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Pediatric fatty liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629152/the-association-between-pediatric-nafld-and-common-genetic-variants
#1
REVIEW
Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Mariangela Martino, Nicola Santoro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common complications of obesity. Several studies have shown that genetic predisposition probably plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In fact, in the last few years a large number of genetic studies have provided compelling evidence that some gene variants, especially those in genes encoding proteins regulating lipid metabolism, are associated with intra-hepatic fat accumulation. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the gene variants that have affected the natural history of the disease...
June 18, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606575/good-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-reduces-the-risk-for-nash-and-diabetes-in-pediatric-patients-with-obesity-the-results-of-an-italian-study
#2
Claudia Della Corte, Antonella Mosca, Andrea Vania, Arianna Alterio, Salvatore Iasevoli, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, it was demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet (MD) represents an ideal diet for all age groups and has an important role in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between adherence to the MD and NAFLD, with laboratory and histologic evaluation, in a group of children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: We enrolled 243 patients with obesity referred to our department from March 2014 to November 2015...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600116/features-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-severely-obese-children-and-adolescents-undergoing-sleeve-gastrectomy
#3
Aayed Alqahtani, Mohamed Elahmedi, Khalid Alswat, Maha Arafah, Mosa Fagih, Jaehoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an underrecognized co-morbidity of obesity. The characteristic features and severity of NAFLD in severe childhood obesity remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate features of NAFLD in obese children and identify predictors of significant disease. SETTING: Academic center with a standardized pathway for pediatric bariatric surgery and a dedicated multidisciplinary team. DESIGN: This is a baseline cross-sectional analysis for a data set obtained from a prospective clinical outcome study that included severely obese children (≤14 yr of age) and adolescents (14-21 yr of age) who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between March 2008 and March 2015...
April 7, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598410/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
REVIEW
Haley Bush, Pegah Golabi, Zobair M Younossi
Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a "two-hit process", it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It has also been shown that NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but is also associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and low bone mineral density...
June 9, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586157/role-of-point-shear-wave-elastography-in-the-determination-of-the-severity-of-fibrosis-in-pediatric-liver-diseases-with-pathologic-correlations
#5
Mehmet Burak Özkan, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Esra Eren, Gonul Caltepe, Gulay Yilmaz, Cengiz Kara, Seda Gun
OBJECTIVES: Our aims in this study were as follows: (1) to determine the cutoff value that can distinguish between advanced liver fibrosis and normal liver tissue for two different elastographic techniques; (2) to determine the cutoff value that can distinguish mild liver fibrosis from normal liver tissue for the techniques; and (3) to assess tissue stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Seventy-five patients assessed for liver biopsy on the same day were evaluated by point shear wave elastography...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559429/rna-binding-protein-cugbp1-inhibits-liver-cancer-in-a-phosphorylation-dependent-manner
#6
Kyle Lewis, Leila Valanejad, Ashley Cast, Mary Wright, Christina Wei, Polina Iakova, Lauren Stock, Rebekah Karns, Lubov Timchenko, Nikolai Timchenko
Despite intensive investigations, mechanisms of liver cancer are not known. Here, we identified an important step of liver cancer which is the neutralization of tumor suppressor activities of an RNA binding protein CUGBP1. The translational activity of CUGBP1 is activated by de-phosphorylation at Ser302. We generated CUGBP1-S302A knock-in mice and found that the reduction of translational activity of CUGBP1 causes development of fatty liver phenotype in young S302A mice. Examination of liver cancer in Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated CUGBP1-S302A mice showed these mice develop much more severe liver cancer which is associated with elimination of the mutant CUGBP1...
May 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556786/elevated-hemoglobin-level-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Valentina Giorgio, Antonella Mosca, Arianna Alterio, Anna Alisi, Antonio Grieco, Valerio Nobili, Luca Miele
OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been reported to be a risk marker of metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). No study exists on pediatric populations. We aimed to determine the association between hematological parameters, and the severity of disease in children with biopsy proven NAFLD. METHODS: 117 children (85 males, mean age 12 years) with ultrasound (US) evidence of NAFLD undergoing liver biopsy for diagnosis of non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), were prospectively enrolled between January 2011 and May 2013 in the setting of a tertiary care centre...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556755/effects-of-exercise-training-alone-on-depot-specific-body-fat-stores-in-youth-review-of-recent-literature
#8
YoonMyung Kim
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased at an alarming rate. The increased obesity rate in pediatrics parallels the increased risks for developing metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In particular, the strong relationship between obesity and such health consequences are well explained by the excessive accumulation of depot-specific body adiposity such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid content, intermuscular AT (IMAT), and/or intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content...
May 30, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555633/low-birthweight-increases-the-likelihood-of-severe-steatosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Elisabetta Bugianesi, Carla Bizzarri, Chiara Rosso, Antonella Mosca, Nadia Panera, Silvio Veraldi, Andrea Dotta, Germana Giannone, Massimiliano Raponi, Marco Cappa, Anna Alisi, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVES: Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate the correlation of birthweight with the severity of liver damage in a large cohort of children with NAFLD. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-eight consecutive Caucasian Italian overweight/obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in the study. We examined the relative association of each histological feature of NAFLD with metabolic alterations, insulin-resistance, I148M polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene, and birthweight relative to gestational age...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540988/pathologic-impact-of-insulin-resistance-and-sensitivity-on-the-severity-of-liver-histopathology-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Byung Han Park, Jung Min Yoon, Ja Hye Kim, Jin Hwa Moon, Young Ho Lee, Se Min Jang, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Insulin resistance (IR) has an important role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to analyze the association between liver histopathology and IR in pediatric patients with NASH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated whether the hepatic pathologic characteristics have relations with following three biochemical indices; IR index including homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and insulin sensitivity indices-free fatty acid (ISI-FFA)...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521607/intravenous-fish-oil-and-pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-changes-in-plasma-phytosterols-cytokines-and-bile-acids-and-erythrocyte-fatty-acids
#11
Kara L Calkins, Andrea DeBarber, Robert D Steiner, Martiniano J Flores, Tristan R Grogan, Susanne M Henning, Laurie Reyen, Robert S Venick
BACKGROUND: Soybean oil (SO) emulsions are associated with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD); fish oil (FO) emulsions are used to treat IFALD. SO and FO differ with respect to their fatty acid and phytosterol content. In children with IFALD whose SO was replaced with FO, we aimed to (1) quantify changes in erythrocyte fatty acids and plasma phytosterols, cytokines, and bile acids and (2) correlate these changes with direct bilirubin (DB). DESIGN: This study enrolled IFALD children who received 6 months of FO...
May 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514463/pediatric-psoriasis-comorbidity-screening-guidelines
#12
Emily Osier, Audrey S Wang, Megha M Tollefson, Kelly M Cordoro, Stephen R Daniels, Andrew Eichenfield, Joel M Gelfand, Alice B Gottlieb, Alexa B Kimball, Mark Lebwohl, Nehal N Mehta, Amy S Paller, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Dennis M Styne, Abby S Van Voorhees, Wynnis L Tom, Lawrence F Eichenfield
Importance: Psoriasis is a complex inflammatory skin condition associated with serious medical comorbidities in adults, including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, psoriatic arthritis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, depression, anxiety, and decreased quality of life. Because psoriasis begins in childhood in almost one-third of patients, early identification of risk may be critical to minimizing effects on future health. Objective: To develop the first set of guidelines for comorbidity screening for patients with pediatric psoriasis based on current evidence...
May 17, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506362/current-concepts-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Sarah E Fleet, Jay H Lefkowitch, Joel E Lavine
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disease. Its increasing prevalence is a direct result of historically high rates of obesity. Hepatocyte lipid accumulation is the first step in a cascade of metabolic and inflammatory events thought to precipitate NAFLD. Histologic findings provide insight into these events. Lifestyle modification remains the primary therapy in children. Current recommendations include vitamin E treatment in those with biopsy-proven NASH. Trials of novel drugs are ongoing in adults...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506338/-clinical-efficacy-of-compound-glycyrrhizin-tablets-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Yu-Wen Li, Yu-Hua Hu, Tian-Tian Zhu, An-Zhen Chu, Chuan-Long Zhu
Department of Pediatrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China. zhuchuanlong@jsph.org.cn.
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494529/nash-therapy-omega-3-supplementation-vitamin-e-insulin-sensitizers-and-statin-drugs
#15
Stephen Caldwell
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the more aggressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NASH can progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and primary liver cancer. Therapy is evolving with a substantial number of trials of promising new agents now in progress. In this article however, we will examine data for several older forms of therapy which have been fairly extensively studied over the years: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) supplements, vitamin E, insulin sensitizing agents with a focus on pioglitazone and statin agents...
May 10, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493388/magnetic-resonance-elastography-measured-shear-stiffness-as-a-biomarker-of-fibrosis-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Cynthia Behling, Jorge Eduardo Angeles, Melissa Paiz, Janis Durelle, Jonathan Africa, Kimberly P Newton, Elizabeth M Brunt, Joel E Lavine, Stephanie H Abrams, Prakash Masand, Rajesh Krishnamurthy, Kelvin Wong, Richard L Ehman, Meng Yin, Kevin J Glaser, Bogdan Dzyubak, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony C Gamst, Jonathan Hooker, William Haufe, Alexandra Schlein, Gavin Hamilton, Michael S Middleton, Claude B Sirlin
Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is promising for non-invasive assessment of fibrosis, a major determinant of outcome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, data in children are limited. Study aims were to determine accuracy of MRE for detection of fibrosis and advanced fibrosis in children with NAFLD, and to assess agreement between manual and novel automated reading methods. We performed a prospective, multi-center study of 2D-MRE in children with NAFLD. MR-elastograms were analyzed manually at 2 reading centers and using a new automated technique...
May 11, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492501/urinary-metabolomics-in-pediatric-obesity-and-nafld-identifies-metabolic-pathways-metabolites-related-to-dietary-habits-and-gut-liver-axis-perturbations
#17
Jacopo Troisi, Luca Pierri, Annamaria Landolfi, Francesca Marciano, Antonella Bisogno, Federica Belmonte, Carmen Palladino, Salvatore Guercio Nuzio, Pietro Campiglia, Pietro Vajro
To get insight into still elusive pathomechanisms of pediatric obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) we explored the interplay among GC-MS studied urinary metabolomic signature, gut liver axis (GLA) abnormalities, and food preferences (Kid-Med). Intestinal permeability (IP), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were investigated in forty children (mean age 9.8 years) categorized as normal weight (NW) or obese (body mass index <85th or >95th percentile, respectively) ± ultrasonographic bright liver and hypertransaminasemia (NAFLD)...
May 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472948/noninvasive-assessment-of-liver-steatosis-in-children-the-clinical-value-of-controlled-attenuation-parameter
#18
Giovanna Ferraioli, Valeria Calcaterra, Raffaella Lissandrin, Marinella Guazzotti, Laura Maiocchi, Carmine Tinelli, Annalisa De Silvestri, Corrado Regalbuto, Gloria Pelizzo, Daniela Larizza, Carlo Filice
BACKGROUND: To assess the clinical validity of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in a series of overweight or obese children by using the imperfect gold standard methodology. METHODS: Consecutive children referred to our institution for auxological evaluation or obesity or minor elective surgery were prospectively enrolled. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were recorded. Ultrasound (US) assessment of steatosis was carried out using ultrasound systems...
May 4, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467377/natural-history-of-nafld-diagnosed-in-childhood-a-single-center-study
#19
Catherine E Cioffi, Jean A Welsh, Rebecca L Cleeton, Shelley A Caltharp, Rene Romero, Mark L Wulkan, Juna V Konomi, Jennifer K Frediani, Miriam B Vos
Little is known regarding the subsequent course of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosed in childhood. The objectives of this single-center study were to gather data on long-term health outcomes and to assess the feasibility of contacting former pediatric patients. In a large pediatric medical center, electronic records were searched to initially identify 162 former patients who had a liver biopsy between 2000 and 2010. Of these, 44 subjects met the criteria for age at follow-up (≥18 year) and biopsy-proven NAFLD, and were recruited via postal and electronic mail...
May 3, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455541/review-of-management-and-morbidity-of-pediatric-craniopharyngioma-patients-in-a-low-middle-income-country-a-12-year-experience
#20
Nisreen Amayiri, Maisa Swaidan, Yocoub Yousef, Hadeel Halalsheh, Ramiz Abu-Hijlih, Sima Kalaldeh, Maha Barbar, Maher Elayyan, Nesreen Faqih, Maysa Al-Hussaini, Mustafa Mehyar, Ute Bartels, James Drake, Awni Musharbash, Eric Bouffet
BACKGROUND: Management of craniopharyngioma in children is challenging, and their quality of life can be significantly affected. Series describing this from low-middle income countries (LMIC) are few. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study provides a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients <18 years old, diagnosed with craniopharyngioma between 2003 and 2014, and treated at King Hussein Cancer Center, Jordan. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (12 males) were identified...
April 28, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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