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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732407/a-synergistic-combination-of-nutrient-reclamation-from-manure-and-resultant-hydrochar-upgradation-by-acid-supported-hydrothermal-carbonization
#1
Lichun Dai, Bo Yang, Hong Li, Furong Tan, Nengmin Zhu, Qili Zhu, Mingxiong He, Yi Ran, Guoquan Hu
Cattle manure was hydrothermally carbonized in acid solutions (0-2% HCl), then nutrient concentration in liquid product and physicochemical properties of hydrochar were characterized to investigate the effects of acid addition on hydrochar properties and nutrient recovery from manure. Results showed that hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) in 2% HCl extracted almost 100% and 63.38% of phosphorus and nitrogen, respectively; specifically, >90% of the extracted phosphorus was PO4-P in liquid from HTC with acid addition, and increasing amount of extracted nitrogen was NH4-N with increasing acid addition...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732266/effect-of-heat-treatments-on-the-microstructure-and-formability-of-al-mg-mn-sc-zr-alloy
#2
Yudai Miyake, Yukio Sato, Ryo Teranishi, Kenji Kaneko
Microstructures and formability of scandium and zirconium added Al-Mg-Mn alloy sheets with various heating conditions were examined to improve their mechanical properties. Formability of these samples were judged by the Lankford value, r-value. It was possible to fabricate mechanically balanced Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy with high hardness 76.2 Hv and with high formability with r=1.2, by not only adding scandium and zirconium but also optimizing the heat treatment conditions.
July 11, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731853/hormonal-factors-in-the-control-of-the-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#3
REVIEW
Jiamiao Hu, Mark Christian
Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue (WAT) and catabolic brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent studies have revealed the plasticity of WAT, where white adipocytes can be induced into 'brown-like' heat-producing adipocytes (BRITE or beige adipocytes). Recruiting and activating BRITE adipocytes in WAT (so-called 'browning') is believed to provide new avenues for the treatment of obesity-related diseases. A number of hormonal factors have been found to regulate BRITE adipose development and activity through autocrine, paracrine and systemic mechanisms...
July 21, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731722/dynamically-reconfigurable-metadevice-employing-nanostructured-phase-change-materials
#4
Zhihua Zhu, Philip Gareth Evans, Richard F Haglund, Jason Valentine
Mastering dynamic free-space spectral control and modulation in the near-infrared and optical regimes remains a challenging task that is hindered by the available functional materials at high frequencies. Here, we realize an efficient metadevice capable of spectral control by minimizing the thermal mass of a vanadium dioxide phase-change material (PCM) and placing the PCM at the feed gap of a bow-tie field antenna. The device has an experimentally measured tuning range up to 360 nm in the NIR and a modulation depth of 33% at the resonant wavelength...
July 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731618/controlling-the-near-infrared-transparency-of-costal-cartilage-by-impregnation-with-clearing-agents-and-magnetite-nanoparticles
#5
Yulia Alexandrovskaya, Kirill Sadovnikov, Andrey Sharov, Anna Sherstneva, Evgeniy Evtushenko, Alexander Omelchenko, Mariya Obrezkova, Valery Tuchin, Valery Lunin, Emil Sobol
Penetration depth of near infrared laser radiation to costal cartilage is controlled by the tissue absorption and scattering and it is the critical parameter to provide the relaxation of mechanical stress throughout the whole thickness of cartilage implant. To enhance the penetration for the laser radiation on 1.56 μm the optical clearing solutions of glycerol and fructose of various concentrations are tested. The effective and reversible tissue clearance was achieved. However, the increasing absorption of radiation should be concerned: 5-8(ᴼ) C increase of tissue temperature was detected...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731423/magnetic-properties-of-monoclinic-lanthanide-metaborates-i-ln-i-bo-sub-2-sub-sub-3-sub-i-ln-i-pr-nd-gd-tb
#6
Paromita Mukherjee, Emma Suard, S E Dutton
The bulk magnetic properties of the lanthanide metaborates, <i>Ln</i>(BO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, <i>Ln</i> = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb are studied using magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity and isothermal magnetisation measurements. They crystallise in a monoclinic structure containing chains of magnetic <i>Ln</i><sup>3+</sup> and could therefore exhibit features of low-dimensional magnetism and frustration. Pr(BO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>3</sub> is found to have a non-magnetic singlet ground state...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731366/chondromyxoid-fibroma-of-the-distal-fibula-treated-by-percutaneous-radiofrequency-ablation
#7
Tamar Berenstein-Weyel, Ehud Lebel, Daniela Katz, Yaakov Applbaum, Amos Peyser
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been shown to be an effective treatment for soft tissue lesions and also benign bone tumors, especially osteoid osteoma. There are limited data regarding this technique in other bone tumors, specifically larger and more aggressive ones. PURPOSES: To describe the use of RFA as a definitive treatment and an alternative to traditional open surgery for the treatment of chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF), a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731274/synthesis-and-characterization-of-2-2-dinitramino-5-5-bi-1-oxa-3-4-diazole-and-derivatives-as-economic-and-highly-dense-energetic-materials
#8
Tobias S Hermann, Konstantin Karaghiosoff, Thomas M Klapötke, Jörg Stierstorfer
2,2'-Dinitramino-5,5'-bi(1-oxa-3,4-diazole) (2) is a new highly energetic material with superior calculated detonation performance in comparison to cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX) and penta-erythritoltetranitrate (PETN) and can be prepared by an economical and practical two-step synthesis. The starting material 2,2'-diamino-5,5'-bi(1-oxa-3,4-diazole) (1) is synthesized by the reaction of oxalyl dihydrazide with cyanogen bromide. Nitration of 1 yields the title compound in perfect yield and purity...
July 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731217/small-rnas-in-regulating-temperature-stress-response-in-plants
#9
Qing Liu, Shijuan Yan, Tifeng Yang, Shaohong Zhang, Yue-Qin Chen, Bin Liu
Due to global climate change, temperature stress has become one of the primary causes of crop losses worldwide. Much progress has been made in unraveling the complex stress response mechanisms in plants, particularly in the identification of temperature stress responsive protein-coding genes. Recently discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have also been demonstrated as important players in plant temperature stress response. Using high-throughput sequencing, many small RNAs, especially miRNAs, have been identified to be triggered by cold or heat...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731208/super-strong-super-stiff-macrofibers-with-aligned-long-bacterial-cellulose-nanofibers
#10
Sha Wang, Feng Jiang, Xu Xu, Yudi Kuang, Kun Fu, Emily Hitz, Liangbing Hu
With their impressive properties such as remarkable unit tensile strength, modulus, and resistance to heat, flame, and chemical agents that normally degrade conventional macrofibers, high-performance macrofibers are now widely used in various fields including aerospace, biomedical, civil engineering, construction, protective apparel, geotextile, and electronic areas. Those macrofibers with a diameter of tens to hundreds of micrometers are typically derived from polymers, gel spun fibers, modified carbon fibers, carbon-nanotube fibers, ceramic fibers, and synthetic vitreous fibers...
July 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731175/heat-shock-induced-hikeshi-protects-cell-viability-via-nuclear-translocation-of-heat-shock-protein-70
#11
Toru Yanoma, Kyoichi Ogata, Takehiko Yokobori, Munenori Ide, Erito Mochiki, Yoshitaka Toyomasu, Mitsuhiro Yanai, Norimichi Kogure, Akiharu Kimura, Masaki Suzuki, Nobuhiro Nakazawa, Tuya Bai, Tetsunari Oyama, Takayuki Asao, Ken Shirabe, Hiroyuki Kuwano
Heat shock proteins (HSPs), particularly HSP70, help restore normal cellular function following damage caused by stressors. HSP expression in tumor tissues indicates cancer progression, and while the development of HSP inhibitors is progressing, these substances are not widely used to treat cancer. HIKESHI (C11orf73) does not control the intracellular movement of HSP70 at normal temperatures; however, it does regulate the function and movements of HSP70 during heat shock. In this study, we examined the intracellular movement of HSP70 during heat shock to investigate the significance of HIKESHI expression in gastric cancer (GC) and determine if HIKESHI inhibition has cytotoxic effects...
July 21, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731105/a-comparative-vuv-absorption-mass-spectroscopy-study-on-protonated-peptides-of-different-size
#12
D Egorov, R Hoekstra, T Schlathölter
The ionization of gas-phase protonated peptides and proteins can induce molecular responses ranging from purely non-dissociative ionization to extensive multifragmentation of the system. In the case of soft X-ray photoionization, a monotonic transition between both regimes occurs in the mass range between 0.5 and 10 kDa. Despite the localized nature of the photoabsorption, excitation energy equilibrates before fragmentation sets in and the transition reflects the increase of the heat capacity with protein size...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730968/modulation-of-the-immune-system-for-the-treatment-of-glaucoma
#13
Katharina Bell, Nadine von Thun Und Hohenstein-Blaul, Julia Teister, Franz H Grus
At present intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapies are the only approach to treat glaucoma. Neuroprotective strategies to protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) from apoptosis are lacking to date. Results from clinical studies revealed altered immunoreactivities against retinal and optic nerve antigens in sera and aqueous humor of glaucoma patients and point toward an autoimmune involvement in glaucomatous neurodegeneration and RGC death. IgG accumulations along with plasma cells were found localised in human glaucomatous retinae in a pro-inflammatory environment possibly maintained by microglia...
July 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730896/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-potential-mechanisms-for-the-benefit-of-capsaicin-and-hot-water-hydrotherapy-in-treatment
#14
John R Richards, Jeff M Lapoint, Guillermo Burillo-Putze
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a clinical disorder that has become more prevalent with increasing use of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, and which is difficult to treat. Standard antiemetics commonly fail to alleviate the severe nausea and vomiting characteristic of the syndrome. Curiously, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome patients often report dramatic relief of symptoms with hot showers and baths, and topical capsaicin. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we detail the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of capsaicin and explore possible mechanisms for its beneficial effect, including activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurohumoral regulation...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730803/3d-graphene-foam-filled-elastomer-composites-with-high-thermal-and-mechanical-properties
#15
Haoming Fang, Yunhong Zhao, Yafei Zhang, Yanjuan Ren, Shulin Bai
In order to meet the increasing demands for effective heat management of electronic devices, graphene based polymeric composite is considered to be one of the candidate materials due to the ultrahigh thermal conductivity of graphene. However, poor graphene dispersion, low quality of exfoliated graphene and strong phonon scattering at graphene/matrix interface restrict the heat dissipation ability of graphene filled composites. Here, a facile and versatile approach to bond graphene foam (GF) with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is proposed and the corresponding composite with considerable improvement of thermal conductivity and insulativity is fabricated...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730731/induction-of-stress-and-immune-associated-genes-in-the-indian-meal-moth-plodia-interpunctella-against-envenomation-by-the-ectoparasitoid-bracon-hebetor
#16
Tahir Shafeeq, Zain UlAbdin, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee
Envenomation is an important process in parasitism by parasitic wasps; it suppresses the immune and development of host insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of host responses to envenomation are not yet clear. This study aimed to determine the transcription-level responses of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella against envenomation of the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR was used to determine the transcriptional changes of 13 selected genes, which are associated with development, metabolism, stress, or immunity, in the feeding and wandering fifth instar larvae over a 4-day period after envenomation...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730715/different-thermotolerances-in-in%C3%A2-vitro-produced-embryos-derived-from-different-maternal-and-paternal-genetic-backgrounds
#17
Miki Sakatani, Kenichi Yamanaka, Ahmed Zaky Balboula, Masashi Takahashi
The present study evaluated the effects of genetic backgrounds on the developmental competence and thermotolerance of bovine in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. First, Holstein (Hol) and Japanese Black (JB) oocytes were fertilized with sperm from Hol, JB and a thermotolerant breed (Brahman), and in vitro development was evaluated when the embryos were exposed to heat shock on Day 2 (Day 0 = day of fertilization). Sperm genetic backgrounds affected the developmental competence in controls (P < 0.05). Second, the effect of sperm pre-incubation for 4 h on subsequent in vitro fertilization was assessed using different sperm genetic backgrounds...
July 21, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730576/effects-of-boron-supplementation-on-expression-of-hsp70-in-the-spleen-of-african-ostrich
#18
Khaliq Haseeb, Jing Wang, Ke Xiao, Ke-Li Yang, Peng-Peng Sun, Xing-Tong Wu, You Luo, Hui Song, Hua-Zhen Liu, Ju-Ming Zhong, Ke-Mei Peng
Increased synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) occurs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in response to physiological, environmental, and chemical exposures, thus allowing the cell survival from fatal conditions. Hsp70 cytoprotective properties may be clarified by its anti-apoptotic function. Boron has been reported to play an essential role in various organ developments and metabolisms. However, it is not known if boron is also able to modulate the Hsp70. In the present study, the actions of boron on ostrich spleen and expression level of Hsp70 were investigated...
July 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730199/the-amorphous-state-first-principles-derivation-of-the-gordon-taylor-equation-for-direct-prediction-of-the-glass-transition-temperature-of-mixtures-estimation-of-the-crossover-temperature-of-fragile-glass-formers-physical-basis-of-the-rule-of-2-3
#19
Peter J Skrdla, Philip D Floyd, Philip C Dell'Orco
Predicting the glass transition temperature (Tg) of mixtures has applications that span across industries and scientific disciplines. By plotting experimentally determined Tg values as a function of the glass composition, one can usually apply the Gordon-Taylor (G-T) equation to determine the slope, k, which subsequently can be used in Tg predictions. Traditionally viewed as a phenomenological/empirical model, this work proposes a physical basis for the G-T equation. The proposed equations allow for the calculation of k directly and, hence, they determine/predict the Tg values of mixtures algebraically...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730145/prokaryotic-rna-associated-to-bacterial-viability-induces-polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-activation
#20
Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Luis A Castillo, Verónica I Landoni, Daiana Martire-Greco, M Ayelén Milillo, Paula Barrionuevo, Gabriela C Fernández
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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