keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

herbivory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921292/cranial-joint-histology-in-the-mallard-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-new-insights-on-avian-cranial-kinesis
#1
Alida M Bailleul, Lawrence M Witmer, Casey M Holliday
The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920956/grassland-productivity-in-response-to-nutrient-additions-and-herbivory-is-scale-dependent
#2
Erica A H Smithwick, Douglas C Baldwin, Kusum J Naithani
Vegetation response to nutrient addition can vary across space, yet studies that explicitly incorporate spatial pattern into experimental approaches are rare. To explore whether there are unique spatial scales (grains) at which grass response to nutrients and herbivory is best expressed, we imposed a large (∼3.75 ha) experiment in a South African coastal grassland ecosystem. In two of six 60 × 60 m grassland plots, we imposed a scaled sampling design in which fertilizer was added in replicated sub-plots (1 × 1 m, 2 × 2 m, and 4 × 4 m)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918615/top-down-control-of-methane-emission-and-nitrogen-cycling-by-waterfowl
#3
R Scott Winton, Curtis J Richardson
Aquatic herbivores impose top-down control on the structure of wetland ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of herbivory on methane (CH4 ) and nitrogen (N) are poorly known. To investigate the top-down effects of waterfowl on wetland biogeochemistry, we implemented exclosure experiments in a major waterfowl overwintering wetland in the southeastern United States over two growing seasons. We found that herbivory inhibited the oxidation of CH4 , leading to a mean increase in emission by 230% over control plots, and prevented nitrification, as indicated by low nitrate availability and undetectable emissions of nitrous oxide...
November 4, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916835/synthesis-and-functions-of-jasmonates-in-maize
#4
REVIEW
Eli J Borrego, Michael V Kolomiets
Of the over 600 oxylipins present in all plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) remains the best understood in terms of its biosynthesis, function and signaling. Much like their eicosanoid analogues in mammalian system, evidence is growing for the role of the other oxylipins in diverse physiological processes. JA serves as the model plant oxylipin species and regulates defense and development. For several decades, the biology of JA has been characterized in a few dicot species, yet the function of JA in monocots has only recently begun to be elucidated...
November 29, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914638/planting-richness-affects-the-recovery-of-vegetation-and-soil-processes-in-constructed-wetlands-following-disturbance
#5
Mary M Means, Changwoo Ahn, Gregory B Noe
The resilience of constructed wetland ecosystems to severe disturbance, such as a mass herbivory eat-out or soil disturbance, remains poorly understood. In this study, we use a controlled mesocosm experiment to examine how original planting diversity affects the ability of constructed freshwater wetlands to recover structurally and functionally after a disturbance (i.e., aboveground harvesting and soil coring). We assessed if the planting richness of macrophyte species influences recovery of constructed wetlands one year after a disturbance...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913600/the-evolution-of-jaw-protrusion-mechanics-has-been-tightly-coupled-to-bentho-pelagic-divergence-in-damselfishes-pomacentridae
#6
W James Cooper, Casey B Carter, Andrew J Conith, Aaron N Rice, Mark W Westneat
Most species-rich lineages of aquatic organisms have undergone divergence between forms that feed from the substrate (benthic feeding) and forms that feed from the water column (pelagic feeding). Changes in trophic niche are frequently accompanied by changes in skull mechanics, and multiple fish lineages have evolved highly specialized biomechanical configurations that allow them to protrude their upper jaws toward the prey during feeding. Damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) are an example of a species-rich lineage with multiple trophic morphologies and feeding ecologies...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911999/joint-effects-of-nutrient-addition-and-enemy-exclusion-on-exotic-plant-success
#7
Robert W Heckman, Justin P Wright, Charles E Mitchell
Worldwide, ecosystems are increasingly dominated by exotic plant species, a shift hypothesized to result from numerous ecological factors. Two of these, increased resource availability and enemy release, may act in concert to increase exotic success in plant communities (Resource-Enemy Release Hypothesis, R-ERH). To test this, we manipulated the availability of soil nutrients and access of vertebrate herbivores, insect herbivores, and fungal pathogens to intact grassland communities containing both native and exotic species...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911998/tropical-forest-loss-and-its-multitrophic-effects-on-insect-herbivory
#8
José Carlos Morante-Filho, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Madelon Lohbeck, Teja Tscharntke, Deborah Faria
Forest loss threatens biodiversity, but its potential effects on multitrophic ecological interactions are poorly understood. Insect herbivory depends on complex bottom-up (e.g., resource availability and plant antiherbivore defenses) and top-down forces (e.g., abundance of predators and herbivorous), but its determinants in human-altered tropical landscapes are largely unknown. Using structural equation models, we assessed the direct and indirect effects of forest loss on insect herbivory in 40 landscapes (115 ha each) from two regions with contrasting land-use change trajectories in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909855/conifer-monoterpene-chemistry-during-an-outbreak-enhances-consumption-and-immune-response-of-an-eruptive-folivore
#9
Amy M Trowbridge, M Deane Bowers, Russell K Monson
Changes in the chemical composition of plant defense compounds during herbivory can impact herbivore resource allocation patterns and thereby herbivore survival, growth, and immune response against endoparasitoid infection. Few studies have investigated folivore responses to changes in plant chemistry that occur under outbreak conditions in mature conifer systems. Using data from an earlier observational field study, we carried out laboratory bioassays to test how variation in monoterpenes in piñon pine trees (Pinus edulis, Pinaceae) during an outbreak affects growth, consumption, and immune response of a specialist herbivore, the Southwestern tiger moth (Lophocampa ingens, Arctiidae)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905514/seagrass-posidonia-oceanica-seedlings-in-a-high-co2-world-from-physiology-to-herbivory
#10
Gema Hernán, Laura Ramajo, Lorena Basso, Antonio Delgado, Jorge Terrados, Carlos M Duarte, Fiona Tomas
Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896554/emission-of-volatile-compounds-from-apple-plants-infested-with-pandemis-heparana-larvae-antennal-response-of-conspecific-adults-and-preliminary-field-trial
#11
Valentino Giacomuzzi, Luca Cappellin, Iuliia Khomenko, Franco Biasioli, Stefan Schütz, Marco Tasin, Alan L Knight, Sergio Angeli
This study investigated the volatile emission from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., cv. Golden Delicious) foliage that was either intact, mechanically-damaged, or exposed to larval feeding by Pandemis heparana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Volatiles were collected by closed-loop-stripping-analysis and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three time periods: after 1 h and again 24 and 48 h later. Volatiles for all treatments also were monitored continuously over a 72-h period by the use of proton transfer reaction - time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893157/brown-world-forests-increased-ungulate-browsing-keeps-temperate-trees-in-recruitment-bottlenecks-in-resource-hotspots
#12
Marcin Churski, Jakub W Bubnicki, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Dries P J Kuijper, Joris P G M Cromsigt
Plant biomass consumers (mammalian herbivory and fire) are increasingly seen as major drivers of ecosystem structure and function but the prevailing paradigm in temperate forest ecology is still that their dynamics are mainly bottom-up resource-controlled. Using conceptual advances from savanna ecology, particularly the demographic bottleneck model, we present a novel view on temperate forest dynamics that integrates consumer and resource control. We used a fully factorial experiment, with varying levels of ungulate herbivory and resource (light) availability, to investigate how these factors shape recruitment of five temperate tree species...
November 28, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885502/fading-of-wound-induced-volatile-release-during-populus-tremula-leaf-expansion
#13
Miguel Portillo-Estrada, Taras Kazantsev, Ülo Niinemets
The release of stress-driven volatiles throughout leaf development has been little studied. Therefore, we subjected poplar leaves during their developmental stage (from 2 days to 2 weeks old) to wounding by a single punch hole, and measured online the wound-induced volatile organic compound emissions. Our study shows that the emission of certain volatile compounds fades with increasing leaf age. Among these compounds we found lipoxygenase products (LOX products), acetaldehyde, methyl benzoate, methyl salicylate, and mono- and sesquiterpenes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881990/allometric-trajectories-and-stress-a-quantitative-approach
#14
Tommaso Anfodillo, Giai Petit, Frank Sterck, Silvia Lechthaler, Mark E Olson
The term "stress" is an important but vague term in plant biology. We show situations in which thinking in terms of "stress" is profitably replaced by quantifying distance from functionally optimal scaling relationships between plant parts. These relationships include, for example, the often-cited one between leaf area and sapwood area, which presumably reflects mutual dependence between sources and sink tissues and which scales positively within individuals and across species. These relationships seem to be so basic to plant functioning that they are favored by selection across nearly all plant lineages...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881800/genetic-stability-of-physiological-responses-to-defoliation-in-a-eucalypt-and-altered-chemical-defence-in-regrowth-foliage
#15
Christina L Borzak, Brad M Potts, Karen M Barry, Elizabeth A Pinkard, Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
Defoliation may initiate physiological recovery and chemical defence mechanisms that allow a plant to improve fitness after damage. Such responses may result in changes in plant resource allocation that influence growth and foliar chemistry. In this study, we investigated the nature and stability of the defoliation response of juvenile plants from three divergent populations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. A partial defoliation treatment that removed all upper crown leaves and the apical buds was applied to plants sourced from eight families from each of three populations representing contrasting chemical resistance to mammalian herbivory...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870873/herbivore-induced-dna-demethylation-changes-floral-signalling-and-attractiveness-to-pollinators-in-brassica-rapa
#16
Roman T Kellenberger, Philipp M Schlüter, Florian P Schiestl
Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870043/increased-seedling-establishment-via-enemy-release-at-the-upper-elevational-range-limit-of-sugar-maple
#17
Morgane Urli, Carissa D Brown, Rosela Narváez Perez, Pierre-Luc Chagnon, Mark Vellend
The enemy release hypothesis is frequently invoked to explain invasion by nonnative species, but studies focusing on the influence of enemies on natural plant range expansion due to climate change remain scarce. We combined multiple approaches to study the influence of plant-enemy interactions on the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in southeastern Québec, Canada, where a previous study had demonstrated intense seed predation just beyond the range limit. Consistent with the hypothesis of release from natural enemies at the range limit, data from both natural patterns of regeneration and from seed and seedling transplant experiments showed higher seedling densities at the range edge than in the core of the species' distribution...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870032/warm-vegetarians-heat-waves-and-diet-shifts-in-tadpoles
#18
B M Carreira, P Segurado, G Orizaola, N Gonçalves, V Pinto, A Laurila, R Rebelo
Temperature can play an important role in determining the feeding preferences of ectotherms. In light of the warmer temperatures arising with the current climatic changes, omnivorous ectotherms may perform diet shifts toward higher herbivory to optimize energetic intake. Such diet shifts may also occur during heat waves, which are projected to become more frequent, intense, and longer lasting in the future. Here, we investigated how heat waves of different duration affect feeding preferences in omnivorous anuran tadpoles and how these choices affect larval life history...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870025/elephants-in-the-understory-opposing-direct-and-indirect-effects-of-consumption-and-ecosystem-engineering-by-megaherbivores
#19
Tyler C Coverdale, Tyler R Kartzinel, Kathryn L Grabowski, Robert K Shriver, Abdikadir A Hassan, Jacob R Goheen, Todd M Palmer, Robert M Pringle
Positive indirect effects of consumers on their resources can stabilize food webs by preventing overexploitation, but the coupling of trophic and non-trophic interactions remains poorly integrated into our understanding of community dynamics. Elephants engineer African savanna ecosystems by toppling trees and breaking branches, and although their negative effects on trees are well documented, their effects on small-statured plants remain poorly understood. Using data on 117 understory plant taxa collected over 7 yr within 36 1-ha experimental plots in a semi-arid Kenyan savanna, we measured the strength and direction of elephant impacts on understory vegetation...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870012/above-and-belowground-insect-herbivory-modifies-the-response-of-a-grassland-plant-community-to-nitrogen-eutrophication
#20
Pernilla Borgström, Joachim Strengbom, Lorenzo Marini, Maria Viketoft, Riccardo Bommarco
Understanding the role that species interactions play in determining the rate and direction of ecosystem change due to nitrogen (N) eutrophication is important for predicting the consequences of global change. Insects might play a major role in this context. They consume substantial amounts of plant biomass and can alter competitive interactions among plants, indirectly shaping plant community composition. Nitrogen eutrophication affects plant communities globally, but there is limited experimental evidence of how insect herbivory modifies plant community response to raised N levels...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
keyword
keyword
74278
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"