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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329649/hppr-encodes-the-hydroxyphenylpyruvate-reductase-required-for-the-biosynthesis-of-hydrophilic-phenolic-acids-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#1
Guo-Quan Wang, Jun-Feng Chen, Bo Yi, He-Xin Tan, Lei Zhang, Wan-Sheng Chen
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Hydrophilic phenolic acids, including rosmarinic acid (RA) and lithospermic acid B (LAB), are its primary medicinal ingredients. However, the biosynthetic pathway of RA and LAB in S. miltiorrhiza is still poorly understood. In the present study, we accomplished the isolation and characterization of a novel S. miltiorrhiza Hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase (HPPR) gene, SmHPPR, which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of RA...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329437/association-of-extracellular-dntp-utilization-with-a-gmpap1-like-protein-identified-in-cell-wall-proteomic-analysis-of-soybean-roots
#2
Weiwei Wu, Yan Lin, Pandao Liu, Qianqian Chen, Jiang Tian, Cuiyue Liang
Plant root cell walls are dynamic systems that serve as the first plant compartment responsive to soil conditions, such as phosphorus (P) deficiency. To date, evidence for the regulation of root cell wall proteins (CWPs) by P deficiency remains sparse. In order to gain a better understanding of the roles played by CWPs in the roots of soybean (Glycine max) in adaptation to P deficiency, we conducted an iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) proteomic analysis. A total of 53 CWPs with differential accumulation in response to P deficiency were identified...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287271/maize-root-culture-as-a-model-system-for-studying-azoxystrobin-biotransformation-in-plants
#3
Maheswor Gautam, Mohamed Elhiti, Inge S Fomsgaard
Hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes are well established models to study the metabolism of xenobiotics in plants for phytoremediation purposes. However, the model requires special skills and resources for growing and is a time-consuming process. The roots induction process alters the genetic construct of a plant and is known to express genes that are normally absent from the non-transgenic plants. In this study, we propose and establish a non-transgenic maize root model to study xenobiotic metabolism in plants for phytoremediation purpose using azoxystrobin as a xenobiotic compound...
December 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281115/smjaz8-acts-as-a-core-repressor-regulating-ja-induced-biosynthesis-of-salvianolic-acids-and-tanshinones-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza-hairy-roots
#4
Tianlin Pei, Pengda Ma, Kai Ding, Sijia Liu, Yanyan Jia, Mei Ru, Juane Dong, Zongsuo Liang
Jasmonates (JAs) are important plant hormones that regulate a variety of plant development and defense processes, including secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins act as negative regulators in the JA signaling pathways of plants. We first verified that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) enhanced the accumulation of both salvianolic acids and tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) hairy roots by inducing the expression of their biosynthetic pathway genes. Nine JAZ genes were cloned from Danshen and their expression levels in hairy roots were all elevated by treatment with MeJA...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278928/exploring-plant-tissue-culture-in-withania-somnifera-l-dunal-in-vitro-propagation-and-secondary-metabolite-production
#5
Shasmita, Manoj K Rai, Soumendra K Naik
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves...
December 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259331/characterization-of-soybean-wrky-gene-family-and-identification-of-soybean-wrky-genes-that-promote-resistance-to-soybean-cyst-nematode
#6
Yan Yang, Yuan Zhou, Yingjun Chi, Baofang Fan, Zhixiang Chen
WRKY proteins are a superfamily of plant transcription factors with important roles in plants. WRKY proteins have been extensively analyzed in plant species including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we report characterization of soybean WRKY gene family and their functional analysis in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the most important soybean pathogen. Through search of the soybean genome, we identified 174 genes encoding WRKY proteins that can be classified into seven groups as established in other plants...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249063/the-application-of-plant-in-vitro-cultures-in-cannabinoid-production
#7
REVIEW
Tomasz Wróbel, Mariola Dreger, Karolina Wielgus, Ryszard Słomski
Cannabinoids have considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the production of medicines from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in most countries is restricted by law. Large-scale, field cultivation of hemp is difficult to control. Cannabinoid content in plants is variable and depends on multiple factors. Therefore, alternative methods of production have been investigated. The development of micropropagation techniques is a necessary step for genetic modification. Promising results have been obtained for certain narcotic genotypes...
December 16, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243425/-overexpression-and-isolation-of-cyp76ah1-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza-hairy-roots
#8
Meng-Die Qi, Jian Wang, Xiao-Jing Ma, Quan Zhang, Fang-Fang Wang, Ying Kang, Yong Liu, Hui-Xin Lin
Protein complexes are involved in the synthesis of multiple secondary metabolites in plants, and their separation is essential to elucidate plant secondary metabolism and improve in vitro catalytic efficiency. In this study, the transgenic hairy roots of CYP76AH1, a key enzyme of tanshinone synthesis pathway, was constructed and the transgenic hairy roots of Danshen overexpressing CYP76AH1 protein were screened by Western blotting and used as a tissue culture material for the subsequent extraction of protein complex in tanshinone synthesis pathway...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198317/effects-of-high-intensity-static-magnetic-fields-on-a-root-based-bioreactor-system-for-space-applications
#9
Maria Elena Villani, Silvia Massa, Vanni Lopresto, Rosanna Pinto, Anna Maria Salzano, Andrea Scaloni, Eugenio Benvenuto, Angiola Desiderio
Static magnetic fields created by superconducting magnets have been proposed as an effective solution to protect spacecrafts and planetary stations from cosmic radiations. This shield can deflect high-energy particles exerting injurious effects on living organisms, including plants. In fact, plant systems are becoming increasingly interesting for space adaptation studies, being useful not only as food source but also as sink of bioactive molecules in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). However, the application of protective magnetic shields would generate inside space habitats residual magnetic fields, of the order of few hundreds milli Tesla, whose effect on plant systems is poorly known...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196256/diverse-responses-of-tanshinone-biosynthesis-to-biotic-and-abiotic-elicitors-in-hairy-root-cultures-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza-and-salvia-castanea-diels-f-tomentosa
#10
Dongfeng Yang, Yumin Fang, Pengguo Xia, Xiaodan Zhang, Zongsuo Liang
Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza) and Salvia castanea Diels f. tomentosa (S. castanea) are both used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. They have the same bioactive compound tanshinones, but whose contents are hugely different. This study illustrated diverse responses of tanshinone biosynthesis to yeast extract (YE) and Ag+ in hairy roots of the two species. YE enhanced both the growth and tanshinone biosynthesis of two hairy roots, and contributed more to tanshinone accumulation in S. castanea than that in S...
November 28, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191709/strigolactones-promote-rhizobia-interaction-and-increase-nodulation-in-soybean-glycine-max
#11
Naveed Ur Rehman, Mohammed Ali, Muhammad Zulfiqar Ahmad, Guo Liang, Jian Zhao
Strigolactones (SLs) play an important role in controlling root growth, shoot branching, and plant-symbionts interaction. Despite the importance, the components of SL biosynthesis and signaling have not been unequivocally explored in soybean. Here we identified the putative components of SL synthesis enzymes GmMAX1a and GmMAX4a with tissue expression patterns and were apparently regulated by rhizobia infection and changed during nodule development. GmMAX1a and GmMAX4a were further characterized in soybean nodulation with knockdown transgenic hairy roots...
December 2, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161468/the-relationship-between-endogenous-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-activity-and-biologically-active-flavones-aglycone-contents-in-hairy-roots-of-baikal-skullcap
#12
V S Dikaya, A I Solovyeva, R A Sidorov, P A Solovyev, A Yu Stepanova
Here we examine the relationship between contents of principal flavones in hairy roots of Scutellaria baicalensis with the activity of the β-glucuronidase (sGUS) enzyme during a culturing cycle. Using RP-HPLC, we show that the highest contents of aglycones, baicalin and wogonin is observed at the growth days 8, 14 and 71 and reach 45, 41 and 62% (based on the total weight of hairy roots of the Baikal skullcap), correspondingly. Their accumulation is accompanied by increase of the sGUS activity, which we determined fluorometrically...
November 21, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158266/stilbenoid-prenyltransferases-define-key-steps-in-the-diversification-of-peanut-phytoalexins
#13
Tianhong Yang, Lingling Fang, Sheri Sanders, Srinivas Jayanthi, Gayathri Rajan, Ram Podicheti, Suresh Kumar Thallapuranam, Keithanne Mockaitis, Fabricio Medina-Bolivar
Defense responses of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) to biotic and abiotic stresses include the synthesis of prenylated stilbenoids. Members of this compound class show several protective activities in human disease studies, and the list of potential therapeutic targets continues to expand. Despite their medical and biological importance, the biosynthetic pathways of prenylated stilbenoids remain to be elucidated, and the genes encoding stilbenoid-specific prenyltransferases have yet to be identified in any plant species...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156979/determination-of-lignans-phenolic-acids-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-transformed-hairy-root-culture-of-linum-usitatissimum
#14
Ahmed M M Gabr, Hoda B Mabrok, Emam A Abdel-Rahim, Mohamed K El-Bahr, Iryna Smetanska
Hairy root culture is a promising alternative method for the production of secondary metabolites. In this study, transformed root of Linum usitatissimum was established using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 strain from root cultures for lignans, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity determination. Total lignin content (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol) was 55.5% higher in transformed root cultures than in the non-transformed root culture. Secoisolariciresinol was detected in higher concentration (2...
November 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140457/genistein-specific-g6dt-gene-for-the-inducible-production-of-wighteone-in-lotus-japonicus
#15
Jinyue Liu, Wenbo Jiang, Yaying Xia, Xuemin Wang, Guoan Shen, Yongzhen Pang
Prenylated isoflavonoids were found in several legume plants, and they possess various biological activities that play important roles in both plant defense and human health. However, it is still unknown whether prenylated isoflavonoids are present in the model legume plant L. japonicus. In the present study, we found that the prenylated isoflavonoid wighteone was produced in L. japonicus when the leaf was supplemented with genistein. Furthermore, a novel prenyltransferase gene LjG6DT was identified, which shared high similarity and was closely related with several known prenyltransferase genes involved in isoflavonoid biosynthesis...
November 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139179/involvement-of-lemrp-an-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-in-shikonin-transport-and-biosynthesis-in-lithospermum-erythrorhizon
#16
Yu Zhu, Shu-Juan Chu, Yue-Lin Luo, Jiang-Yan Fu, Cheng-Yi Tang, Gui-Hua Lu, Yan-Jun Pang, Xiao-Ming Wang, Rong-Wu Yang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
·Shikonin and its derivatives are important medicinal secondary metabolites accumulating in the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Although some membrane proteins have been identified as transporters of secondary metabolites, the mechanisms underlying shikonin transport and accumulation in L. erythrorhizon cells still remain largely unknown. ·In this study, we isolated a cDNA encoding LeMRP, an ATP-binding cassette transporter from L. erythrorhizon and further investigated its functions in the transport and biosynthesis of shikonin with the yeast transformation and transgenic hairy root method, respectively...
November 15, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132307/involvement-of-lemdr-an-atp-binding-cassette-protein-gene-in-shikonin-transport-and-biosynthesis-in-lithospermum-erythrorhizon
#17
Yu Zhu, Gui-Hua Lu, Zhuo-Wu Bian, Feng-Yao Wu, Yan-Jun Pang, Xiao-Ming Wang, Rong-Wu Yang, Cheng-Yi Tang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: Shikonin is a naphthoquinone secondary metabolite with important medicinal value and is found in Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Considering the limited knowledge on the membrane transport mechanism of shikonin, this study investigated such molecular mechanism. RESULTS: We successfully isolated an ATP-binding cassette protein gene, LeMDR, from L. erythrorhizon. LeMDR is predominantly expressed in L. erythrorhizon roots, where shikonin accumulated. Functional analysis of LeMDR by using the yeast cell expression system revealed that LeMDR is possibly involved in the shikonin efflux transport...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105731/expression-of-tabersonine-16-hydroxylase-and-16-hydroxytabersonine-o-methyltransferase-in-catharanthus-roseus-hairy-roots
#18
Jiayi Sun, Le Zhao, Zengyi Shao, Jacqueline Shanks, Christie A M Peebles
The monoterpene indole alkaloids vindoline and catharanthine, which are exclusively synthesized in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus, are the two important precursors for the production of pharmaceutically important anti-cancer medicines vinblastine and vincristine. Hairy root culture is an ideal platform for alkaloids production due to its industrial scalability, genetic and chemical stability, and availability of genetic engineering tools. However, C. roseus hairy roots do not produce vindoline due to the lack of expression of the seven-step pathway from tabersonine to vindoline [Murata & De Luca () Plant Journal, 44, 581-594]...
November 4, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098590/identification-and-characterization-of-key-circadian-clock-genes-of-tobacco-hairy-roots-putative-regulatory-role-in-xenobiotic-metabolism
#19
Lucas G Sosa Alderete, Mario E Guido, Elizabeth Agostini, Paloma Mas
The circadian clock is an endogenous system that allows organisms to daily adapt and optimize their physiology and metabolism. We studied the key circadian clock gene (CCG) orthologs in Nicotiana tabacum seedlings and in hairy root cultures (HRC). Putative genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds (MXC) were selected and their expression profiles were also analyzed. Seedlings and HRC displayed similar diurnal variations in the expression profiles for the CCG examined under control conditions (CC)...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079721/diverse-peptide-hormones-affecting-root-growth-identified-in-the-medicago-truncatula-secreted-peptidome
#20
Neha Patel, Nadiatul A Mohd-Radzman, Leo Corcilius, Ben Crossett, Angela Connolly, Stuart J Cordwell, Ariel Ivanovici, Katia Taylor, James Wlilliams, Steve Binos, Michael Mariani, Richard J Payne, Michael A Djordjevic
Multigene families encoding diverse secreted peptide hormones play important roles in plant development. A need exists to efficiently elucidate the structures and post-translational modifications of these difficult-to-isolate peptide hormones in planta so that their biological functions can be determined. A mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approach was developed to comprehensively analyse the secreted peptidome of Medicago hairy root cultures and xylem sap. We identified 759 spectra corresponding to the secreted products of twelve peptide hormones including four CEP (C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE), two CLE (CLV3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION RELATED) and six XAP (XYLEM SAP ASSOCIATED PEPTIDE) peptides...
October 27, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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