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Pediatric fatty liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230607/effects-of-probiotics-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#1
Fatemeh Famouri, Zainab Shariat, Mahin Hashemipour, Mojtaba Keikha, Roya Kelishadi
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the effects of some probiotics on sonographic and biochemical nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: This randomized triple-blind trial was conducted among 64 obese children with sonographic NAFLD. They were randomly allocated to receive probiotic capsule (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC B3208, 3 × 10 colony forming units [CFU]; Bifidobacterium lactis DSMZ 32269, 6 × 10 CFU; Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC SD6576, 2 × 10 CFU; Lactobacillus rhamnosus DSMZ 21690, 2 × 10 CFU) or placebo for 12 weeks...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225568/liver-histology-and-diffusion-weighted-mri-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-magnet-study
#2
Paul Manning, Paul Murphy, Kang Wang, Jonathan Hooker, Tanya Wolfson, Michael S Middleton, Kimberly P Newton, Cynthia Behling, Hannah I Awai, Janis Durelle, Melissa N Paiz, Jorge E Angeles, Diana De La Pena, J Allen McCutchan, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
PURPOSE: To determine potential associations between histologic features of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and estimated quantitative magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was performed as part of the Magnetic Resonance Assessment Guiding NAFLD Evaluation and Treatment (MAGNET) ancillary study to the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203453/association-of-osteoprotegerin-with-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#3
Meltem Erol, Ozlem Bostan Gayret, Hikmet Tekin Nacaroglu, Ozgul Yigit, Oguzhan Zengi, Mehmet Salih Akkurt, Mehmet Tasdemir
BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Reduced OPG levels are related to obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OPG levels, obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in pediatric patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study that was conducted in the department of pediatrics at Bagcilar training and research hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, between April and August 2015...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192105/adolescent-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-roles-of-ectopic-fat-accumulation-and-adipose-inflammation
#4
Sonia Caprio, Rachel Perry, Romy Kursawe
As a consequence of the global rise in the prevalence of Adolescent Obesity, an unprecedented phenomenon of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has emerged in pediatrics. At the heart of T2D development lies a key metabolic derangement: Insulin Resistance (IR) . Despite the widespread occurrence of IR affecting an unmeasurable number of youths worldwide, its pathogenesis remains elusive. IR in obese youth is a complex phenomenon that defies explanation by a single pathway. In this review we first describe recent data on the prevalence, severity, and racial/ethnic differences in Pediatric Obesity...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162008/clinical-implications-of-understanding-the-association-between-oxidative-stress-and-pediatric-nafld
#5
Jake P Mann, Massimiliano Raponi, Valerio Nobili
Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) that characterise oxidative stress are generated in several cellular sites and their production is influence by multi-organ interactions. Areas covered: Mitochondrial dysfunction is the main source of ROS in fatty liver and is closely related to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Both are caused by lipotoxicity and together these three factors form a cycle of progressive organelle damage, resulting in sterile inflammation and apoptosis...
February 6, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160250/thiopurines-and-methotrexate-use-in-ibd-patients-in-a-biologic-era
#6
REVIEW
Gerassimos J Mantzaris
Although we have been living in the era of biologic therapy for several decades, the use of immunomodulators (primarily thiopurines [azathioprine and mercaptopurine] and less so methotrexate) still remains an important component of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pharmaceutical arsenal. Thiopurines as monotherapy exert corticosteroid-sparing effects and can maintain long-term remission in a considerable proportion of patients who have frequent relapses and are or have become mesalazine and/or corticosteroid intolerant or refractory...
February 3, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144387/from-the-liver-to-the-heart-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obese-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
EDITORIAL
Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Nicola Santoro
In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107283/naspghan-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-recommendations-from-the-expert-committee-on-nafld-econ-and-the-north-american-society-of-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition
#8
Miriam B Vos, Stephanie H Abrams, Sarah E Barlow, Sonia Caprio, Stephen R Daniels, Rohit Kohli, Marialena Mouzaki, Pushpa Sathya, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Shikha S Sundaram, Stavra A Xanthakos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease that occurs in the setting of insulin resistance and increased adiposity. It has rapidly evolved into the most common liver disease seen in the pediatric population and is a management challenge for general pediatric practitioners, subspecialists, and for health systems. In this guideline, the expert committee on NAFLD reviewed and summarized the available literature, formulating recommendations to guide screening and clinical care of children with NAFLD...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105511/bone-density-in-the-obese-child-clinical-considerations-and-diagnostic-challenges
#9
Jennifer C Kelley, Nicola Crabtree, Babette S Zemel
The prevalence of obesity in children has reached epidemic proportions. Concern about bone health in obese children, in part, derives from the potentially increased fracture risk associated with obesity. Additional risk factors that affect bone mineral accretion, may also contribute to obesity, such as low physical activity and nutritional factors. Consequences of obesity, such as inflammation, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, may also affect bone mineral acquisition, especially during the adolescent years when rapid increases in bone contribute to attaining peak bone mass...
January 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101773/what-is-the-appropriate-strategy-for-diagnosing-nafld-using-ultrasonography-in-obese-children
#10
Jee Hyun Lee, Su Jin Jeong
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify obese children who are candidates for a potential diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We enrolled 242 obese children (122 boys and 120 girls) aged 7-16 years who were examined with abdominal ultrasonography in our pediatric obesity clinic. We compared patients in the normal group with those in the NAFLD group (mild disease, moderate to severe disease) and identified the optimal anthropometric parameters among height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist to hip ratio to predict NAFLD using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090779/preparation-and-in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation-of-metformin-hydrochloride-rectal-dosage-forms-for-treatment-of-patients-with-type-ii-diabetes
#11
Abdel-Azim Zaghloul, Ahmad Lila, Fathy Abd-Allah, Aly Nada
BACKGROUND: Metformin hydrochloride (MtHCL) is an oral antidiabetic drug and has many other therapeutic benefits. It has poor bioavailability, narrow absorption window and extensive liver metabolism. Moreover, children and elders face difficulty to swallow the commercial oral tablets. OBJECTIVES: Preparation, in vitro/in vivo evaluation of MtHCL suppositories for rectal administration to solve some of these problems. METHODS: Suppository fatty bases (Witepsol®, Suppocire® and Massa®; different grades) and PEG bases 1000, 4000 and 6000 (different ratios), were used to prepare rectal suppository formulations each containing 500 mg drug...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088395/lactate-and-lactate-pyruvate-ratio-in-the-diagnosis-and-outcomes-of-pediatric-acute-liver-failure
#12
Amy G Feldman, Ronald J Sokol, Regina M Hardison, Estella M Alonso, Robert H Squires, Michael R Narkewicz
OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of blood lactate and lactate: pyruvate molar ratio (L:P) as a screen for mitochondrial, respiratory chain, or fatty acid oxidation disorders in children with pediatric acute liver failure (PALF); to determine whether serum lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L or L:P  ≥ 25 correlated with biochemical variables of clinical severity; and to determine whether lactate or L:P is associated with clinical outcome at 21 days. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data for PALF study group participants who had lactate and pyruvate levels collected on the same day...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065514/review-of-childhood-obesity-from-epidemiology-etiology-and-comorbidities-to-clinical-assessment-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Seema Kumar, Aaron S Kelly
Childhood obesity has emerged as an important public health problem in the United States and other countries in the world. Currently 1 in 3 children in the United States is afflicted with overweight or obesity. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is associated with emergence of comorbidities previously considered to be "adult" diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and dyslipidemia. The most common cause of obesity in children is a positive energy balance due to caloric intake in excess of caloric expenditure combined with a genetic predisposition for weight gain...
February 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052604/optn-srtr-2015-annual-data-report-liver
#14
W R Kim, J R Lake, J M Smith, M A Skeans, D P Schladt, E B Edwards, A M Harper, J L Wainright, J J Snyder, A K Israni, B L Kasiske
Several notable developments in adult liver transplantation in the US occurred in 2015. The year saw the largest number of liver transplants to date, leading to reductions in median waiting time, in waitlist mortality for all model for end-stage liver disease categories, and in the number of candidates on the waiting list at the end of the year. Numbers of additions to the waiting list and of liver transplants performed in patients with hepatitis C virus infection decreased for the first time in recent years...
January 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045774/study-of-carnitine-acylcarnitine-and-aminoacid-profile-in-children-and-adults-with-acute-liver-failure
#15
Vikrant Sood, Dinesh Rawat, Rajeev Khanna, Shvetank Sharma, Prem K Gupta, Seema Alam, Shiv Kumar Sarin
OBJECTIVES: Fatty acid oxidation defects (FAODs) may underlie or modify the course of acute liver failure (ALF). Overall significance of carnitine/acylcarnitine and aminoacid profile in ALF is similarly undetermined. Thus, this study was undertaken to study the abnormalities in carnitine/acylcarnitine and aminoacid profile in ALF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed including all cases of ALF and detailed evaluation including metabolic testing was done...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998312/rare-presentation-of-subcapsular-hepatic-steatosis-in-a-woman-with-uncontrolled-diabetes-without-peritoneal-dialysis-a-case-report
#16
Varun Chowdhary, Jennifer S Golia Pernicka, Richa Sharma
BACKGROUND: Subcapsular hepatic steatosis is a rare atypical pattern of fatty deposition of the liver reported in patients with diabetic nephropathy receiving peritoneal dialysis with intraperitoneal insulin. To date, there has been only one pediatric and zero adult cases of subcapsular hepatic steatosis with no history of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We report the first published case of subcapsular hepatic steatosis in an adult diabetic patient without any history of peritoneal dialysis or evidence of chronic renal disease...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986169/hepatic-steatosis-etiology-patterns-and-quantification
#17
Ilkay S Idilman, Ilknur Ozdeniz, Musturay Karcaaltincaba
Hepatic steatosis can occur because of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholism, chemotherapy, and metabolic, toxic, and infectious causes. Pediatric hepatic steatosis is also becoming more frequent and can have distinctive features. The most common pattern is diffuse form; however, it can present in heterogenous, focal, multinodular, perilesional, perivascular, subcapsular, and lobar forms. Focal steatosis and fat sparing can occur because of the presence of veins of Sappey, pancreaticoduodenal vein, and aberrant right and left gastric veins, which drain into the liver as third inflow...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982761/liver-stiffness-in-pediatric-patients-with-fatty-liver-disease-diagnostic-accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-shear-wave-elastography
#18
Matteo Garcovich, Silvio Veraldi, Enrico Di Stasio, Maria Assunta Zocco, Lidia Monti, Paolo Tomà, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini, Valerio Nobili
Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in identifying different degrees of fibrosis in a cohort of consecutive children and adolescents with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods Consecutive pediatric patients scheduled to undergo liver biopsy were studied with an ultrasonography-based SWE system. Elastography was performed in 68 of 69 patients with biopsy-proved NASH (37 boys and 31 girls; mean age, 12.6 years ± 2.48; age range, 8-17 years). The correlations among laboratory findings, liver stiffness, and fibrosis score were analyzed, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess the presence of any fibrosis (score ≥F1) or significant fibrosis (score ≥F2)...
December 13, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906803/naspghan-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#19
Miriam B Vos, Stephanie H Abrams, Sarah E Barlow, Sonia Caprio, Stephen R Daniels, Rohit Kohli, Marialena Mouzaki, Pushpa Sathya, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Shikha S Sundaram, Stavra A Xanthakos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease that occurs in the setting of insulin resistance and increased adiposity. It has rapidly evolved into the most common liver disease seen in the pediatric population and is a management challenge for general pediatric practitioners, subspecialists and for health systems. In this guideline, the expert committee on NAFLD (ECON) reviewed and summarized the available literature, formulating recommendations to guide screening and clinical care of children with NAFLD...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822768/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-rise-of-a-lethal-disease-among-mexican-american-hispanic-children
#20
REVIEW
Monica M Betancourt-Garcia, Armando Arguelles, Jorge Montes, Ambrosio Hernandez, Manish Singh, R Armour Forse
Hispanic children of Mexican origin have a high incidence of NAFLD. Susceptibility has been linked to a combination of factors including an increasing epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents, an allele substitution in the PNPLA3 gene that reduces hepatic lipid catabolism, and an altered microbiome that may increase hepatic endotoxins. The combination of NAFLD and portal vein toxins secondary to an indigenous gut microbiome appear to lead to the early occurrence of NASH, which progresses to cirrhosis and early hepatocellular carcinoma...
January 2017: Obesity Surgery
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