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Zebrafish pancreas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184214/modeling-pancreatic-endocrine-cell-adaptation-and-diabetes-in-the-zebrafish
#1
REVIEW
Lisette A Maddison, Wenbiao Chen
Glucose homeostasis is an important element of energy balance and is conserved in organisms from fruit fly to mammals. Central to the control of circulating glucose levels in vertebrates are the endocrine cells of the pancreas, particularly the insulin-producing β-cells and the glucagon producing α-cells. A feature of α- and β-cells is their plasticity, an ability to adapt, in function and number as a response to physiological and pathophysiological conditions of increased hormone demand. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptive responses that maintain glucose homeostasis are incompletely defined...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182631/zebrafish-atoh8-mutants-do-not-recapitulate-morpholino-phenotypes
#2
Elsie S Place, James C Smith
Atoh8 is a bHLH transcription factor expressed in pancreas, skeletal muscle, the nervous system, and cardiovascular tissues during embryological development. Although it has been implicated in the regulation of pancreatic and endothelial cell differentiation, the phenotypic consequences of Atoh8 loss are uncertain. Conclusions from knockout studies in the mouse differ widely depending on the targeting strategy used, while atoh8 knockdown by interfering morpholino oligonucleotides (morpholinos) in zebrafish has led to a range of developmental defects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177524/in-vivo-expression-of-nurr1-nr4a2a-in-developing-retinal-amacrine-subtypes-in-zebrafish-tg-nr4a2a-egfp-transgenics
#3
Liana Goodings, Jie He, Alasdair Wood, William A Harris, Peter D Currie, Patricia R Jusuf
The Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2 (Nr4a2) is crucial for the formation or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system including the retina, where dopaminergic amacrine cells contribute to visual function. Little is known about which cells express Nr4a2 at which developmental stage. Furthermore, whether Nr4a2 functions in combination with other genes is poorly understood. Thus, we generated a novel transgenic to visualise Nr4a2 expression in vivo during zebrafish retinogenesis...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138096/ptf1a-ela3l-cells-are-developmentally-maintained-progenitors-for-exocrine-regeneration-following-extreme-loss-of-acinar-cells-in-zebrafish-larvae
#4
Nicole Schmitner, Kenji Kohno, Dirk Meyer
The exocrine pancreas displays a significant capacity for regeneration and renewal. In humans and mammalian model systems, the partial loss of exocrine tissue, such as after acute pancreatitis or partial pancreatectomy induces rapid recovery via expansion of surviving acinar cells. In mouse it was further found that an almost complete removal of acinar cells initiates regeneration from a currently not well-defined progenitor pool. Here we used the zebrafish as an alternative model to study cellular mechanisms of exocrine regeneration following an almost complete removal of acinar cells...
January 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129847/analysis-of-pancreatic-disease-in-zebrafish
#5
S C Eames Nalle, K F Franse, M D Kinkel
One of the appeals of the zebrafish model is the relative ease of studying disease progression from embryonic or larval stages through to adulthood. Because of this, the zebrafish has become an important model for postembryonic pancreatic disease, particularly diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Here we present methods for using the adult zebrafish to analyze pancreas function and structure, with an emphasis on the endocrine pancreas and the beta cells. The methods include fasting, weighing adults, and anesthetizing adults, and intraperitoneal injection of glucose based on body weight...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034617/cochlear-hair-cell-regeneration-after-noise-induced-hearing-loss-does-regeneration-follow-development
#6
REVIEW
Fei Zheng, Jian Zuo
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) affects a large number of military personnel and civilians. Regenerating inner-ear cochlear hair cells (HCs) is a promising strategy to restore hearing after NIHL. In this review, we first summarize recent transcriptome profile analysis of zebrafish lateral lines and chick utricles where spontaneous HC regeneration occurs after HC damage. We then discuss recent studies in other mammalian regenerative systems such as pancreas, heart and central nervous system. Both spontaneous and forced HC regeneration occurs in mammalian cochleae in vivo involving proliferation and direct lineage conversion...
December 26, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818940/critical-role-for-adenosine-receptor-a2a-in-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation
#7
Nadja Schulz, Ka-Cheuk Liu, Jérémie Charbord, Charlotte L Mattsson, Lingjie Tao, Dominika Tworus, Olov Andersson
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological activation of adenosine signaling has been shown to increase β-cell proliferation and thereby β-cell regeneration in zebrafish and rodent models of diabetes. However, whether adenosine has an endogenous role in regulating β-cell proliferation is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether endogenous adenosine regulates β-cell proliferation-either in the basal state or states of increased demand for insulin-and to delineate the mechanisms involved...
November 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810111/embryonic-exposures-to-perfluorooctanesulfonic-acid-pfos-disrupt-pancreatic-organogenesis-in-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#8
Karilyn E Sant, Haydee M Jacobs, Katrina A Borofski, Jennifer B Moss, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, previously utilized as a non-stick application for consumer products and firefighting foam. It can cross the placenta, and has been repeatedly associated with increased risk for diabetes in epidemiological studies. Here, we sought to establish the hazard posed by embryonic PFOS exposures on the developing pancreas in a model vertebrate embryo, and develop criteria for an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework to study the developmental origins of metabolic dysfunction...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565026/sox9b-is-a-mediator-of-retinoic-acid-signaling-restricting-endocrine-progenitor-differentiation
#9
Wei Huang, Rebecca L Beer, Fabien Delaspre, Guangliang Wang, Hannah E Edelman, Hyewon Park, Mizuki Azuma, Michael J Parsons
Centroacinar cells (CACs) are ductal Notch-responsive progenitors that in the larval zebrafish pancreas differentiate to form new islets and ultimately contribute to the majority of the adult endocrine mass. Uncovering the mechanisms regulating CAC differentiation will facilitate understanding how insulin-producing β cells are formed. Previously we reported retinoic acid (RA) signaling and Notch signaling both regulate larval CAC differentiation, suggesting a shared downstream intermediate. Sox9b is a transcription factor important for islet formation whose expression is upregulated by Notch signaling in larval CACs...
October 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525933/porcine-map3k5-analysis-molecular-cloning-characterization-tissue-expression-pattern-and-copy-number-variations-associated-with-residual-feed-intake
#10
L Pu, L C Zhang, J S Zhang, X Song, L G Wang, J Liang, Y B Zhang, X Liu, H Yan, T Zhang, J W Yue, N Li, Q Q Wu, L X Wang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (RFI) in pig. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine MAP3K5 by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-UTR (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% sequence identity with cattle, sheep, human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish MAP3K5, respectively...
August 12, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488665/insulin-and-sgk1-reduce-the-function-of-na-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-smct1-slc5a8
#11
Adriana López-Barradas, Tania González-Cid, Norma Vázquez, Marisol Gavi-Maza, Adriana Reyes-Camacho, Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Victoria Ramírez, Kambiz Zandi-Nejad, David B Mount, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar, Michael F Romero, Gerardo Gamba, Consuelo Plata
SMCTs move several important fuel molecules that are involved in lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism, but their regulation has been poorly studied. Insulin controls the translocation of several solutes that are involved in energetic cellular metabolism, including glucose. We studied the effect of insulin on the function of human SMCT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The addition of insulin reduced α-keto-isocaproate (KIC)-dependent (22)Na(+) uptake by 29%. Consistent with this result, the coinjection of SMCT1 with SGK1 cRNA decreased the KIC-dependent (22)Na(+) uptake by 34%...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474396/iterative-use-of-nuclear-receptor-nr5a2-regulates-multiple-stages-of-liver-and-pancreas-development
#12
Sahar Nissim, Olivia Weeks, Jared C Talbot, John W Hedgepeth, Julia Wucherpfennig, Stephanie Schatzman-Bone, Ian Swinburne, Mauricio Cortes, Kristen Alexa, Sean Megason, Trista E North, Sharon L Amacher, Wolfram Goessling
The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development...
October 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312502/endoderm-specification-and-liver-development
#13
W Goessling, D Y Stainier
The endoderm is the innermost embryonic germ layer, and in zebrafish, it gives rise to the lining of the gut, the gills, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and derivatives of the pharyngeal pouch. These organs form the gastrointestinal tract and are involved with the absorption, delivery, and metabolism of nutrients. The liver has a central role in regulating these processes because it controls carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, and breakdown of endogenous and xenobiotic products. Liver dysfunction frequently leads to significant morbidity and mortality; however, in most settings of organ injury, the liver exhibits remarkable regenerative capacity...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312501/zebrafish-pancreas-as-a-model-for-development-and-disease
#14
R A Kimmel, D Meyer
The vertebrate pancreas is composed of acinar tissue that produces digestive enzymes, a ductal system for transporting those enzymes, and the endocrine islets which produce hormones critical for organism glucose homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted similarities between zebrafish and mammals in organ development, and increasingly reveal that the regulation of metabolic homeostasis is highly conserved as well. Use of zebrafish as a model organism, with its ease of genetic manipulation, high fecundity, and ready access for imaging, has been highly productive for studies of islet cell development...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193966/chronic-perfluorooctanesulfonic-acid-exposure-disrupts-lipid-metabolism-in-zebrafish
#15
Y Cui, S Lv, J Liu, S Nie, J Chen, Q Dong, C Huang, D Yang
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), a ubiquitous contaminant, has been used in various industrial applications. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism in F0 adult zebrafish and F1 offspring. Our findings revealed a severe fatty degeneration in the liver of F0 males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS and significant ultrastructure changes associated with substance transport or metabolism in liver and intestines (abnormal mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, disordered arrangement of inner microvilli within intracellular canaliculus)...
May 18, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145952/normal-formation-of-a-vertebrate-body-plan-and-loss-of-tissue-maintenance-in-the-absence-of-ezh2
#16
Bilge San, Naomi D Chrispijn, Nadine Wittkopp, Simon J van Heeringen, Anne K Lagendijk, Marco Aben, Jeroen Bakkers, René F Ketting, Leonie M Kamminga
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors of numerous genes, many of which regulate cell cycle progression or developmental processes. We used zebrafish to study Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), the PcG protein responsible for placing the transcriptional repressive H3K27me3 mark. We identified a nonsense mutant of ezh2 and generated maternal zygotic (MZ) ezh2 mutant embryos. In contrast to knockout mice for PcG proteins, MZezh2 mutant embryos gastrulate seemingly normal, but die around 2 days post fertilization displaying pleiotropic phenotypes...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071517/identification-and-expression-of-a-new-ly6-gene-cluster-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-with-implications-of-being-involved-in-embryonic-immunity
#17
Man Wang, Lingyi Li, Quanyang Guo, Shicui Zhang, Dongrui Ji, Hongyan Li
Lymphocyte antigen-6 (Ly6) superfamily is a large family of proteins and characterized by precisely spaced cysteine motifs, termed the three-finger fold. To date, a large number of members of the Ly6/uPAR family were identified among many species. In this study, we first report the identification and characterization of the secreted Ly2.1-3 proteins on the chromosome 2 in zebrafish and determine the expression pattern. Ly2.1-3 all possess a conserved LU domain and adopt similar three-finger structure with human CD59, SLURP1 and other Ly6 family members...
July 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963675/centroacinar-cells-at-the-center-of-pancreas-regeneration
#18
REVIEW
Rebecca L Beer, Michael J Parsons, Meritxell Rovira
The process of regeneration serves to heal injury by replacing missing cells. Understanding regeneration can help us replace cell populations lost during disease, such as the insulin-producing β cells lost in diabetic patients. Centroacinar cells (CACs) are a specialized ductal pancreatic cell type that act as progenitors to replace β cells in the zebrafish. However, whether CACs contribute to β-cell regeneration in adult mammals remains controversial. Here we review the current understanding of the role of CACs as endocrine progenitors during regeneration in zebrafish and mammals...
May 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908596/atr-promotes-cilia-signalling-links-to-developmental-impacts
#19
Tom Stiff, Teresa Casar Tena, Mark O'Driscoll, Penny A Jeggo, Melanie Philipp
Mutations in ATR(ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related) cause Seckel syndrome (ATR-SS), a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder. Hitherto, the clinical manifestation of ATR deficiency has been attributed to its canonical role in DNA damage response signalling following replication fork stalling/collapse. Here, we show that ATR regulates cilia-dependent signalling in a manner that can be uncoupled from its function during replication. ATR-depleted or patient-derived ATR-SS cells form cilia of slightly reduced length but are dramatically impaired in cilia-dependent signalling functions, including growth factor and Sonic hedgehog signalling...
April 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900852/in-vivo-screening-using-transgenic-zebrafish-embryos-reveals-new-effects-of-hdac-inhibitors-trichostatin-a-and-valproic-acid-on-organogenesis
#20
Ling Li, François Bonneton, Marie Tohme, Laure Bernard, Xiao Yong Chen, Vincent Laudet
The effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproduction are well known, whereas their developmental effects are much less characterized. However, exposure to endocrine disruptors during organogenesis may lead to deleterious and permanent problems later in life. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) transgenic lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in specific organs and tissues are powerful tools to uncover developmental defects elicited by EDCs. Here, we used seven transgenic lines to visualize in vivo whether a series of EDCs and other pharmaceutical compounds can alter organogenesis in zebrafish...
2016: PloS One
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