydroxylase in SGA biosynthesis causes the complete abolition of the SGA accumulation in potato hairy roots...
April 24, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ing-Gin J Chen, Meng-Shiou Lee, Ming-Kuem Lin, Chia-Yun Ko, Wen-Te Chang
The effect of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the production of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants and hairy roots is receiving much attention. The roots and rhizomes of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge are widely used for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The main components are liposoluble tanshinones and hydrophilic phenolic acids. Moreover, hairy root culture of S. miltiorrhiza has been used in research of valuable plant-derived secondary metabolites...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Zhenqing Bai, Wenrui Li, Yanyan Jia, Zhiyong Yue, Jie Jiao, Wenli Huang, Pengguo Xia, Zongsuo Liang
The SmERF6, which recognizes the GCC-box of SmCPS1 and SmKSL1 promoter in nucleus, regulates the tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Tanshinone, an important medicinal ingredient in Salvia miltiorrhiza, is best known for its use in medicine. However, the transcription factor regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis is unclear. Here, we isolated and identified a transcription factor in the ERF family of S. miltiorrhiza, SmERF6, which was screened from an S. miltiorrhiza cDNA library by the promoters of two key tanshinone synthesis genes (SmKSL1 and SmCPS1); this factor regulated tanshinone biosynthesis...
April 27, 2018: Planta
Zahra Shirazi, Ali Aalami, Masoud Tohidfar, Mohammad Mehdi Sohani
Glycyrrhiza glabra is one of the most important and well-known medicinal plants which produces various triterpene saponins such as glycyrrhizin. Beta-amyrin 11-oxidase (CYP88D6) plays a key role in engineering pathway of glycyrrhizin production and converts an intermediated beta-amyrin compound to glycyrrhizin. In this study, pBI121GUS-9 :CYP88D6 construct was transferred to G. glabra using Agrobacterium rhizogene ATCC 15834. The quantitation of transgene was measured in putative transgenic hairy roots using qRT-PCR...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Elena L Ilina, Alexey S Kiryushkin, Victoria A Semenova, Nikolay P Demchenko, Katharina Pawlowski, Kirill N Demchenko
Background and Aims: In some plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, initiation and development of lateral roots (LRs) occur in the parental root apical meristem. The objective of this study was to identify the general mechanisms underlying LR initiation (LRI). Therefore, the first cellular events leading to LRI as well as the role of auxin in this process were studied in the Cucurbita pepo root apical meristem. Methods: Transgenic hairy roots harbouring the auxin-responsive promoter DR5 fused to different reporter genes were used for visualizing of cellular auxin response maxima (ARMs) via confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-D imaging...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Botany
Michał Markowski, Marek Długosz, Anna Szakiel, Mathieu Durli, Sophie Poinsignon, Sabine Bouguet-Bonnet, Lionel Vernex-Loset, Gabriel Krier, Max Henry
Native plant of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) synthesizes oleanolic acid saponins classified as glucosides or glucuronides according to the first residue in sugar chain bound to C-3 hydroxyl group. Hairy root culture, obtained by transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834, exhibit a potent ability of synthesis of oleanolic acid glycosides. The HPLC profile of saponin fraction obtained from C. officinalis hairy roots treated with plant stress hormone, jasmonic acid, showed the 10-times increase of the content of one particular compound, determined by NMR and MALDI TOF as a new bisdesmoside saponin, 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-oleanolic acid...
April 18, 2018: Natural Product Research
Vojtech Hudzieczek, Radim Cegan, Tomas Cermak, Nela Bacovska, Zuzana Machalkova, Karel Dolezal, Lucie Plihalova, Daniel Voytas, Roman Hobza, Boris Vyskot
Silene latifolia serves as a model species to study dioecy, the evolution of sex chromosomes, dosage compensation and sex-determination systems in plants. Currently, no protocol for genetic transformation is available for this species, mainly because S. latifolia is considered recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration and infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Using cytokinins and their synthetic derivatives, we markedly improved the efficiency of regeneration. Several agrobacterial strains were tested for their ability to deliver DNA into S...
April 12, 2018: New Biotechnology
Keita Tamura, Koki Yoshida, Yasuko Hiraoka, Daiki Sakaguchi, Ayaka Chikugo, Keiichi Mochida, Mareshige Kojoma, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka, Hikaru Seki
Glycyrrhiza uralensis (licorice) is a widely used medicinal plant belonging to the Fabaceae. Its main active component, glycyrrhizin, is an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin widely used as a medicine and as a natural sweetener. Licorice also produces other triterpenoids, including soyasaponins. Recent studies have revealed various oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) required for the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in licorice. Of these enzymes, β-amyrin synthase (bAS) and β-amyrin C-24 hydroxylase (CYP93E3) are involved in the biosynthesis of soyasapogenol B (an aglycone of soyasaponins) from 2,3-oxidosqualene...
April 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Meng-Dan Yang, Ying Zhao, Peng-da Ma
The study is aimed to construct high quality Salvia miltiorrhiza cDNA library and obtain the SmJAZ8 gene of S. miltiorrhiza by yeast two-hybrid system. In this study, full-length cDNA was synthesized from roots, stems, leaves, flowers and hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza. The full-length cDNA library was synthesized by SMART method and constructed with DSN homogenization technique. The results showed that the library capacity was 1.45×10⁶, the recombination rate was 100%, and the average size of the insert was 500-2 000 bp...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Waqas Khan Kayani, Bushra Hafeez Kiani, Erum Dilshad, Bushra Mirza
Artemisinin and its analogues are naturally occurring most effective antimalarial secondary metabolites. These compounds also possess activity against various types of cancer cells, schistosomiasis, and some viral diseases. Artemisinin and its derivatives (A&D) are found in very low amounts in the only natural source i.e. Artemisia plant. To meet the global needs, plant sources have been exploited for the enhanced production of these natural products because their chemical synthesis is not profitable. The generally adopted approaches include non-transgenic (tissue and cell cultures) and transgenic together with the cell, tissue, and whole transgenic plant cultures...
March 27, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Sullivan Renouard, Cyrielle Corbin, Samantha Drouet, Barbara Medvedec, Joël Doussot, Cyril Colas, Benoit Maunit, Avninder S Bhambra, Eric Gontier, Nathalie Jullian, François Mesnard, Michèle Boitel, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Randolph R J Arroo, Eric Lainé, Christophe Hano
Linum flavum hairy root lines were established from hypocotyl pieces using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and ATCC 15834. Both strains were effective for transformation but induction of hairy root phenotype was more stable with strain ATCC 15834. Whereas similar accumulation patterns were observed in podophyllotoxin-related compounds (6-methoxy-podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin), significant quantitative variations were noted between root lines. The influence of culture medium and various treatments (hormone, elicitation and precursor feeding) were evaluated...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qun Cheng, Lidong Dong, Tianjiao Gao, Tengfei Liu, Ninghui Li, Le Wang, Xin Chang, Junjiang Wu, Pengfei Xu, Shuzhen Zhang
Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann (P. sojae) causes Phytophthora root rot, a destructive soybean disease worldwide. A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor is thought to be involved in the response to P. sojae infection in soybean, as revealed by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). However, the molecular mechanism underlying this response is currently unclear. Here, we explored the function and underlying mechanisms of a bHLH transcription factor in soybean, designated GmPIB1 (P. sojae-inducible bHLH transcription factor), during host responses to P...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ill-Min Chung, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam
The present study describes the elicitor effect of silver ion (Ag+ ) and biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to enhance the biomass accumulation and phenolic compound production as well as biological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer) in genetically transformed root (hairy root) cultures of Cucumis anguria. The biomass of hairy root cultures was significantly increased by AgNPs whereas decreased in Ag+ elicitation at 1 and 2 mg/L. AgNPs-elicited hairy roots produced a significantly higher amount of individual phenolic compounds (flavonols, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids), total phenolic and flavonoid contents than Ag+ -elicited hairy roots...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
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