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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898492/growth-hormone-regulates-the-sensitization-of-developing-peripheral-nociceptors-during-cutaneous-inflammation
#1
Xiaohua Liu, Kathryn J Green, Zachary K Ford, Luis F Queme, Peilin Lu, Jessica L Ross, Frank B Lee, Aaron T Shank, Renita C Hudgins, Michael P Jankowski
Cutaneous inflammation alters the function of primary afferents and gene expression in the affected dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). However specific mechanisms of injury-induced peripheral afferent sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity during development are not fully understood. Recent studies in children suggest a potential role for growth hormone (GH) in pain modulation. GH modulates homeostasis and tissue repair after injury, but how GH effects nociception in neonates is not known. To determine if GH played a role in modulating sensory neuron function and hyper-responsiveness during skin inflammation in young mice, we examined behavioral hypersensitivity and the response properties of cutaneous afferents using an ex vivo hairy skin-saphenous nerve-dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-spinal cord preparation...
November 18, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898105/chemical-induction-of-hairpin-rnai-molecules-to-silence-vital-genes-in-plant-roots
#2
Siming Liu, John I Yoder
Understanding the functions encoded by plant genes can be facilitated by reducing transcript levels by hairpin RNA (hpRNA) mediated silencing. A bottleneck to this technology occurs when a gene encodes a phenotype that is necessary for cell viability and silencing the gene inhibits transformation. Here we compared the use of two chemically inducible plant promoter systems to drive hpRNA mediated gene silencing in transgenic, hairy roots. We cloned the gene encoding the Yellow Fluorescence Protein (YFP) into the dexamethasone inducible vector pOpOff2 and into the estradiol induced vector pER8...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871141/root-isoflavonoids-and-hairy-root-transformation-influence-key-bacterial-taxa-in-the-soybean-rhizosphere
#3
Laura J White, Xijin Ge, Volker S Brözel, Senthil Subramanian
Rhizodeposits play a key role in shaping rhizosphere microbial communities. In soybean, isoflavonoids are a key rhizodeposit component that aid in plant defense and enable symbiotic associations with rhizobia. However, it is uncertain if and how they influence rhizosphere microbial communities. Isoflavonoid biosynthesis was silenced via RNA interference of isoflavone synthase in soybean hairy root composite plants. Rhizosphere soil fractions tightly associated with roots were isolated, and PCR amplicons from 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1-V3 and V3-V5 from these fractions were sequenced using 454...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853836/increasing-the-synthesis-of-bioactive-abietane-diterpenes-in-salvia-sclarea-hairy-roots-by-elicited-transcriptional-reprogramming
#4
M C Vaccaro, M E Alfieri, N Malafronte, N De Tommasi, A Leone
Transcriptional activation of genes belonging to the plastidial MEP-derived isoprenoid pathway by elicitation with methyl jasmonate and coronatine enhanced the content of bioactive abietane diterpenes in Salvia sclarea hairy roots. We have shown that aethiopinone, an abietane diterpene synthesized in Salvia sclarea roots is cytotoxic and induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells. To develop a production platform for this compound and other abietane diterpenes, hairy root technology was combined with the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or the phytotoxin coronatine (Cor)...
November 16, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815671/integrating-qtl-mapping-and-transcriptomics-identifies-candidate-genes-underlying-qtls-associated-with-soybean-tolerance-to-low-phosphorus-stress
#5
Dan Zhang, Hengyou Zhang, Shanshan Chu, Hongyan Li, Yingjun Chi, Daniella Triebwasser-Freese, Haiyan Lv, Deyue Yu
Soybean is a high phosphorus (P) demand species that is sensitive to low-P stress. Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) for P efficiency have been identified in soybean, but few of these have been cloned and agriculturally applied mainly due to various limitations on identifying suitable P efficiency candidate genes. Here, we combined QTL mapping, transcriptome profiling, and plant transformation to identify candidate genes underlying QTLs associated with low-P tolerance and response mechanisms to low-P stress in soybean...
November 4, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813337/still-stable-after-11-years-a-catharanthus-roseus-hairy-root-line-maintains-inducible-expression-of-anthranilate-synthase
#6
Jiayi Sun, Li Ma, Ka-Yiu San, Christie A M Peebles
Hairy root cultures generated using Agrobacterium rhizogenes are an extensively investigated system for the overproduction of various secondary metabolite based pharmaceuticals and chemicals. This study demonstrated a transgenic Catharanthus roseus hairy root line carrying a feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase (AS) maintained chemical and genetic stability for 11 years. The AS gene was originally inserted in the hairy root genome under the control of a glucocorticoid inducible promoter. After 11 years continuous maintenance of this hairy root line, genomic PCR of the ASA gene showed the presence of ASA gene in the genome...
November 4, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809756/recent-patents-in-agricultural-biotechnology-focus-on-health
#7
Abdullah Makhzoum, Srividhya Venkataraman, Jocelyne Tremouillaux-Guiller, Kathleen L Hefferon
BACKGROUND: Agricultural biotechnology, including the generation of genetically modified food crops, has been the subject of much controversy over the last few years. Initially serving the basic needs of farmers, Ag Biotech has more recently gained much appeal for its opportunities with respect to both the nutritional and pharmaceutical sciences. METHODS: The following review describes a number of recently approved patents that could have direct implications for the field of medicine...
November 1, 2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806110/a-leader-intron-of-a-soybean-elongation-factor-1a-eef1a-gene-interacts-with-proximal-promoter-elements-to-regulate-gene-expression-in-synthetic-promoters
#8
Ning Zhang, Leah K McHale, John J Finer
Introns, especially the first intron in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR), can significantly impact gene expression via intron-mediated enhancement (IME). In this study, we demonstrate the leader intron of a soybean elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) gene (GmScreamM8) was essential for the high activity of the native promoter. Furthermore, the interaction of the GmScreamM8 leader intron with regulatory element sequences from several soybean eEF1A promoters was studied using synthetic promoters, which consisted of element tetramers upstream of a core promoter used to regulate a green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter gene...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801944/a-differentially-regulated-ap2-erf-transcription-factor-gene-cluster-acts-downstream-of-a-map-kinase-cascade-to-modulate-terpenoid-indole-alkaloid-biosynthesis-in-catharanthus-roseus
#9
Priyanka Paul, Sanjay K Singh, Barunava Patra, Xueyi Sui, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Catharanthus roseus produces bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including the chemotherapeutics, vincristine and vinblastine. Transcriptional regulation of TIA biosynthesis is not fully understood. The jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive AP2/ERF transcription factor (TF), ORCA3, and its regulator, CrMYC2, play key roles in TIA biosynthesis. ORCA3 forms a physical cluster with two uncharacterized AP2/ERFs, ORCA4 and 5. Here, we report that (1) the ORCA gene cluster is differentially regulated; (2) ORCA4, while overlapping functionally with ORCA3, modulates an additional set of TIA genes...
November 1, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762446/the-purple-acid-phosphatase-gmpap21-enhances-internal-phosphorus-utilization-and-possibly-plays-a-role-in-symbiosis-with-rhizobia-in-soybean
#10
Chengchen Li, Caifeng Li, Haiyan Zhang, Hong Liao, Xiurong Wang
Induction of secreted and intracellular purple acid phosphatases (PAPs; EC 3.1.3.2) is widely recognized as an adaptation of plants to phosphorus (P) deficiency. The secretion of PAPs plays important roles in P acquisition. However, little is known about the functions of intracellular PAP in plants and nodules. In this study, we identified a novel PAP gene GmPAP21 in soybean. Expression of GmPAP21 was induced by P limitation in nodules, roots and old leaves, and increased in roots with increasing duration of P starvation...
October 20, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752259/target-and-non-target-site-mechanisms-developed-by-glyphosate-resistant-hairy-beggarticks-bidens-pilosa-l-populations-from-mexico
#11
Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Carmen V Ozuna, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Hugo E Cruz-Hipolito, José A Domínguez-Valenzuela, Francisco Barro, Rafael De Prado
In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746806/exploring-the-metabolic-stability-of-engineered-hairy-roots-after-16-years-maintenance
#12
Suvi T Häkkinen, Elisabeth Moyano, Rosa M Cusidó, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey
Plants remain a major source of new drugs, leads and fine chemicals. Cell cultures deriving from plants offer a fascinating tool to study plant metabolic pathways and offer large scale production systems for valuable compounds - commercial examples include compounds such as paclitaxel. The major constraint with undifferentiated cell cultures is that they are generally considered to be genetically unstable and cultured cells tend to produce low yields of secondary metabolites especially over time. Hairy roots, a tumor tissue caused by infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a relevant alternative for plant secondary metabolite production for being fast growing, able to grow without phytohormones, and displaying higher stability than undifferentiated cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734633/an-e-e-%C3%AE-farnesene-synthase-gene-of-soybean-has-a-role-in-defense-against-nematodes-and-is-involved-in-synthesizing-insect-induced-volatiles
#13
Jingyu Lin, Dan Wang, Xinlu Chen, Tobias G Köllner, Mitra Mazarei, Hong Guo, Vincent R Pantalone, Prakash Arelli, Charles Neal Stewart, Ningning Wang, Feng Chen
Plant terpene synthase genes (TPSs) have roles in diverse biological processes. Here we report the functional characterization of one member of the soybean TPS gene family, which was designated GmAFS. Recombinant GmAFS produced in Escherichia coli catalyzed the formation of a sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene. GmAFS is closely related to (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase gene from apple, both phylogenetically and structurally. GmAFS was further investigated for its biological role in defense against nematodes and insects...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694525/clade-iva-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factors-form-part-of-a-conserved-jasmonate-signalling-circuit-for-the-regulation-of-bioactive-plant-terpenoid-biosynthesis
#14
Jan Mertens, Alex Van Moerkercke, Robin Vanden Bossche, Jacob Pollier, Alain Goossens
Plants produce many bioactive, specialized metabolites to defend themselves when facing various stress situations. Their biosynthesis is directed by a tightly controlled regulatory circuit that is elicited by phytohormones such as jasmonate (JA). The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) and Triterpene Saponin Activating Regulator (TSAR) 1 and 2, from Catharanthus roseus and Medicago truncatula, respectively, all belong to clade IVa of the bHLH protein family and activate distinct terpenoid pathways, thereby mediating monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) and triterpene saponin (TS) accumulation, respectively, in these two species...
October 1, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649810/differential-expressed-analysis-of-tripterygium-wilfordii-unigenes-involved-in-terpenoid-backbone-biosynthesis
#15
Jing Zhang, Yan-Bo Huo, Yan Liu, Jun-Tao Feng, Zhi-Qing Ma, Chuan-Shu Zhu, Xing Zhang
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. is the traditional medicinal plants in China. Triptolide, wilforgine, and wilforine are the bioactive compounds in T. wilfordii. In this study, the contents of three metabolites and transcription levels of 21 genes involved in three metabolites biosynthesis in T. wilfordii were examined using high-performance liquid chromatography and reverse transcription PCR after application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on hairy roots in time course experiment (3-24 h). The results indicated that application of MeJA inhibited triptolide accumulation and promoted wilforgine and wilforine metabolites biosynthesis...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642325/potent-antioxidant-properties-of-rolb-transformed-catharanthus-roseus-l-g-don
#16
Shahin Mardani-Nejad, Ramazan Ali Khavari-Nejad, Sara Saadatmand, Farzaneh Najafi, Parviz Aberoomand Azar
Free radicals play an important role in pathological processes such as aging and developing cancer; hence, natural products inhibit free radical production, and can play an important role in preventing diseases. We aimed to evaluate the scavenging activity of free radicals, reducing power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and the antioxidant composition of rolB-transformed hairy roots and leaf callus of Catharanthus roseus. Hairy roots of the Catharanthus roseus were induced using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 to transfer the rolB gene...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637316/target-directed-discovery-and-production-of-pharmaceuticals-in-transgenic-mutant-plant-cells
#17
D P Brown, D T Rogers, S K Gunjan, G A Gerhardt, J M Littleton
Plants are a source of complex bioactive compounds, with value as pharmaceuticals, or leads for synthetic modification. Many of these secondary metabolites have evolved as defenses against competing organisms and their pharmaceutical value is "accidental", resulting from homology between target proteins in these competitors, and human molecular therapeutic targets. Here we show that it is possible to use mutation and selection of plant cells to re-direct their "evolution" toward metabolites that interact with the therapeutic target proteins themselves...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630657/efficient-inactivation-of-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-related-genes-in-lotus-japonicus-using-crispr-cas9
#18
Longxiang Wang, Longlong Wang, Qian Tan, Qiuling Fan, Hui Zhu, Zonglie Hong, Zhongming Zhang, Deqiang Duanmu
The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation) related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615454/bioactivity-of-phytosterols-and-their-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#19
Begoña Miras-Moreno, Ana Belén Sabater-Jara, M A Pedreño, Lorena Almagro
Phytosterols are a kind of plant metabolite belonging to the triterpene family. These compounds are essential biomolecules for human health, and so they must be taken from foods. β-Sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol are the main phytosterols found in plants. Phytosterols have beneficial effects on human health since they are able to reduce plasma cholesterol levels and have antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. However, there are many difficulties in obtaining them, since the levels of these compounds produced from plant raw materials are low and their chemical synthesis is not economically profitable for commercial exploitation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611874/blue-light-perception-by-both-roots-and-rhizobia-inhibits-nodule-formation-in-lotus-japonicus
#20
Aya Shimomura, Ayumi Naka, Nobuyuki Miyazaki, Sayaka Moriuchi, Susumu Arima, Shusei Sato, Hideki Hirakawa, Makoto Hayashi, Maskit Maymon, Ann M Hirsch, Akihiro Suzuki
In many legumes, roots that are exposed to light do not form nodules. Here, we report that blue light inhibits nodulation in Lotus japonicus roots inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti. Using RNA interference, we suppressed the expression of phototropin and cryptochrome genes in L. japonicus hairy roots. Under blue light, plants transformed with an empty vector did not develop nodules, whereas plants exhibiting suppressed expression of cry1 and cry2 genes formed nodules. We also measured rhizobial growth to investigate whether the inhibition of nodulation could be caused by a reduced population of rhizobia in response to light...
September 9, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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