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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818660/environmental-effects-are-stronger-than-human-effects-on-mammalian-predator-prey-relationships-in-arid-australian-ecosystems
#1
Benjamin L Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M Engeman, Allan Lisle, Luke K-P Leung
Climate (drought, rainfall), geology (habitat availability), land use change (provision of artificial waterpoints, introduction of livestock), invasive species (competition, predation), and direct human intervention (lethal control of top-predators) have each been identified as processes driving the sustainability of threatened fauna populations. We used a systematic combination of empirical observational studies and experimental manipulations to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these process on a model endangered rodent, dusky hopping-mice (Notomys fuscus)...
August 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813506/global-and-local-disturbances-interact-to-modify-seagrass-palatability
#2
Rocío Jiménez-Ramos, Luis G Egea, María J Ortega, Ignacio Hernández, Juan J Vergara, Fernando G Brun
Global change, such as warming and ocean acidification, and local anthropogenic disturbances, such as eutrophication, can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we are far from being able to predict the outcome of multiple interacting disturbances on seagrass communities. Herbivores are key in determining plant community structure and the transfer of energy up the food web. Global and local disturbances may alter the ecological role of herbivory by modifying leaf palatability (i.e. leaf traits) and consequently, the feeding patterns of herbivores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812706/a-decade-of-insights-into-grassland-ecosystem-responses-to-global-environmental-change
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Borer, James B Grace, W Stanley Harpole, Andrew S MacDougall, Eric W Seabloom
Earth's biodiversity and carbon uptake by plants, or primary productivity, are intricately interlinked, underlie many essential ecosystem processes, and depend on the interplay among environmental factors, many of which are being changed by human activities. While ecological theory generalizes across taxa and environments, most empirical tests of factors controlling diversity and productivity have been observational, single-site experiments, or meta-analyses, limiting our understanding of variation among site-level responses and tests of general mechanisms...
April 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811574/interactions-count-plant-origin-herbivory-and-disturbance-jointly-explain-seedling-recruitment-and-community-structure
#4
Lotte Korell, Birgit R Lang, Isabell Hensen, Harald Auge, Helge Bruelheide
Herbivory and disturbance are major drivers of biological invasions, but it is unclear how they interact to determine exotic vs. native seedling recruitment and what consequences arise for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Previous studies neglected the roles of different, potentially interacting, guilds of generalist herbivores such as rodents and gastropods. We therefore set up a full-factorial rodent exclusion x gastropod exclusion x disturbance x seed-addition experiment in a grassland community in Central Germany and measured early seedling recruitment, as well as species richness, species composition and aboveground biomass...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811334/argonaute-8-ago8-mediates-the-elicitation-of-primary-defense-against-herbivory
#5
Maitree Pradhan, Priyanka Pandey, Klaus Gase, Murali Shraff, Ravi K Singh, Avinash Sethi, Ian T Baldwin, Shree P Pandey
In Nicotiana attenuata, specific RNA directed RNA polymerase (RdR1) and the Dicer-like proteins (DCL3 and 4) are recruited during herbivore attack to mediate the regulation of defense responses. However, the identity and role(s) of Argonautes (AGOs) involved in herbivory remains unknown. Of the 11 AGOs in the N. attenuata genome, we silenced the expression of 10. Plants silenced in NaAGO8 expression grew normally but were highly susceptible to herbivore attack. Larvae of the Manduca sexta grew faster when consuming irAGO8 plants, but did not differ from WT when consuming plants silenced in AGO1 (a, b and c), AGO2, AGO4 (a and b), AGO7, or AGO10 expression...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803341/gypsy-moth-herbivory-induced-volatiles-and-reduced-parasite-attachment-to-cranberry-hosts
#6
Muvari C Tjiurutue, Hilary A Sandler, Monica F Kersch-Becker, Nina Theis, Lynn S Adler
Interactions between species can have cascading effects that shape subsequent interactions. For example, herbivory can induce plant defenses that affect subsequent interactions with herbivores, pathogens, mycorrhizae, and pollinators. Parasitic plants are present in most ecosystems, and play important roles in structuring communities. However, the effects of host herbivory on parasitic plants, and the potential mechanisms underlying such effects, are not well known. We conducted a greenhouse study to ask whether gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) damage, host cultivar, and their interaction affected preference of the stem parasite dodder (Cuscuta spp...
August 12, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795094/data-and-analyses-of-woody-restoration-planting-survival-and-growth-as-a-function-of-wild-ungulate-herbivory
#7
Joshua P Averett, Michael J Wisdom, Bridgett J Naylor, Mary M Rowland, Bryan A Endress
These data and analyses support the research article "Wild ungulate herbivory suppresses deciduous woody plant establishment following salmonid stream restoration" Averett et al. (2017) [1]. The data and analyses presented here include: (1) planting density, survival and growth (two years post restoration) of riparian plantings along an ~11 km stream reach in northeastern Oregon as a function of herbivory treatment (protected/not protected from wild ungulate herbivory), habitat type, and planting species; and (2) abundance and height distributions of naturally occurring deciduous woody species along the restored stream reach two years post restoration...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771704/parallel-environmental-factors-drive-variation-in-insect-density-and-plant-resistance-in-the-native-and-invaded-ranges
#8
Yuzu Sakata, Timothy P Craig, Joanne K Itami, Michimasa Yamasaki, Takayuki Ohgushi
Geographic variation in the traits of a species is shaped by variation in abiotic conditions, biotic interactions, and evolutionary history of its interactions with other species. We studied the geographic variation in the density of the lace bug, Corythucha marmorata, and the resistance of tall goldenrod Solidago altissima to the lace bug herbivory in their native range in the USA and invaded range in Japan. We conducted field surveys and reciprocal transplant experiments to examine what abiotic and biotic factors influence variation in lace bug density, and what ecological and evolutionary factors predict the resistance of the host plant between and within the native and invaded ranges...
August 3, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769939/evidence-for-active-uptake-and-deposition-of-si-based-defenses-in-tall-fescue
#9
Emma McLarnon, Simon McQueen-Mason, Ingo Lenk, Susan E Hartley
Silicon (Si) is taken up from the soil as monosilicic acid by plant roots, transported to leaves and deposited as phytoliths, amorphous silica (SiO2) bodies, which are a key component of anti-herbivore defense in grasses. Silicon transporters have been identified in many plant species, but the mechanisms underpinning Si transport remain poorly understood. Specifically, the extent to which Si uptake is a passive process, driven primarily by transpiration, or has both passive and active components remains disputed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768796/feeding-the-enemy-loss-of-nectar-and-nectaries-to-herbivores-reduces-tepal-damage-and-increases-pollinator-attraction-in-iris-bulleyana
#10
Ya-Ru Zhu, Min Yang, Jana C Vamosi, W Scott Armbruster, Tao Wan, Yan-Bing Gong
Floral nectar usually functions as a pollinator reward, yet it may also attract herbivores. However, the effects of herbivore consumption of nectar or nectaries on pollination have rarely been tested. We investigated Iris bulleyana, an alpine plant that has showy tepals and abundant nectar, in the Hengduan Mountains of SW China. In this region, flowers are visited mainly by pollen-collecting pollinators and nectarivorous herbivores. We tested the hypothesis that, in I. bulleyana, sacrificing nectar and nectaries to herbivores protects tepals and thus enhances pollinator attraction...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761775/real-time-monitoring-of-superoxide-anion-radical-generation-in-response-to-wounding-electrochemical-study
#11
Ankush Prasad, Aditya Kumar, Ryo Matsuoka, Akemi Takahashi, Ryo Fujii, Yamato Sugiura, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Shigeo Aoyagi, Tatsuo Aikawa, Takeshi Kondo, Makoto Yuasa, Pavel Pospíšil, Shigenobu Kasai
BACKGROUND: The growth and development of plants is deleteriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. Wounding in plants is caused by exposure to environmental stress, mechanical stress, and via herbivory. Typically, oxidative burst in response to wounding is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as the superoxide anion radical (O2(•-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and singlet oxygen; however, few experimental studies have provided direct evidence of their detection in plants...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746447/the-first-assessment-of-the-stress-inducible-defense-of-leucaena-leucocephala-with-acaricidal-potential-effect-against-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-acari-ixodidae
#12
Lêdia Feitosa Wanderley, Karla Lílian Rodrigues Batista, Jorgiane Furtado de Carvalho, Aldilene da Silva Lima, Gabriel Alves Landulfo, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos Soares, Livio Martins Costa
Plants respond to wounding caused by mechanical stress or herbivory by synthesizing defense proteins. There are no studies reporting the action of induced plant proteins against ticks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanically wounded Leucaena leucocephala leaves against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Initially, we carried out time course experiments to evaluate the impact of mechanical wounding on the protein content and the peroxidase, catalase and protease inhibitor activities in L...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744732/medicago-truncatula-oleanolic-derived-saponins-are-correlated-with-caterpillar-deterrence
#13
Fanping Cai, Bonnie S Watson, David Meek, David V Huhman, Daniel J Wherritt, Cecile Ben, Laurent Gentzbittel, Brian T Driscoll, Lloyd W Sumner, Jacqueline C Bede
Plant resistance mechanisms to insect herbivory can potentially be bred into crops as an important strategy for integrated pest management. Medicago truncatula ecotypes inoculated with the rhizobium Ensifer medicae (Sinorhizobium medica) WSM419 were screened for resistance to herbivory by caterpillars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, through leaf and whole plant choice studies; TN1.11 and F83005.5 are identified as the least and most deterrent ecotypes, respectively. In response to caterpillar herbivory, both ecotypes mount a robust burst of plant defensive jasmonate phytohormones...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733994/seasonal-recruitment-and-survival-strategies-of-palisada-cervicornis-comb-nov-ceramiales-rhodophyta-in-coral-reefs
#14
Ligia Collado-Vides, Alain Duran, Elizabeth Armenis, Valéria Cassano, Deron Burkepile, Andrew A Shantz, Laura Palma, Jhoana Díaz-Larrea, Abel Sentíes, Mutue Toyota Fujii
As marine tropical ecosystems deteriorate and lose biodiversity, their communities are shifting to being dominated by a few species, altering ecosystem's functioning and services. Macroalgae are becoming dominant on coral reefs, and are frequently observed outcompeting corals. Turf algal assemblages are the base of energy flow in these systems and one of the most abundant types of macroalgae on coral reefs, but little is known about their biology and diversity. Through molecular and morphological analyses, we identified the turf-forming species Laurencia cervicornis, and by studying seasonal recruitment and the impact of herbivorous fishes on its abundance, we describe its survival strategy...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732049/testing-the-optimal-defense-hypothesis-in-nature-variation-for-glucosinolate-profiles-within-plants
#15
Rose A Keith, Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Plants employ highly variable chemical defenses against a broad community of herbivores, which vary in their susceptibilities to specific compounds. Variation in chemical defenses within the plant has been found in many species; the ecological and evolutionary influences on this variation, however, are less well-understood. One central theory describing the allocation of defenses in the plant is the Optimal Defense Hypothesis (ODH), which predicts that defenses will be concentrated in tissues that are of high fitness value to the plant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729633/threats-to-large-brown-algal-forests-in-temperate-seas-the-overlooked-role-of-native-herbivorous-fish
#16
Fabrizio Gianni, Fabrizio Bartolini, Alexis Pey, Mathieu Laurent, Gustavo M Martins, Laura Airoldi, Luisa Mangialajo
Canopy-forming algae are declining globally due to multiple disturbances. This decline has recently been on the increase due to the spread of some tropical herbivorous fishes. This new phenomenon has drawn attention to the effects of fish herbivory in temperate areas, which have been assumed to be negligible compared to that of invertebrates, such as sea urchins. In this study, the impact of a Mediterranean native herbivorous fish (Sarpa salpa, salema) was assessed on the canopy-forming seaweed Cystoseira amentacea var...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725372/experimental-warming-increases-herbivory-by-leaf-chewing-insects-in-an-alpine-plant-community
#17
Tone Birkemoe, Saskia Bergmann, Toril E Hasle, Kari Klanderud
Climate warming is predicted to affect species and trophic interactions worldwide, and alpine ecosystems are expected to be especially sensitive to changes. In this study, we used two ongoing climate warming (open-top chambers) experiments at Finse, southern Norway, to examine whether warming had an effect on herbivory by leaf-chewing insects in an alpine Dryas heath community. We recorded feeding marks on the most common vascular plant species in warmed and control plots at two experimental sites at different elevations and carried out a brief inventory of insect herbivores...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719628/salt-tolerant-and-sensitive-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-cultivars-have-large-variations-in-defense-responses-to-the-lepidopteran-insect-spodoptera-litura-under-normal-and-salt-stress-condition
#18
Yunting Lei, Qing Liu, Christian Hettenhausen, Guoyan Cao, Qing Tan, Weiye Zhao, Honghui Lin, Jianqiang Wu
In nature, plants are often exposed to multiple stress factors at the same time. Yet, little is known about how plants modulate their physiology to counteract simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, such as soil salinity and insect herbivory. In this study, insect performance bioassays, phytohormone measurements, quantification of transcripts, and protein determination were employed to study the phenotypic variations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars in response to insect Spodoptera litura feeding under normal and salt stress condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716410/review-nectar-biology-from-molecules-to-ecosystems
#19
REVIEW
Rahul Roy, Anthony J Schmitt, Jason B Thomas, Clay J Carter
Plants attract mutualistic animals by offering a reward of nectar. Specifically, floral nectar (FN) is produced to attract pollinators, whereas extrafloral nectar (EFN) mediates indirect defenses through the attraction of mutualist predatory insects to limit herbivory. Nearly 90% of all plant species, including 75% of domesticated crops, benefit from animal-mediated pollination, which is largely facilitated by FN. Moreover, EFN represents one of the few defense mechanisms for which stable effects on plant health and fitness have been demonstrated in multiple systems, and thus plays a crucial role in the resistance phenotype of plants producing it...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715081/molecular-constraints-on-resistance-tolerance-tradeoffs
#20
J Miles Mesa, Daniel R Scholes, Jack Juvik, Ken N Paige
Plants have numerous mechanisms to cope with the negative effects of herbivory, including plant resistance, structural and chemical traits that reduce damage, and plant tolerance, the ability to compensate for tissues lost. It has been argued that resistance and tolerance represent alternate strategies and thus there should be a tradeoff between resistance and tolerance. However, resistance and tolerance are controlled via the same molecular pathway, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and the process of endoreduplication...
July 17, 2017: Ecology
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