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M S Ahmad Akhoundi, A Rokn, R Bagheri, N Momeni, M Hodjat
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine protease expressed at high basal level in normal gingival cervical fluid. Despite its known pathologic role in tissue proteolysis in periodontitis, little is known concerning uPA physiological function in oral tissue. Recent evidence in cancer cells has implicated the uPA system in DNA repair and anti-apoptotic pathways. This study is aimed to evaluate the protective function of urokinase against oxidative DNA damage in periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblast, and to propose a new biological role for uPA in oral cavity...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
T Mukaibo, T Munemasa, C Masaki, C Y Cui, J E Melvin
Mutations in the ectodysplasin A gene ( EDA) cause X-LHED (X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia), the most common human form of ectodermal dysplasia. Defective EDA signaling is linked to hypoplastic development of epithelial tissues, resulting in hypotrichosis, hypodontia, hypohidrosis, and xerostomia. The primary objective of the present study was to better understand the salivary gland dysfunction associated with ectodermal dysplasia using the analogous murine disorder. The salivary flow rate and ion composition of the 3 major salivary glands were determined in adult Eda-deficient Tabby hemizygous male (Ta/Y) and heterozygous female (Ta/X) mice...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Dennis Kolosov, Maria Tauqir, Sabitha Rajaruban, Peter M Piermarini, Andrew Donini, Michael J O'Donnell
Classical studies have described in detail the complex and regionalized morphology of the Malpighian tubule (MT) in larval Lepidoptera. Recent studies revealed unusual aspects of ion transport in the Malpighian tubules of the larva of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. These included: cation reabsorption via secondary cells (SC); coupling of SCs to neighbouring PCs via gap junctions to enable reabsorption; and a reversal from cation secretion to reabsorption by the principal cells in the distal ileac plexus region of the in situ tubule in response to dietary ion loading...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
S Sruthi, A Loiseau, J Boudon, F Sallem, L Maurizi, P V Mohanan, G Lizard, N Millot
Titanate nanotubes (TiONts) are promising agents for biomedical applications. Microglial activation and associated oxidative burst are major challenges in drug delivery applications across the brain. Here, TiONts were designed for drug delivery systems by functionalizing them with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), their interactions and biocompatibility were studied in vitro using murine microglial BV-2 cells. TiONts-APTES exposure resulted in increased ROS production and transient mitochondrial hyperpolarization...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
William J Scotton, Hannah F Botfield, Connar Sj Westgate, James L Mitchell, Andreas Yiangou, Maria S Uldall, Rigmor H Jensen, Alex J Sinclair
Background The management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension focuses on reducing intracranial pressure to preserve vision and reduce headaches. There is sparse evidence to support the use of some of the drugs commonly used to manage idiopathic intracranial hypertension, therefore we propose to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs at lowering intracranial pressure in healthy rats. Methods We measured intracranial pressure in female rats before and after subcutaneous administration of acetazolamide, topiramate, furosemide, amiloride and octreotide at clinical doses (equivalent to a single human dose) and high doses (equivalent to a human daily dose)...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Iga Hołyńska-Iwan, Joanna Bogusiewicz, Dagmara Chajdas, Karolina Szewczyk-Golec, Magdalena Lampka, Dorota Olszewska-Słonina
Deltamethrin can be absorbed into the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract and through the skin. The study was designed to assess the effect of deltamethrin on electrophysiological parameters of rabbit's skin, studied in vitro, to identify the mechanism of action and effects of short-term dermal exposure to deltamethrin. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in electrophysiological parameters after exposure to 0.01 M deltamethrin under unchanged conditions, in the presence of amiloride (sodium transport blocker) and bumetanide (chloride transport blocker)...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Valeria Prystopiuk, Benedikt Fels, Caroline Sophie Simon, Ivan Liashkovich, Dzmitry Pasrednik, Cornelius Kronlage, Roland Wedlich-Söldner, Hans Oberleithner, Johannes Fels
The vascular endothelium is exposed to three types of mechanical forces: blood flow-mediated shear stress, vessel-diameter dependent wall tension and hydrostatic pressure. Despite considerable variations of blood pressure in normal and pathological physiology, little is known about the acute molecular and cellular effects of hydrostatic pressure on endothelial cells. Here, we used a combination of quantitative fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy and molecular perturbations to characterize the specific response of endothelial cells to pressure application...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Yu-Jia Zhai, Bing-Chen Liu, Shi-Peng Wei, Chu-Fang Chou, Ming-Ming Wu, Bin-Lin Song, Valerie A Linck, Li Zou, Shuai Zhang, Xue-Qi Li, Zhi-Ren Zhang, He-Ping Ma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in cortical collecting duct (CCD) principal cells plays a critical role in regulating systemic blood pressure. We have previously shown that cholesterol (Cho) in the apical cell membrane regulates ENaC; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: Patch-clamp technique and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate ENaC activity and density. RESULTS: Here we show that extraction of membrane Cho with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) significantly reduced amiloride-sensitive current and ENaC single-channel activity...
May 24, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hao Wang, Weisha Liu, Meng Sun, Dubo Chen, Lingbing Zeng, Liqun Lu, Jing Xie
BACKGROUND: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hemorrhagic disease is caused by an acute infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The frequent outbreaks of this disease have suppressed development of the grass carp farming industry. GCRV104, the representative strain of genotype III grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reovirus, belongs to the Spinareovirinae subfamily and serves as a model for studying the strain of GCRV which encodes an outer-fiber protein. There is no commercially available vaccine for this genotype of GCRV...
May 24, 2018: Virology Journal
Yuan-Ren Cheng, Bo-Yang Jiang, Chih-Cheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a group of amiloride-sensitive ligand-gated ion channels belonging to the family of degenerin/epithelial sodium channels. ASICs are predominantly expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous system and have been characterized as potent proton sensors to detect extracellular acidification in the periphery and brain. MAIN BODY: Here we review the recent studies focusing on the physiological roles of ASICs in the nervous system...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Eriko Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro Yoshikawa, Izaya Nakaya, Karen Kato, Yoshikazu Miyasato, Terumasa Nakagawa, Yutaka Kakizoe, Masashi Mukoyama, Jun Soma
BACKGROUND: Liddle's syndrome is a rare monogenic form of hypertension caused by truncating or missense mutations in the C termini of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β or γ subunits. Patients with this syndrome present with early onset of hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyporeninemia and hypoaldosteronism, and a potassium-sparing diuretics (triamterene or amiloride) can drastically improves the disease condition. Although elderly patients having these characteristics were considered to have Liddle's syndrome or Liddle's-like syndrome, no previous report has indicated that Liddle's-like syndrome could be caused by nephrotic syndrome of primary glomerular disease, which is characterized by urinary excretion of > 3 g of protein/day plus edema and hypoalbuminemia, or has explained how the activity function of ENaC could be affected in the setting of high proteinuria...
May 23, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Jason An, Branko Braam
Rationale: We hope to increase awareness that hypokalemic paralysis may be the first presentation of Sjögren syndrome, for which potassium-sparing diuretics can be an effective adjunct to potassium replenishment. Presenting concerns: A 73-year-old female presented to a peripheral hospital with quadriparesis and a critically low serum potassium of 1.6 mmol/L with U waves on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The initial arterial blood gas showed a pH of 7.19, bicarbonate of 13 mEq/L, and a CO2 of 35 mm Hg...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
P Hima Kumari, S Anil Kumar, Katam Ramesh, Palakolanu Sudhakar Reddy, M Nagaraju, A Bhanu Prakash, Trushar Shah, Ashley Henderson, Rakesh K Srivastava, G Rajasheker, A Chitikineni, Rajeev K Varshney, P Rathnagiri, M Lakshmi Narasu, P B Kavi Kishor
Na⁺ transporters play an important role during salt stress and development. The present study is aimed at genome-wide identification, in silico analysis of sodium-proton antiporter (NHX) and sodium-proton exchanger (NHE)-type transporters in Sorghum bicolor and their expression patterns under varied abiotic stress conditions. In Sorghum , seven NHX and nine NHE homologs were identified. Amiloride (a known inhibitor of Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger activity) binding motif was noticed in both types of the transporters...
May 3, 2018: Genes
Aristides D Tagalakis, Mustafa M Munye, Rositsa Ivanova, Hanpeng Chen, Claire M Smith, Ahmad M Aldossary, Luca Z Rosa, Dale Moulding, Josephine L Barnes, Konstantinos N Kafetzis, Stuart A Jones, Deborah L Baines, Guy W J Moss, Christopher O'Callaghan, Robin J McAnulty, Stephen L Hart
INTRODUCTION: Loss of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to hyperabsorption of sodium and fluid from the airway due to upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Thickened mucus and depleted airway surface liquid (ASL) then lead to impaired mucociliary clearance. ENaC regulation is thus a promising target for CF therapy. Our aim was to develop siRNA nanocomplexes that mediate effective silencing of airway epithelial ENaC in vitro and in vivo with functional correction of epithelial ion and fluid transport...
May 10, 2018: Thorax
Shujie Shi, Stephanie M Mutchler, Brandon M Blobner, Ossama B Kashlan, Thomas R Kleyman
The Caenorhabditis elegans MEC-4/MEC-10 channel mediates the worm's response to gentle body touch and is activated by laminar shear stress (LSS) when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Substitutions   at multiples sites within the second transmembrane helix (TM2) of MEC-4 or MEC-10 abolish the gentle touch response in worms, but the roles of these residues in mechanosensing are unclear. The present study therefore examined the role of specific MEC-4 and MEC-10 TM2 residues in the channel's response to LSS. We found that introducing mutations within the TM2 of MEC-4 or MEC-10 not only altered channel activity, but also affected the channel's response to LSS...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hu Zhang, Xiaomin Yue, Hankui Cheng, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yang Cai, Wenjuan Zou, Guifang Huang, Lufeng Cheng, Fang Ye, Lijun Kang
Mechanotransduction is crucial for touch sensation, hearing, proprioception, and pain sensing. In C. elegans, male ray neurons have been implicated to be involved in the mechanosensation required for mating behavior. However, whether ray neurons directly sense mechanical stimulation is not yet known, and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been identified. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we recorded the touch-induced calcium responses in male ray neurons. Our data demonstrated that ray neurons are sensitive to mechanical stimulation in a neurotransmitter-independent manner...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gustavo Frindt, Lei Yang, Krister Bamberg, Lawrence G Palmer
KEY POINTS: Dietary Na restriction, through the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, acts on epithelial Na channels (ENaC) through both fast (24 hrs) and slow (5 to 7 days) mechanisms in the kidney. The fast effect entails increased proteolytic processing and trafficking of channel protein to the apical membrane. It is rapidly reversible by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone and is largely lost when tubules are studied ex vivo. The slow effect does not require increased processing or surface expression, is refractory to acute eplerenone treatment, and is preserved ex vivo...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Andrea Boente Juncal, Carmen Vale, Amparo Alfonso, Luis M Botana
Maitotoxins (MTX) are among the most potent marine toxins identified to date causing cell death trough massive calcium influx. However, the exact mechanism for the MTX-induced calcium entry and cytotoxicity is still unknown. In this work, the effect of MTX-1 on the cytosolic free calcium concentration and cellular viability of human neuronal stem cells was evaluated. MTX elicited a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability which was already evident after 1 hour of treatment with 0.25 nM MTX; however at a concentration of 0...
May 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Charlotte Ford, Andrea Nans, Emmanuel Boucrot, Richard D Hayward
Pathogens hijack host endocytic pathways to force their own entry into eukaryotic target cells. Many bacteria either exploit receptor-mediated zippering or inject virulence proteins directly to trigger membrane reorganisation and cytoskeletal rearrangements. By contrast, extracellular C. trachomatis elementary bodies (EBs) apparently employ facets of both the zipper and trigger mechanisms and are only ~400 nm in diameter. Our cryo-electron tomography of C. trachomatis entry revealed an unexpectedly diverse array of host structures in association with invading EBs, suggesting internalisation may progress by multiple, potentially redundant routes or several sequential events within a single pathway...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Huai-Ren Chang, Chih-Feng Lien, Jing-Ren Jeng, Jen-Che Hsieh, Chen-Wei Chang, Jian-Hong Lin, Kun-Ta Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been shown to exert preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects. It also has been reported that IH preserves intracellular pH (pHi) during ischemia and protects cardiomyocytes against ischemic reperfusion injury. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: In this study, we used proton indicator BCECF-AM to analyze the rate of pHi recovery from acidosis in the IH model of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were first treated with repetitive hypoxia-normoxia cycles for 1-4 days...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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