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Pediatric fatty liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805745/insulin-resistance-and-nafld-a-dangerous-liaison-beyond-the-genetics
#1
REVIEW
Melania Manco
Over the last decade, the understanding of the association between insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has dramatically evolved. There is clear understanding that carriers of some common genetic variants, i.e., the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) or the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) are at risk of developing severe forms of NAFLD even in the presence of reduced or absent IR. In contrast, there are obese patients with "metabolic" (non-genetically driven) NAFLD who present severe IR...
August 14, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755073/urinary-biomarkers-of-cell-cycle-arrest-are-delayed-predictors-of-acute-kidney-injury-after-pediatric-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#3
Liqun Dong, Qing Ma, Michael Bennett, Prasad Devarajan
BACKGROUND: Several novel biomarkers that predict acute kidney injury (AKI) have recently been proposed. We have evaluated the sequential patterns of biomarker elevation after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and determined their diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: We measured the ability of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), liver type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), to predict AKI (≥50% increase in serum creatinine from baseline)...
July 28, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751123/down-syndrome-and-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-causal-or-casual-relationship
#4
EDITORIAL
Antonia De Matteo, Pietro Vajro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737569/elevated-hemoglobin-level-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Valentina Giorgio, Antonella Mosca, Arianna Alterio, Anna Alisi, Antonio Grieco, Valerio Nobili, Luca Miele
OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been reported to be a risk marker of metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). No study exists on pediatric populations. We aimed to determine the association between hematological parameters, and the severity of disease in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 117 children (85 boys, mean age 12 years) with ultrasound evidence of NAFLD undergoing liver biopsy for diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), were prospectively enrolled between January 2011 and May 2013 in the setting of a tertiary care center...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735109/design-and-rationale-for-a-real-world-observational-cohort-of-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-target-nash-study
#6
A S Barritt, Norman Gitlin, Samuel Klein, Anna S Lok, Rohit Loomba, Laura Malahias, Margaret Powell, Miriam B Vos, L Michael Weiss, Kenneth Cusi, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Arun Sanyal
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver disease. NAFLD comprises the spectrum from simple steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver, NAFL), to steatosis with inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH). Current primary therapy recommended for NAFLD is weight loss induced by lifestyle modification. The difficulty in achieving this has led to robust pharmacological therapy development. While new drugs may show efficacy in selected phase II/III clinical trial populations, their real-world effectiveness is unknown...
July 19, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730729/traffic-related-air-pollution-associations-with-cytokeratin-18-a-marker-of-hepatocellular-apoptosis-in-an-overweight-and-obese-paediatric-population
#7
S Hsieh, B P Leaderer, A E Feldstein, N Santoro, L A McKay, S Caprio, R McConnell
INTRODUCTION: Traffic-related air pollution causes fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis in animal models, but there have been few studies in humans. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased markers for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); and that NAFLD increases liver susceptibility to increased NASH risk. METHODS: Data collected prospectively from 74 overweight or obese children were obtained from the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727970/severe-fat-accumulation-in-multiple-organs-in-pediatric-autopsies-an-uncommon-but-significant-finding
#8
Jeannette C Bleeker, Gepke Visser, Frits A Wijburg, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Hans R Waterham, Peter G J Nikkels
Background The observation of fat accumulation in different organs at pediatric autopsy may help determine the cause of death. However, a comprehensive study on fat accumulation and related etiologies is still lacking. Aim To investigate the incidence of fat accumulation in different organs in pediatric autopsies and their relevance to the cause of death. Methods From February 2004 until March 2015, fat accumulation was assessed in 561 routinely performed pediatric autopsies in our center. Age at death ranged from 14 weeks of gestation for fetuses to 16 years...
July 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718192/cardiometabolic-risks-vary-by-weight-status-in-pediatric-kidney-and-liver-transplant-recipients-a-cross-sectional-single-center-study-in-the-usa
#9
S He, N A Le, J K Frediani, P D Winterberg, R Jin, R Liverman, A Hernandez, R L Cleeton, M B Vos
There is an increasing need to understand long-term metabolic changes and resultant comorbidities because life expectancy is increasing after pediatric kidney and liver transplants. We evaluated differences in classic and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers among obese and normal weight adolescent transplant recipients. We enrolled a total of 80 adolescent (mean±SD, 14.8 years ±3.0) transplant recipients (63 kidney, 17 liver) with mean duration from transplantation of 6.0 (±4.1) years. Among kidney transplant recipients, overweight and obese individuals had higher leptin (16...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700730/pediatric-autoimmune-hepatitis-shows-a-disproportionate-decline-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-liver-and-of-il-2-in-the-blood-of-patients-undergoing-therapy
#10
Jana Diestelhorst, Norman Junge, Jerome Schlue, Christine S Falk, Michael P Manns, Ulrich Baumann, Elmar Jaeckel, Richard Taubert
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic hepatitis driven by the adaptive immunity that affects all age groups. A functional and numerical regulatory T cell (Treg) defect has been reported in pediatric AIH (pAIH), while an intrahepatic increase in adult AIH (aAIH) patients has been detected in current research findings. METHODS: Therefore, we quantified the intrahepatic numbers of Treg, T and B cells, as well as serum cytokine levels before and during therapy in pAIH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686220/the-association-between-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice
The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood...
July 7, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662945/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-italian-children-with-down-syndrome-prevalence-and-correlation-with-obesity-related-features
#12
Diletta Valentini, Anna Alisi, Chiara di Camillo, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Annalisa Crudele, Andrea Bartuli, Valerio Nobili, Alberto Villani
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity in a cohort of Italian children with Down syndrome (DS) and to investigate the correlation of both obesity and DS with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled 280 children with DS (age range 5-18 years), who were referred to the DS outpatient clinic of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital in Rome. For all children, we collected the clinical history and measured anthropometric variables...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648013/-retrospective-analysis-of-anesthetic-and-perioperative-management-in-patients-of-acute-fatty-liver-of-pregnancy
#13
Y Y Qu, H Zeng, X Y Guo, M Li
Objective: To retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), and to discuss perioperative and anesthetic management. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on the records of pregnant patients with a diagnosis of acute fatty liver of pregnancy in Peking University Third Hospital from January 2007 to December 2015. 12 cases were identified. The clinical features, preoperative laboratory findings, types of delivery, anesthetic techniques for cesarean section, and the outcomes of parturients and fetus were collected and analyzed...
June 27, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644356/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629152/the-association-between-pediatric-nafld-and-common-genetic-variants
#15
REVIEW
Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Mariangela Martino, Nicola Santoro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common complications of obesity. Several studies have shown that genetic predisposition probably plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In fact, in the last few years a large number of genetic studies have provided compelling evidence that some gene variants, especially those in genes encoding proteins regulating lipid metabolism, are associated with intra-hepatic fat accumulation. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the gene variants that have affected the natural history of the disease...
June 18, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606575/good-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-reduces-the-risk-for-nash-and-diabetes-in-pediatric-patients-with-obesity-the-results-of-an-italian-study
#16
Claudia Della Corte, Antonella Mosca, Andrea Vania, Arianna Alterio, Salvatore Iasevoli, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, it was demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet (MD) represents an ideal diet for all age groups and has an important role in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between adherence to the MD and NAFLD, with laboratory and histologic evaluation, in a group of children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: We enrolled 243 patients with obesity referred to our department from March 2014 to November 2015...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600116/features-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-severely-obese-children-and-adolescents-undergoing-sleeve-gastrectomy
#17
Aayed Alqahtani, Mohamed Elahmedi, Khalid Alswat, Maha Arafah, Mosa Fagih, Jaehoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an underrecognized co-morbidity of obesity. The characteristic features and severity of NAFLD in severe childhood obesity remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate features of NAFLD in obese children and identify predictors of significant disease. SETTING: Academic center with a standardized pathway for pediatric bariatric surgery and a dedicated multidisciplinary team. DESIGN: This is a baseline cross-sectional analysis for a data set obtained from a prospective clinical outcome study that included severely obese children (≤14 yr of age) and adolescents (14-21 yr of age) who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between March 2008 and March 2015...
April 7, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598410/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Haley Bush, Pegah Golabi, Zobair M Younossi
Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a "two-hit process", it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It has also been shown that NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but is also associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and low bone mineral density...
June 9, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586157/role-of-point-shear-wave-elastography-in-the-determination-of-the-severity-of-fibrosis-in-pediatric-liver-diseases-with-pathologic-correlations
#19
Mehmet Burak Özkan, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Esra Eren, Gonul Caltepe, Gulay Yilmaz, Cengiz Kara, Seda Gun
OBJECTIVES: Our aims in this study were as follows: (1) to determine the cutoff value that can distinguish between advanced liver fibrosis and normal liver tissue for two different elastographic techniques; (2) to determine the cutoff value that can distinguish mild liver fibrosis from normal liver tissue for the techniques; and (3) to assess tissue stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Seventy-five patients assessed for liver biopsy on the same day were evaluated by point shear wave elastography...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559429/rna-binding-protein-cugbp1-inhibits-liver-cancer-in-a-phosphorylation-dependent-manner
#20
Kyle Lewis, Leila Valanejad, Ashley Cast, Mary Wright, Christina Wei, Polina Iakova, Lauren Stock, Rebekah Karns, Lubov Timchenko, Nikolai Timchenko
Despite intensive investigations, mechanisms of liver cancer are not known. Here, we identified an important step of liver cancer, which is the neutralization of tumor suppressor activities of an RNA binding protein, CUGBP1. The translational activity of CUGBP1 is activated by dephosphorylation at Ser302. We generated CUGBP1-S302A knock-in mice and found that the reduction of translational activity of CUGBP1 causes development of a fatty liver phenotype in young S302A mice. Examination of liver cancer in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated CUGBP1-S302A mice showed these mice develop much more severe liver cancer that is associated with elimination of the mutant CUGBP1...
August 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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