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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677674/spatial-temporal-change-of-land-surface-temperature-across-285-cities-in-china-an-urban-rural-contrast-perspective
#1
Jian Peng, Jing Ma, Qianyuan Liu, Yanxu Liu, Yi'na Hu, Yingru Li, Yuemin Yue
As an important theme in global climate change and urban sustainable development, the changes of land surface temperature (LST) and surface urban heat island (SUHI) have been more and more focused by urban ecologists. This study used land-use data to identify the urban-rural areas in 285 cities in China and comparatively analyzed LST in urban-rural areas with the perspective of spatial-temporal dynamics heterogeneity. The results showed that, 98.9% of the cities exhibited SUHI effect in summer nighttime and the effect was stronger in northern cities than that in southern cities...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677632/heat-shock-induced-cathepsin-b-activity-during-ivf-and-culture-compromises-the-developmental-competence-of-bovine-embryos
#2
Ken-Ichi Yamanaka, Hafiza Khatun, Junki Egashira, Ahmed Zaky Balboula, Hideki Tatemoto, Miki Sakatani, Naoki Takenouchi, Yasuhiko Wada, Masashi Takahashi
Heat stress can cause significant reproductive dysfunction in mammals and previous studies report that expression and activity of cathepsin B (CTSB), a lysosomal cysteine protease, is negatively correlated with the developmental competence of bovine oocytes and embryos. However, the relationship between heat shock (HS) and CTSB remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of HS during IVF and early embryonic stages of IVC on CTSB activity and developmental competence in bovine embryos. HS (40 °C for 6 h during IVF and 20 h during IVC) caused a significant increase in CTSB activity irrespective of the developmental stage or duration of HS...
April 6, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677383/effects-of-inhibitors-on-hsp90-s-conformational-dynamics-cochaperone-and-client-interactions
#3
Sonja Schmid, Markus Goetz, Thorsten Hugel
The molecular chaperone and heat-shock protein Hsp90 has become a central target in anti-cancer therapy. Nevertheless, the effect of Hsp90 inhibition is still not understood at the molecular level, preventing a truly rational drug design. Here we report on the effect of the most prominent drug candidates, namely radicicol, geldanamycin, derivatives of purine and novobiocin, on Hsp90's characteristic conformational dynamics and the binding of three interaction partners. Unexpectedly, the global opening and closing transitions are hardly affected by Hsp90 inhibitors...
April 20, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677369/targeted-drug-delivery-in-the-suprachoroidal-space-by-swollen-hydrogel-pushing
#4
Jae Hwan Jung, Patcharin Desit, Mark R Prausnitz
Purpose: The purpose is to target model drug particles to the posterior region of the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of the eye controlled via pushing by hydrogel swelling. Methods: A particle formulation containing 1% hyaluronic acid (HA) with fluorescent polymer particles and a hydrogel formulation containing 4% HA were introduced in a single syringe as two layers without mixing, and injected sequentially into the SCS of the rabbit eye ex vivo and in vivo using a microneedle...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677134/modeling-skin-injury-from-hot-rice-porridge-spills
#5
Torgrim Log
The present work analyzes skin burns from spills of hot rice and milk products. The traditional Norwegian rice porridge serves as an example. By testing spills on objects emulating an arm, it was concluded that spills were seldom thinner than 3 mm, and stayed in place due to the viscosity of the porridge for more than one minute. The Pennes bioheat equation was solved numerically for such spills, including heat conduction to the skin and convective heat losses from the porridge surface. Temperatures were analyzed in the porridge and skin layers, and the resulting skin injury was calculated based on the basal layer temperature...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677000/stress-resistance-and-lifespan-enhanced-by-downregulation-of-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-in-the-imd-pathway
#6
Yuh-Ru Lin, Hardik Parikh, Yongkyu Park
Biological behaviors and longevity of ectothermic animals are remarkably influenced by ambient temperature. Development at 18°C significantly enhances the stress resistance of adult flies with more accumulation of nutrients (especially fat) in the body than development at 25°C. Gene expression analysis between the flies developed at 18°C and 25°C revealed that the Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, including the downstream antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), is downregulated in the flies developed at 18°C. When hypomorphic imd mutant flies with reduced AMP expressions were developed at 25°C, they showed induced stress resistance with higher fat content in the body similar to the wild-type flies developed at 18°C...
April 19, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676863/nitrite-stress-disrupts-the-structural-integrity-and-induces-oxidative-stress-response-in-the-intestines-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#7
Yafei Duan, Jiasong Zhang, Yun Wang, Qingsong Liu, Dalin Xiong
The acute toxicity of nitrite on the mucosal morphology and oxidative stress response was investigated in the intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei after the exposure of 20 mg/L nitrite for 72 hr. The duration of nitrite stress influenced the shrimp survival, and the cumulative mortality rate was 36.7% at 72 hr. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain showed that nitrite stress damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue. Specifically, nitrite stress increased the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (O2 - generation capacity), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676822/site-selective-trans-hydrostannation-of-1-3-and-1-n-diynes-application-to-the-total-synthesis-of-typhonosides-e-and-f-and-a-fluorinated-cerebroside-analogue
#8
Alois Fürstner, Xiaobin Mo, Aurelien Letort, Dragos-Adrian Rosca, Kosuge Higashida
Propargyl alcohols are privileged substrates for stereochemically unorthodox trans-hydrostannation reactions catalyzed by [Cp*RuCl]4, because an incipient hydrogen bond between the -OH group and the polarized [RuCl] unit assists substrate binding. For this very reason it is also possible to subject diyne derivatives carrying one -OH group to site-selective stannylation, even if the acetylene units are conjugated and hence electronically coupled. An unusual temperature dependence was observed in that heating tends to improve site-selectivity, whereas per-stannylation is favored when the reaction is carried out in the cold...
April 20, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676789/electron-backscattered-diffraction-analysis-of-friction-stir-processed-nanocomposites-produced-via-spark-plasma-sintering
#9
B Sadeghi, P Cavaliere, M Shamanian, M Sanayei, J A Szpunar, M Nosko
In the present study, Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed) aluminium matrix composites were severely deformed through Friction stir processing (FSP). Pure aluminium powders and bimodal sized Al2 O3 particles (80 nm and 25 μm) were firstly mixed by ball milling and then consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The effect of the heat input as well the bimodal particle size of the alumina on the materials' microstructure and texture development was evaluated by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The EBSD analysis clearly showed that the SPSed nanocomposites possessed bimodal aluminium matrix grain structure as well as a crystallography characterised by random texture...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676769/lamellar-cubic-transition-of-a-dihydrazide-derivative-and-its-effect-on-the-gel-stability
#10
Xiangyang Che, Chunling Zhang, Binglian Bai, Tianren Zhang, Chunxue Zhang, Haitao Wang, Min Li
N,N'-Bis(4-n-alkyloxybenzoyl)hydrazine (4D16) was demonstrated to show three different aggregates, i.e. a crystalline cubic phase and two kinds of lamellar structure with layer spacings of 34.20 Å (termed the L1 structure) and 40.85 Å (L2 structure) depending on the type of solvents. Lamellar (L1)-crystalline cubic transition during heating was confirmed for 4D16 showing the L1 structure. 4D16 organogels in cyclohexane and benzene exhibited either a mixture of the L1 structure and the crystalline cubic phase or only one of the two structures...
April 20, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676748/study-on-bubble-column-humidification-and-dehumidification-system-for-coal-mine-wastewater-treatment
#11
Penghui Gao, Meng Zhang, Yuji Du, Bo Cheng, Donghai Zhang
Water is important resource for human survival and development. Coal mine wastewater (CMW) is a byproduct of the process of coal mining, which is about 7.0 × 1010 m3 in China in 2016. Considering coal mine wastewater includes different ingredients, a new bubble column humidification and dehumidification system is proposed for CMW treatment. The system is mainly composed of a bubble column humidification and dehumidification unit, solar collector, fan and water tank, in which air is used as a circulating medium...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676648/global-tobacco-use-old-and-new-products
#12
Ana Navas-Acien
Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke remain major but avoidable causes of premature mortality and disease worldwide. Although the age-standardized prevalence of daily smoking has declined for both men and women in many countries, the number of smokers continues to increase because of global population growth. Although cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product, the tobacco epidemic has become tremendously complex with the emergence and popularity of alternative products such as waterpipes and electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes)...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676634/impact-of-seasonal-winter-air-pollution-on-health-across-the-lifespan-in-mongolia-and-some-putative-solutions
#13
David Warburton, Nicole Warburton, Clarence Wigfall, Ochir Chimedsuren, Delgerzul Lodoisamba, Sereeter Lodoysamba, Badarch Jargalsaikhan
Environmental pollution of the air, water, and soil comprise an increasingly urgent challenge to global health, well-being, and productivity. The impact of environmental pollution arguably has its greatest impact across the lifespan on children, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women and their unborn children, not only because of their vulnerability during development, but also because of their subsequent longevity. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is a highly instructive, perhaps extreme, example of what happens with recent, rapid urbanization...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676569/in-situ-polymorphic-alteration-of-filler-structures-for-biomimetic-mechanically-adaptive-elastomer-nanocomposites
#14
Tamil Selvan Natarajan, Shigeru Okamoto, Klaus Werner Stöckelhuber, Sven Wiessner, Uta Reuter, Dieter Fischer, Anik Ghosh, Gert Heinrich, Amit Das
A mechanically adaptable elastomer composite is prepared with reversible soft-stiff properties that can be easily controlled. By the exploitation of different morphological structures of calcium sulphate, which is acting as active filler in soft elastomer matrix, the magnitude of filler reinforcement can be reversibly altered that will be reflected in changes of the final stiffness of the material. The higher stiffness, in other words, the higher modulus of the composites, is realized by the in-situ development of fine nano-structured calcium sulphate di-hydrate crystals, which are formed during exposure to water and, further, this highly reinforcing crystals can be transformed to a non-reinforcing hemi-hydrate mesocrystalline structure by simply heating the system in a controlled way...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676438/the-influence-of-digit-size-and-proportions-on-dexterity-during-cold-exposure
#15
Stephanie Payne, Alison Macintosh, Jay Stock
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated whether size and proportions of the hands and digits affect dexterity during severe cold exposure. As wide hands are known to lose less heat than narrow hands, and narrow digits are associated with greater dexterity, this study aimed to test whether there was a direct trade-off between dexterity and thermoregulation that shapes hand morphology. METHODS: Participants (25 women, 15 men) carried out the Purdue Pegboard test before and after a 3-min ice-water immersion of the hand...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676425/mechanistic-insights-into-the-interaction-between-energetic-oxygen-ions-and-nanosized-znfe-2-o-4-xas-xmcd-investigations
#16
Jitendra Pal Singh, Baljeet Kaur, Aditya Sharma, So Hee Kim, Sanjeev Gautam, Ramesh Chandra Srivastava, Navdeep Goyal, Weol Cheol Lim, H-J Lin, J M Chen, K Asokan, D Kanjilal, Sung Ok Won, Ik-Jae Lee, Keun Hwa Chae
The interactions of energetic ions with multi-cation compounds and their consequences in terms of changes in the local electronic structure, which may facilitate intriguing hybridization between O 2p and metal d orbitals and magnetic ordering, are the subject of debate and require a deep understanding of energy transfer processes and magnetic exchange mechanisms. In this study, nanocrystals of ZnFe2O4 were exposed to O7+ ions with an energy of 100 MeV to understand, qualitatively and quantitatively, the metal-ligand field interactions, cation migration and magnetic exchange interactions by employing X-ray absorption fine structure measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to get deeper mechanistic insights...
April 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676416/self-plied-and-twist-stable-carbon-nanotube-yarn-artificial-muscles-driven-by-organic-solvent-adsorption
#17
Kaiyun Jin, Silan Zhang, Susheng Zhou, Jian Qiao, Yanhui Song, Jiangtao Di, Dengsong Zhang, Qingwen Li
Artificial yarn/fiber muscles have recently attracted considerable interest for various applications. These muscles can provide large-stroke tensile and torsional actuations, resulting from inserted twists. However, tensional tethering of twisted muscles is generally needed to avoid muscle snarling and untwisting. In this paper a carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn muscle that is tethering-free and twist-stable is reported. The yarn muscle is prepared by allowing the self-plying of a coiled CNT yarn. When driven by acetone adsorption, this muscle shows decoupled actuations, which provide fast and reversible ∼13...
April 20, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676282/influence-of-hole-transport-material-metal-contact-interface-on-perovskite-solar-cells
#18
Lei Lei, Shude Zhang, Songwang Yang, Xiaomin Li, Yu Yu, Qingzhu Wei, Zhichun Ni, Ming Li
Interfaces have a significant impact on the performance of perovskite solar cells. This work investigated the influence of hole transport material/metal contact interface on photovoltaic behaviours of perovskite solar devices. Different hole material/metal contact interfaces were obtained by depositing the metal under different conditions. High incident kinetic energy metal particles were proved to penetrate and embed into the hole transport material. These isolated metal particles in hole transport materials capture holes and increase the apparent carrier transport resistance of the hole transport layer...
April 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676138/-clinical-experience-and-academic-thoughts-of-professor-liu-feng-bin-on-case-series-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-based-on-data-mining
#19
Zheng-Kun Hou, Ji-Ping Li, Zhuo-Qun Chen, Feng-Bin Liu
To analyze and summarize Professor LIU Feng-bin's clinical experience and academic thoughts on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the study group adopted the retrospective study for case series and expert interview, extracted the retrospective data, including the herbs, diseases, syndrome type, medical expense and quantity of herbs of GERD patients attended the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. Statistical description and binary Logistic regression were used for the identification and modification of syndrome type and initial core herbs...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676106/-medication-regularity-and-potential-targets-of-professor-xu-jing-fan-s-prescription-for-treating-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Li-Qin Ning, Bai Ye, Hong Shen, Wei-Min Lu, Dan-Hua Xu, Jing Yan, Chang Tan, De-Cai Tang
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic nonspecific inflammation mainly involving rectum and colon mucosa, which seriously affects the health and quality of life of patients, and is listed as one of modern refractory diseases by WHO. Professor XU Jing-fan, a great master of traditional Chinese medicine, has accumulated rich experiences in the treatment of UC. The study collected Professor XU's 77 prescriptions of treating UC, analyzed the frequency of traditional Chinese medicines and there categories, and investigated the medication regularity by the system clustering method...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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