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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449398/feeding-induced-phenol-production-in-capsicum-annuum-l-influences-spodoptera-litura-f-larval-growth-and-physiology
#1
Vijaya Movva, Usha Rani Pathipati
We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449359/transcriptomic-responses-of-solanum-dulcamara-to-natural-and-simulated-herbivory
#2
Tobias Lortzing, Vivien Firtzlaff, Duy Nguyen, Ivo Rieu, Sandra Stelzer, Martina Schad, Jim Kallarackal, Anke Steppuhn
Plants are attacked by diverse herbivores and respond with manifold defense responses. To study transcriptional and other early regulation events of these plant responses, herbivory is often simulated to standardize the temporal and spatial dynamics that vary tremendously for natural herbivory. Yet to what extent such simulations of herbivory are able to elicit the same plant response as real herbivory remains largely undetermined. We examined the transcriptional response of a wild model plant to herbivory by lepidopteran larvae and to a commonly used herbivory simulation by applying the larvae's oral secretions to standardized wounds...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445546/a-coral-algal-phase-shift-in-mesoamerica-not-driven-by-changes-in-herbivorous-fish-abundance
#3
Jesús Ernesto Arias-González, Tak Fung, Robert M Seymour, Joaquín Rodrigo Garza-Pérez, Gilberto Acosta-González, Yves-Marie Bozec, Craig R Johnson
Coral-algal phase shifts in which coral cover declines to low levels and is replaced by algae have often been documented on coral reefs worldwide. This has motivated coral reef management responses that include restriction and regulation of fishing, e.g. herbivorous fish species. However, there is evidence that eutrophication and sedimentation can be at least as important as a reduction in herbivory in causing phase shifts. These threats arise from coastal development leading to increased nutrient and sediment loads, which stimulate algal growth and negatively impact corals respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444952/similarity-in-volatile-communities-leads-to-increased-herbivory-and-greater-tropical-forest-diversity
#4
Tara Joy Massad, Marcílio Martins de Moraes, Casey Philbin, Celso Oliveira, Gerardo Cebrian Torrejon, Lydia Fumiko Yamaguchi, Christopher S Jeffrey, Lee A Dyer, Lora A Richards, Massuo Jorge Kato
A longstanding paradigm in ecology is that there are positive associations between herbivore diversity, specialization, and plant species diversity, with a focus on taxonomic diversity. However, phytochemical diversity is also an informative metric, as insect herbivores interact with host-plants not as taxonomic entities, but as sources of nutrients, primary metabolites, and mixtures of attractant and repellant chemicals. The present research examines herbivore responses to phytochemical diversity measured as volatile similarity in the tropical genus Piper...
April 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439394/seasonal-variation-in-effects-of-herbivory-on-foliar-nitrogen-of-a-threatened-conifer
#5
Robert N Schaeffer, Nicole E Soltis, Jennifer L Martin, Aden L Brown, Sara Gómez, Evan L Preisser, Colin M Orians
Invasive herbivores can dramatically impact the nitrogen (N) economy of native hosts. In deciduous species, most N is stored in stem tissues, while in evergreen conifer species N is stored in needles, making them potentially more vulnerable to herbivory. In eastern forests of the USA, the long-lived, foundational conifer eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is under the threat of extirpation by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA: Adelges tsugae). We assessed the impact of HWA infestation on the patterns of seasonal foliar N availability in hemlock planted in a deciduous forest understory...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435656/white-tailed-deer-browse-on-an-invasive-shrub-with-extended-leaf-phenology-meets-assumptions-of-an-apparent-competition-hypothesis
#6
Kylie L Martinod, David L Gorchov
It has been hypothesized that invasive plant species with extended leaf phenology (ELP) elevate generalist herbivore populations, increasing herbivory on native plants (apparent competition). This hypothesis assumes that consumption of the invasive is associated with periods of ELP, the invasive is a major component of the herbivore's diet, and that it is more nutritious than native plants during periods of ELP. We tested these assumptions by estimating the proportion of the white-tailed deer diet comprised of Lonicera maackii, an invasive shrub with ELP, quantifying the seasonal pattern of deer browse on this invasive shrub, and comparing its nutritional quality to leafless woody stems...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434859/tissue-specific-emission-of-e-%C3%AE-bergamotene-helps-resolve-the-dilemma-when-pollinators-are-also-herbivores
#7
Wenwu Zhou, Anke Kügler, Erica McGale, Alexander Haverkamp, Markus Knaden, Han Guo, Franziska Beran, Felipe Yon, Ran Li, Nathalie Lackus, Tobias G Köllner, Julia Bing, Meredith C Schuman, Bill S Hansson, Danny Kessler, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
More than 87% of flowering plant species are animal-pollinated [1] and produce floral scents and other signals to attract pollinators. These floral cues may however also attract antagonistic visitors, including herbivores [2]. The dilemma is exacerbated when adult insects pollinate the same plant that their larvae consume. It remains largely unclear how plants maximize their fitness under these circumstances. Here we show that in the night-flowering wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, the emission of a sesquiterpene, (E)-α-bergamotene, in flowers increases adult Manduca sexta moth-mediated pollination success, while the same compound in leaves is known to mediate indirect defense against M...
April 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431510/delayed-response-to-cold-stress-is-characterized-by-successive-metabolic-shifts-culminating-in-apple-fruit-peel-necrosis
#8
Nigel E Gapper, Maarten L A T M Hertog, Jinwook Lee, David A Buchanan, Rachel S Leisso, Zhangjun Fei, Guiqin Qu, James J Giovannoni, Jason W Johnston, Robert J Schaffer, Bart M Nicolaï, James P Mattheis, Christopher B Watkins, David R Rudell
BACKGROUND: Superficial scald is a physiological disorder of apple fruit characterized by sunken, necrotic lesions appearing after prolonged cold storage, although initial injury occurs much earlier in the storage period. To determine the degree to which the transition to cell death is an active process and specific metabolism involved, untargeted metabolic and transcriptomic profiling was used to follow metabolism of peel tissue over 180 d of cold storage. RESULTS: The metabolome and transcriptome of peel destined to develop scald began to diverge from peel where scald was controlled using antioxidant (diphenylamine; DPA) or rendered insensitive to ethylene using 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) beginning between 30 and 60 days of storage...
April 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428873/a-maize-landrace-that-emits-defense-volatiles-in-response-to%C3%A2-herbivore-eggs-possesses-a-strongly-inducible-terpene-synthase-gene
#9
Amanuel Tamiru, Toby J A Bruce, Annett Richter, Christine M Woodcock, Charles A O Midega, Jörg Degenhardt, Segenet Kelemu, John A Pickett, Zeyaur R Khan
Maize (Zea mays) emits volatile terpenes in response to insect feeding and egg deposition to defend itself against harmful pests. However, maize cultivars differ strongly in their ability to produce the defense signal. To further understand the agroecological role and underlying genetic mechanisms for variation in terpene emission among maize cultivars, we studied the production of an important signaling component (E)-caryophyllene in a South American maize landrace Braz1006 possessing stemborer Chilo partellus egg inducible defense trait, in comparison with the European maize line Delprim and North American inbred line B73...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422432/ja-but-not-ja-ile-is-the-cell-nonautonomous-signal-activating-ja-mediated-systemic-defenses-to-herbivory-in-nicotiana-attenuata
#10
Tohir A Bozorov, Son Truong Dinh, Ian T Baldwin
The whole-plant activation of defense responses to wounding and herbivory requires systemic signaling in which jasmonates (JAs) play a pivotal role. To examine the nature of the slower cell- nonautonomous as compared to the rapid cell-autonomous signal in mediating systemic defenses in Nicotiana attenuata, reciprocal stem grafting-experiments were used with plants silenced the JA biosynthetic gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (irAOC) or plants transformed to create JA sinks by ectopically expressing Arabidopsis JA-O-methyltransferase (ovJMT)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418581/leaf-rust-infection-reduces-herbivore-induced-volatile-emission-in-black-poplar-and-attracts-a-generalist-herbivore
#11
Franziska Eberl, Almuth Hammerbacher, Jonathan Gershenzon, Sybille B Unsicker
Plants release complex volatile blends after separate attack by herbivores and pathogens, which play many roles in interactions with other organisms. Large perennials are often attacked by multiple enemies, but the effect of combined attacks on volatile emission is rarely studied, particularly in trees. We infested Populus nigra trees with a pathogen, the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina, and Lymantria dispar caterpillars alone and in combination. We investigated poplar volatile emission and its regulation, as well as the behavior of the caterpillars towards volatiles from rust-infected and uninfected trees...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417061/rates-of-morphological-evolution-in-captorhinidae-an-adaptive-radiation-of-permian-herbivores
#12
Neil Brocklehurst
The evolution of herbivory in early tetrapods was crucial in the establishment of terrestrial ecosystems, although it is so far unclear what effect this innovation had on the macro-evolutionary patterns observed within this clade. The clades that entered this under-filled region of ecospace might be expected to have experienced an "adaptive radiation": an increase in rates of morphological evolution and speciation driven by the evolution of a key innovation. However such inferences are often circumstantial, being based on the coincidence of a rate shift with the origin of an evolutionary novelty...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414764/effects-of-uv-b-radiation-on-leaf-hair-traits-of-invasive-plants-combining-historical-herbarium-records-with-novel-remote-sensing-data
#13
Tomáš Václavík, Michael Beckmann, Anna F Cord, Anja M Bindewald
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413104/altered-epiphyte-community-and-sea-urchin-diet-in-posidonia-oceanica-meadows-in-the-vicinity-of-volcanic-co2-vents
#14
Patricia Nogueira, Maria Cristina Gambi, Salvatrice Vizzini, Gianmaria Califano, Ana Mafalda Tavares, Rui Santos, Begoña Martínez-Crego
Ocean acidification (OA) predicted for 2100 is expected to shift seagrass epiphyte communities towards the dominance of more tolerant non-calcifying taxa. However, little is known about the indirect effects of such changes on food provision to key seagrass consumers. We found that epiphyte communities of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in two naturally acidified sites (i.e. north and south sides of a volcanic CO2 vent) and in a control site away from the vent at the Ischia Island (NW Mediterranean Sea) significantly differed in composition and abundance...
April 5, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409227/evolutionary-responses-to-climate-change-in-a-range-expanding-plant
#15
Mirka Macel, Tomáš Dostálek, Sonja Esch, Anna Bucharová, Nicole M van Dam, Katja Tielbörger, Koen J F Verhoeven, Zuzana Münzbergová
To understand the biological effects of climate change, it is essential to take into account species' evolutionary responses to their changing environments. Ongoing climate change is resulting in species shifting their geographical distribution ranges poleward. We tested whether a successful range expanding plant has rapidly adapted to the regional conditions in its novel range, and whether adaptation could be driven by herbivores. Furthermore, we investigated if enemy release occurred in the newly colonized areas and whether plant origins differed in herbivore resistance...
April 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405915/does-aphid-infestation-interfere-with-indirect-plant-defense-against-lepidopteran-caterpillars-in-wild-cabbage
#16
Yehua Li, Berhane T Weldegergis, Surachet Chamontri, Marcel Dicke, Rieta Gols
Attraction of parasitoids to plant volatiles induced by multiple herbivory depends on the specific combinations of attacking herbivore species, especially when their feeding modes activate different defense signalling pathways as has been reported for phloem feeding aphids and tissue feeding caterpillars. We studied the effects of pre-infestation with non-host aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) for two different time periods on the ability of two parasitoid species to discriminate between volatiles emitted by plants infested by host caterpillars alone and those emitted by plants infested with host caterpillars plus aphids...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405279/fine-scale-frequency-differentiation-along-a-herbivory-gradient-in-the-trichome-dimorphism-of-a-wild-arabidopsis
#17
Yasuhiro Sato, Hiroshi Kudoh
Geographic variation is commonly observed in plant resistance traits, where plant species might experience different selection pressure across a heterogeneous landscape. Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera is dimorphic for trichome production, generating two morphs, trichome-producing (hairy) and trichomeless (glabrous) plants. Trichomes of A. halleri are known to confer resistance against the white butterfly, cabbage sawfly, and brassica leaf beetle, but not against flea beetles. We combined leaf damage, microclimate, and microsatellite loci data of 26 A...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403543/responses-of-plant-phenology-growth-defense-and-reproduction-to-interactive-effects-of-warming-and-insect-herbivory
#18
Nathan P Lemoine, Dejeanne Doublet, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Deron E Burkepile, John D Parker
Climate warming can modify plant reproductive fitness through direct and indirect pathways. Direct effects include temperature-driven impacts on growth, reproduction, and secondary metabolites. Indirect effects may manifest through altered species interactions, including herbivory, although studies comparing the interactive effects of warming and herbivory are few. We used experimental warming combined with herbivore exclusion cages to assess the interactive effects of climate warming and herbivory by Popillia japonica, the Japanese beetle, on flowering phenology, growth, defense, and lifetime reproduction of a biennial herb, Oenothera biennis...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402389/impacts-of-the-psyllid-arytinnis-hakani-homoptera-psyllidae-on-invasive-french-broom-in-relation-to-plant-size-and-psyllid-density
#19
Brian N Hogg, Patrick J Moran, Lincoln Smith
The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400614/tropicalization-strengthens-consumer-pressure-on-habitat-forming-seaweeds
#20
Salvador Zarco-Perello, Thomas Wernberg, Tim J Langlois, Mathew A Vanderklift
Ocean warming is driving species poleward, causing a 'tropicalization' of temperate ecosystems around the world. Increasing abundances of tropical herbivores on temperate reefs could accelerate declines in habitat-forming seaweeds with devastating consequences for these important marine ecosystems. Here we document an expansion of rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a tropical herbivore, on temperate reefs in Western Australia following a marine heatwave and demonstrate their impact on local kelp forests (Ecklonia radiata)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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