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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317226/decreased-losses-of-woody-plant-foliage-to-insects-in-large-urban-areas-are-explained-by-bird-predation
#1
Mikhail V Kozlov, Vojtěch Lanta, Vitali Zverev, Kalle Rainio, Mikhail A Kunavin, Elena L Zvereva
Despite the increasing rate of urbanisation, the consequences of this process on biotic interactions remain insufficiently studied. Our aims were to identify the general pattern of urbanisation impact on background insect herbivory, to explore variations in this impact related to characteristics of both urban areas and insect-plant systems, and to uncover the factors governing urbanisation impacts on insect herbivory. We compared the foliar damage inflicted on the most common trees by defoliating, leafmining and gall-forming insects in rural and urban habitats associated with 16 European cities...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303526/a-herbivore-tag-and-trace-system-reveals-contact-and-density-dependent-repellence-of-a-root-toxin
#2
Zoe Bont, Carla Arce, Meret Huber, Wei Huang, Adrien Mestrot, Craig J Sturrock, Matthias Erb
Foraging behavior of root feeding organisms strongly affects plant-environment-interactions and ecosystem processes. However, the impact of plant chemistry on root herbivore movement in the soil is poorly understood. Here, we apply a simple technique to trace the movement of soil-dwelling insects in their habitats without disturbing or restricting their interactions with host plants. We tagged the root feeding larvae of Melolontha melolontha with a copper ring and repeatedly located their position in relation to their preferred host plant, Taraxacum officinale, using a commercial metal detector...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300183/simulated-herbivory-in-chickpea-causes-rapid-changes-in-defense-pathways-and-hormonal-transcription-networks-of-ja-ethylene-ga-auxin-within-minutes-of-wounding
#3
Saurabh Prakash Pandey, Shruti Srivastava, Ridhi Goel, Deepika Lakhwani, Priya Singh, Mehar Hasan Asif, Aniruddha P Sane
Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ -1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298350/the-acacia-ants-revisited-convergent-evolution-and-biogeographic-context-in-an-iconic-ant-plant-mutualism
#4
Philip S Ward, Michael G Branstetter
Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses can enhance our understanding of multispecies interactions by placing the origin and evolution of such interactions in a temporal and geographical context. We use a phylogenomic approach-ultraconserved element sequence capture-to investigate the evolutionary history of an iconic multispecies mutualism: Neotropical acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group) and their associated Vachellia hostplants. In this system, the ants receive shelter and food from the host plant, and they aggressively defend the plant against herbivores and competing plants...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298349/network-reorganization-and-breakdown-of-an-ant-plant-protection-mutualism-with-elevation
#5
Nichola S Plowman, Amelia S C Hood, Jimmy Moses, Conor Redmond, Vojtech Novotny, Petr Klimes, Tom M Fayle
Both the abiotic environment and the composition of animal and plant communities change with elevation. For mutualistic species, these changes are expected to result in altered partner availability, and shifts in context-dependent benefits for partners. To test these predictions, we assessed the network structure of terrestrial ant-plant mutualists and how the benefits to plants of ant inhabitation changed with elevation in tropical forest in Papua New Guinea. At higher elevations, ant-plants were rarer, species richness of both ants and plants decreased, and the average ant or plant species interacted with fewer partners...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298342/trade-offs-in-an-ant-plant-fungus-mutualism
#6
Jérôme Orivel, Pierre-Jean Malé, Jérémie Lauth, Olivier Roux, Frédéric Petitclerc, Alain Dejean, Céline Leroy
Species engaged in multiple, simultaneous mutualisms are subject to trade-offs in their mutualistic investment if the traits involved in each interaction are overlapping, which can lead to conflicts and affect the longevity of these associations. We investigate this issue via a tripartite mutualism involving an ant plant, two competing ant species and a fungus the ants cultivate to build galleries under the stems of their host plant to capture insect prey. The use of the galleries represents an innovative prey capture strategy compared with the more typical strategy of foraging on leaves...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295823/natural-variation-in-life-history-strategy-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-determines-stress-responses-to-drought-and-insects-of-different-feeding-guilds
#7
Nelson H Davila Olivas, Enric Frago, Manus P M Thoen, Karen J Kloth, Frank F M Becker, Joop J A van Loon, Gerrit Gort, Joost J B Keurentjes, Joost van Heerwaarden, Marcel Dicke
Plants are sessile organisms and, consequently, are exposed to a plethora of stresses in their local habitat. As a result, different populations of a species are subject to different selection pressures leading to adaptation to local conditions and intraspecific divergence. The annual brassicaceous plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an attractive model for ecologists and evolutionary biologists due to the availability of a large collection of re-sequenced natural accessions. Accessions of A. thaliana display one of two different life-cycle strategies: summer and winter annuals...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286506/cyanogen-metabolism-in-cassava-roots-impact-on-protein-synthesis-and-root-development
#8
Tawanda Zidenga, Dimuth Siritunga, Richard T Sayre
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a staple crop for millions of sub-Saharan Africans, contains high levels of cyanogenic glycosides which protect it against herbivory. However, cyanogens have also been proposed to play a role in nitrogen transport from leaves to roots. Consistent with this hypothesis, analyses of the distribution and activities of enzymes involved in cyanide metabolism provides evidence for cyanide assimilation, derived from linamarin, into amino acids in cassava roots. Both β-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) and nitrilase (NIT), two enzymes involved in cyanide assimilation to produce asparagine, were observed to have higher activities in roots compared to leaves, consistent with their proposed role in reduced nitrogen assimilation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276177/circumpolar-arctic-tundra-biomass-and-productivity-dynamics-in-response-to-projected-climate-change-and-herbivory
#9
Qin Yu, Howard Epstein, Ryan Engstrom, Donald Walker
Satellite remote sensing data have indicated a general 'greening' trend in the arctic tundra biome. However, the observed changes based on remote sensing are the result of multiple environmental drivers, and the effects of individual controls such as warming, herbivory, and other disturbances on changes in vegetation biomass, community structure, and ecosystem function remain unclear. We apply ArcVeg, an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model, to estimate potential changes in vegetation biomass and net primary production (NPP) at the plant community and functional type levels...
March 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273343/fire-disturbance-disrupts-an-acacia-ant-plant-mutualism-in-favor-of-a-subordinate-ant-species
#10
Ryan L Sensenig, Duncan K Kimuyu, Juan Carlos Ruiz Guajardo, Kari E Veblen, Corinna Riginos, Truman P Young
Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270830/cotton-defense-induction-patterns-under-spatially-temporally-and-quantitatively-varying-herbivory-levels
#11
Michael Eisenring, Michael Meissle, Steffen Hagenbucher, Steven E Naranjo, Felix Wettstein, Jörg Romeis
In its defense against herbivores, cotton (Gossypium sp.) relies in part on the production of a set of inducible, non-volatile terpenoids. Under uniform damage levels, in planta allocation of induced cotton terpenoids has been found to be highest in youngest leaves, supporting assumptions of the optimal defense theory (ODT) which predicts that plants allocate defense compounds to tissues depending on their value and the likelihood of herbivore attack. However, our knowledge is limited on how varying, and thus more realistic, damage levels might affect cotton defense organization...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254623/future-climate-change-scenarios-differentially-affect-three-abundant-algal-species-in-southwestern-australia
#12
Charlie M Phelps, Mary C Boyce, Megan J Huggett
Three species of macroalgae (Ecklonia radiata, Sargassum linearifolium, and Laurencia brongniartii) were subjected to future climate change conditions, tested directly for changes in their physiology and chemical ecology, and used in feeding assays with local herbivores to identify the indirect effects of climatic stressors on subsequent levels of herbivory. Each alga had distinct physical and chemical responses to the changes in environmental conditions. In high temperature conditions, S. linearifolium exhibited high levels of bleaching and low maximum quantum yield...
February 21, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253346/herbivore-induced-chemical-and-molecular-responses-of-the-kelps-laminaria-digitata-and-lessonia-spicata
#13
Andrés Ritter, Léa Cabioch, Loraine Brillet-Guéguen, Erwan Corre, Audrey Cosse, Laurence Dartevelle, Harold Duruflé, Carina Fasshauer, Sophie Goulitquer, François Thomas, Juan A Correa, Philippe Potin, Sylvain Faugeron, Catherine Leblanc
Kelps are founding species of temperate marine ecosystems, living in intertidal coastal areas where they are often challenged by generalist and specialist herbivores. As most sessile organisms, kelps develop defensive strategies to restrain grazing damage and preserve their own fitness during interactions with herbivores. To decipher some inducible defense and signaling mechanisms, we carried out metabolome and transcriptome analyses in two emblematic kelp species, Lessonia spicata from South Pacific coasts and Laminaria digitata from North Atlantic, when challenged with their main specialist herbivores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250809/genetic-admixture-and-heterosis-may-enhance-the-invasiveness-of-common-ragweed
#14
Min A Hahn, Loren H Rieseberg
Biological invasions are often associated with multiple introductions and genetic admixture of previously isolated populations. In addition to enhanced evolutionary potential through increased genetic variation, admixed genotypes may benefit from heterosis, which could contribute to their increased performance and invasiveness. To deepen our understanding of the mechanisms and management strategies for biological invasions, we experimentally studied whether intraspecific admixture causes heterosis in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) by comparing the performance of crosses (F1) between populations relative to crosses within these populations for each range (native, introduced) under different ecologically relevant conditions (control, drought, competition, simulated herbivory)...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249605/cultivable-gut-bacteria-provide-a-pathway-for-adaptation-of-chrysolina-herbacea-to-mentha-aquatica-volatiles
#15
Graziano Pizzolante, Chiara Cordero, Salvatore M Tredici, Davide Vergara, Paola Pontieri, Luigi Del Giudice, Andrea Capuzzo, Patrizia Rubiolo, Chidananda N Kanchiswamy, Simon A Zebelo, Carlo Bicchi, Massimo E Maffei, Pietro Alifano
BACKGROUND: A chemical cross-talk between plants and insects is required in order to achieve a successful co-adaptation. In response to herbivory, plants produce specific compounds, and feeding insects respond adequately7 to molecules produced by plants. Here we show the role of the gut microbial community of the mint beetle Chrysolina herbacea in the chemical cross-talk with Mentha aquatica (or watermint). RESULTS: By using two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry we first evaluated the chemical patterns of both M...
March 2, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241378/an-experimental-test-of-fitness-variation-across-a-hydrologic-gradient-predicts-willow-and-poplar-species-distributions
#16
Xiaojing Wei, Jessica A Savage, Charlotte E Riggs, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
Environmental filtering is an important community assembly process influencing species distributions. Contrasting species abundance patterns along environmental gradients are commonly used to provide evidence for environmental filtering. However, the same abundance patterns may result from alternative or concurrent assembly processes. Experimental tests are an important means to decipher whether species fitness varies with environment, in the absence of dispersal constraints and biotic interactions, and to draw conclusions about the importance of environmental filtering in community assembly...
February 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224051/high-richness-of-insect-herbivory-from-the-early-miocene-hindon-maar-crater-otago-new-zealand
#17
Anna Lena Möller, Uwe Kaulfuss, Daphne E Lee, Torsten Wappler
Plants and insects are key components of terrestrial ecosystems and insect herbivory is the most important type of interaction in these ecosystems. This study presents the first analysis of associations between plants and insects for the early Miocene Hindon Maar fossil lagerstätte, Otago, New Zealand. A total of 584 fossil angiosperm leaves representing 24 morphotypes were examined to determine the presence or absence of insect damage types. Of these leaves, 73% show signs of insect damage; they comprise 821 occurrences of damage from 87 damage types representing all eight functional feeding groups...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205578/insect-herbivory-choristoneura-fumiferana-tortricidea-underlies-tree-population-structure-picea-glauca-pinaceae
#18
Geneviève J Parent, Isabelle Giguère, Gaby Germanos, Mebarek Lamara, Éric Bauce, John J MacKay
Variation in insect herbivory can lead to population structure in plant hosts as indicated by defence traits. In annual herbaceous, defence traits may vary between geographic areas but evidence of such patterns is lacking for long-lived species. This may result from the variety of selection pressures from herbivores, long distance gene flow, genome properties, and lack of research. We investigated the antagonistic interaction between white spruce (Picea glauca) and spruce budworm (SBW, Choristoneura fumiferana) the most devastating forest insect of eastern North America in common garden experiments...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195388/survey-of-conspecific-herbivore-induced-volatiles-from-apple-as-possible-attractants-for-pandemis-pyrusana-lepidoptera-tortricidae
#19
V Giacomuzzi, J Mattheis, E Basoalto, S Angeli, A L Knight
BACKGROUND: Studies were conducted to identify volatiles released by apple foliage untreated or sprayed with a yeast and from untreated and sprayed foliage with actively-feeding larvae of Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott. Field studies then evaluated various combinations of these volatiles when paired with acetic acid as possible adult attractants. RESULTS: The most abundant volatiles released following herbivore-feeding were four green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and acetic acid...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178961/sequential-above-and-belowground-herbivory-modifies-plant-responses-depending-on-herbivore-identity
#20
Dinesh Kafle, Anne Hänel, Tobias Lortzing, Anke Steppuhn, Susanne Wurst
BACKGROUND: Herbivore-induced changes in plant traits can cause indirect interactions between spatially and/or temporally separated herbivores that share the same host plant. Feeding modes of the herbivores is one of the major factors that influence the outcome of such interactions. Here, we tested whether the effects of transient aboveground herbivory for seven days by herbivores of different feeding guilds on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) alters their interaction with spatially as well as temporally separated belowground herbivores...
February 8, 2017: BMC Ecology
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