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Sarah J Isherwood, Denis McKeown
The aim of this study was to explore operator experience and performance for semantically congruent and incongruent auditory icons and abstract alarm sounds. It was expected that performance advantages for congruent sounds would be present initially but would reduce over time for both alarm types. Twenty-four participants (12M/12F) were placed into auditory icon or abstract alarm groupings. For each group both congruent and incongruent alarms were used to represent different driving task scenarios. Once sounded, participants were required to respond to each alarm by selecting a corresponding driving scenario...
October 5, 2016: Ergonomics
Christopher G Parkin, Stephanie Schwenke, Anna Katharina Ossege, Torsten Gruchmann
BACKGROUND: Manufacturers now incorporate blood glucose (bG) value interpretation tools into their monitoring systems; however, usability of these support tools has not been well studied. We evaluated the utility and perceived benefits of support tool use by individuals with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This 3-arm, randomized, simulation study assessed the impact of use of bG value interpretation support tools on participants' ability to correctly interpret bG values, using 1 of 3 tools: a new tool that uses colored scales with target range indicator (TRI), Colors and Smiley icons (already available)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Meghan Bridgid Moran, John P Pierce, Caitlin Weiger, Mary C Cunningham, James D Sargent
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration issued warning letters to three tobacco companies regarding use of the terms 'natural' and/or 'additive-free' to describe their products, as these terms inaccurately convey reduced harm. Yet, tobacco companies engage in a variety of alternate techniques to attempt to convey the same 'natural' (and thus reduced harm) message. It is critical to monitor these practices to inform regulatory action. OBJECTIVE: To describe the marketing techniques used in Natural American Spirit (American Spirit) ads that could convey a natural and less harmful product image...
September 8, 2016: Tobacco Control
Chi-Chun Lo, Shang-Ho Tsai, Bor-Shyh Lin
A novel non-contact controller of the electric bed for medical healthcare was proposed in this study. Nowadays, the electric beds are widely used for hospitals and home-care, and the conventional control method of the electric beds usually involves in the manual operation. However, it is more difficult for the disabled and bedridden patients, who might totally depend on others, to operate the conventional electric beds by themselves. Different from the current controlling method, the proposed system provides a new concept of controlling the electric bed via visual stimuli, without manual operation...
June 15, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Michael R King, T Anthony Anderson, Jinghu Sui, Guoluo He, Kwun Yee T Poon, Charles J Coté
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of desaturation on stroke index (SI), cardiac index (CI), and heart rate (HR) using the ICON continuous noninvasive cardiac output monitor in children undergoing general anesthesia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected data set. SETTING: Pediatric operating rooms in a tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Children younger than 20 years who experienced desaturation while undergoing general anesthesia...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Ketil Hylland, Craig D Robinson, Thierry Burgeot, Concepción Martínez-Gómez, Thomas Lang, Jörundur Svavarsson, John E Thain, A Dick Vethaak, Mattew J Gubbins
This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and endpoints (chemical analyses, biological effects). ICON has demonstrated the use of a framework for integrated contaminant assessment on European coastal and offshore areas. The assessment showed that chemical contamination did not always correspond with biological effects, indicating that both are required...
May 18, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Beverley French, Lois H Thomas, Joanna Harrison, Christopher R Burton, Denise Forshaw, Joanne Booth, David Britt, Francine M Cheater, Brenda Roe, Caroline L Watkins
We explored health professionals' views of implementing a systematic voiding program (SVP) in a multi-site qualitative process evaluation in stroke services recruited to the intervention arms of a cluster randomized controlled feasibility trial during 2011-2013. We conducted semi-structured group or individual interviews with 38 purposively selected nursing, managerial, and care staff involved in delivering the SVP. Content analysis of transcripts used normalization process theory (NPT) as a pre-specified organization-level exploratory framework...
August 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Michael A Nees, Benji Helbein, Anna Porter
OBJECTIVE: Auditory displays could be essential to helping drivers maintain situation awareness in autonomous vehicles, but to date, few or no studies have examined the effectiveness of different types of auditory displays for this application scenario. BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the development of autonomous vehicles (i.e., self-driving cars) have suggested that widespread automation of driving may be tenable in the near future. Drivers may be required to monitor the status of automation programs and vehicle conditions as they engage in secondary leisure or work tasks (entertainment, communication, etc...
May 2016: Human Factors
Thomas Lang, Stephen W Feist, Grant D Stentiford, John P Bignell, A Dick Vethaak, Werner Wosniok
In the framework of the ICON project (Integrated Assessment of Contaminant Impacts on the North Sea), common dab (Limanda limanda) from seven offshore sampling areas in the North Sea, Icelandic waters and the western Baltic Sea were examined in 2008 for the presence of externally visible diseases and parasites (EVD), macroscopic liver neoplasms (tumours) (MLN) and histopathological liver lesions (LH). Methodologies applied followed standardised ICES and BEQUALM protocols. The EDV results revealed pronounced spatial variation, with dab from the central and northern North Sea sampling areas showing the highest disease prevalence...
December 18, 2015: Marine Environmental Research
Concepción Martínez-Gómez, Craig David Robinson, Thierry Burgeot, Matt Gubbins, Halldor P Halldorsson, Marina Albentosa, John P Bignell, Ketil Hylland, A Dick Vethaak
This study investigated whether general stress biomarkers in mussels can be applied as common first-tier biomarkers in regional biomonitoring programmes in the North Sea (including Iceland) and western Mediterranean Sea. Stress on Stress (SoS) and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) biomarkers were analysed in resident mussels (Mytilus sp.) from 8 coastal sites and in transplanted mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from two Spanish Mediterranean coastal sites. The assessment of results, as input to pollution monitoring strategies, was performed jointly for LMS and SoS data from the two regions...
December 1, 2015: Marine Environmental Research
Ketil Hylland, Thierry Burgeot, Concepción Martínez-Gómez, Thomas Lang, Craig D Robinson, Jörundur Svavarsson, John E Thain, A Dick Vethaak, Matthew J Gubbins
An international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring (ICON) was organised to test a framework on integrated environmental assessment and simultaneously assess the status of selected European marine areas. Biota and sediment were sampled in selected estuarine, inshore and offshore locations encompassing marine habitats from Iceland to the Spanish Mediterranean. The outcome of the ICON project is reported in this special issue as method-oriented papers addressing chemical analyses, PAH metabolites, oxidative stress, biotransformation, lysosomal membrane stability, genotoxicity, disease in fish, and sediment assessment, as well as papers assessing specific areas...
November 20, 2015: Marine Environmental Research
Jeng-Shyang Pan, Chi-Chun Lo, Shang-Ho Tsai, Bor-Shyh Lin
The design of a novel non-contact multimedia controller is proposed in this study. Nowadays, multimedia controllers are generally used by patients and nursing assistants in the hospital. Conventional multimedia controllers usually involve in manual operation or other physical movements. However, it is more difficult for the disabled patients to operate the conventional multimedia controller by themselves; they might totally depend on others. Different from other multimedia controllers, the proposed system provides a novel concept of controlling multimedia via visual stimuli, without manual operation...
December 2015: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Meghna Jani, Hector Chinoy, Richard B Warren, Christopher E M Griffiths, Darren Plant, Ann W Morgan, Anthony G Wilson, Kimme L Hyrich, John Isaacs, Anne Barton
BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs do not respond because of primary inefficacy or loss of response. Although one explanation is that immunogenicity leads to the development of anti-drug antibodies and low drug concentrations, the clinical usefulness of pharmacological monitoring is debated. Our aim was to assess whether the presence of anti-drug antibodies and non-trough drug concentrations could predict treatment response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-TNF drugs...
February 26, 2015: Lancet
Brigit M Chesworth, Michael J Leathley, Lois H Thomas, Christopher J Sutton, Denise Forshaw, Caroline L Watkins
BACKGROUND: The implementation of strategies to monitor and enhance treatment fidelity is of paramount importance in trials of complex interventions. A recent framework published by the National Institutes of Health Behavior Change Consortium recommends addressing five areas of treatment fidelity, one of which is delivery of treatment. This study aimed to explore fidelity to treatment delivery of the ICONS intervention (a systematic voiding programme [SVP]). This included exploring the feasibility of a method to assess fidelity to treatment delivery and collecting preliminary evidence of the level of fidelity to SVP delivery in order to inform strategies for improving fidelity in a future trial...
2015: BMC Medical Research Methodology
D Followill, S Kry, A Molineu, J Lowenstein, P Alvarez, P Taylor, H Nguyen, N Hernandez, C Lujano, T Nguyen, T Keith, J Roll, A Tailor
PURPOSE: To describe the extent of IROC Houston's (formerly the RPC) QA activities and audit results for radiotherapy institutions outside of North America (NA). METHODS: The IROC Houston's QA program components were designed to audit the radiation dose calculation chain from the NIST traceable reference beam calibration, to inclusion of dosimetry parameters used to calculate tumor doses, to the delivery of the radiation dose. The QA program provided to international institutions includes: 1) remote TLD/OSLD audit of machine output, 2) credentialing for advanced technologies, and 3) review of patient treatment records...
June 2015: Medical Physics
D A Woelkers, R Ghashghaei, K Klisser, T Archer
INTRODUCTION: Maternal vascular adaptation to pregnancy involves the coordinated augmentation of both systemic and uteroplacental circulations, with the concomitant development of a new fetoplacental circuit. Disturbances of maternal hemodynamic adaptation in early pregnancy are often associated with compromise in the other circulations, although the assessment of maternal vascular function by conventional means is cumbersome and expensive. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess maternal hemodynamic function with a noninvasive cardiographic monitor, and to correlate the findings to both uteroplacental and fetoplacental vascular resistance...
July 2012: Pregnancy Hypertension
Brandon M Liverence, Brian J Scholl
Violations of spatiotemporal continuity disrupt performance in many tasks involving attention and working memory, but experiments on this topic have been limited to the study of moment-by-moment on-line perception, typically assessed by passive monitoring tasks. We tested whether persisting object representations also serve as underlying units of longer-term memory and active spatial navigation, using a novel paradigm inspired by the visual interfaces common to many smartphones. Participants used key presses to navigate through simple visual environments consisting of grids of icons (depicting real-world objects), only one of which was visible at a time through a static virtual window...
July 2015: Psychological Science
Easton R White, Mark C Myers, Joanna Mills Flemming, Julia K Baum
Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors...
August 2015: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Kristin L Laidre, Harry Stern, Kit M Kovacs, Lloyd Lowry, Sue E Moore, Eric V Regehr, Steven H Ferguson, Øystein Wiig, Peter Boveng, Robyn P Angliss, Erik W Born, Dennis Litovka, Lori Quakenbush, Christian Lydersen, Dag Vongraven, Fernando Ugarte
Arctic marine mammals (AMMs) are icons of climate change, largely because of their close association with sea ice. However, neither a circumpolar assessment of AMM status nor a standardized metric of sea ice habitat change is available. We summarized available data on abundance and trend for each AMM species and recognized subpopulation. We also examined species diversity, the extent of human use, and temporal trends in sea ice habitat for 12 regions of the Arctic by calculating the dates of spring sea ice retreat and fall sea ice advance from satellite data (1979-2013)...
June 2015: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Yanhong Liu, May C M Pian-Smith, Lisa R Leffert, Rebecca D Minehart, Andrea Torri, Charles Coté, Robert M Kacmarek, Yandong Jiang
In this study, we aimed to continuously measure cardiac output (CO) with the electrical velocimetry (EV) method and characterize the hemodynamic profile of patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery (CD), and to discuss the potential benefit of using real time CO monitoring to guide patient management. Forty-two patients scheduled for elective CD under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in this observational study. A non-invasive CO monitor incorporating the electrical velocimetry algorithm, ICON(®) (Cardiotronic(®), La Jolla, California, USA), was used to measure CO and stroke volume (SV) continuously...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
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