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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719628/salt-tolerant-and-sensitive-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-cultivars-have-large-variations-in-defense-responses-to-the-lepidopteran-insect-spodoptera-litura-under-normal-and-salt-stress-condition
#1
Yunting Lei, Qing Liu, Christian Hettenhausen, Guoyan Cao, Qing Tan, Weiye Zhao, Honghui Lin, Jianqiang Wu
In nature, plants are often exposed to multiple stress factors at the same time. Yet, little is known about how plants modulate their physiology to counteract simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, such as soil salinity and insect herbivory. In this study, insect performance bioassays, phytohormone measurements, quantification of transcripts, and protein determination were employed to study the phenotypic variations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars in response to insect Spodoptera litura feeding under normal and salt stress condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716410/review-nectar-biology-from-molecules-to-ecosystems
#2
REVIEW
Rahul Roy, Anthony J Schmitt, Jason B Thomas, Clay J Carter
Plants attract mutualistic animals by offering a reward of nectar. Specifically, floral nectar (FN) is produced to attract pollinators, whereas extrafloral nectar (EFN) mediates indirect defenses through the attraction of mutualist predatory insects to limit herbivory. Nearly 90% of all plant species, including 75% of domesticated crops, benefit from animal-mediated pollination, which is largely facilitated by FN. Moreover, EFN represents one of the few defense mechanisms for which stable effects on plant health and fitness have been demonstrated in multiple systems, and thus plays a crucial role in the resistance phenotype of plants producing it...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715081/molecular-constraints-on-resistance-tolerance-tradeoffs
#3
J Miles Mesa, Daniel R Scholes, Jack Juvik, Ken N Paige
Plants have numerous mechanisms to cope with the negative effects of herbivory, including plant resistance, structural and chemical traits that reduce damage, and plant tolerance, the ability to compensate for tissues lost. It has been argued that resistance and tolerance represent alternate strategies and thus there should be a tradeoff between resistance and tolerance. However, resistance and tolerance are controlled via the same molecular pathway, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and the process of endoreduplication...
July 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693107/using-ecosystem-engineers-as-tools-in-habitat-restoration-and-rewilding-beaver-and-wetlands
#4
Alan Law, Martin J Gaywood, Kevin C Jones, Paul Ramsay, Nigel J Willby
Potential for habitat restoration is increasingly used as an argument for reintroducing ecosystem engineers. Beaver have well known effects on hydromorphology through dam construction, but their scope to restore wetland biodiversity in areas degraded by agriculture is largely inferred. Our study presents the first formal monitoring of a planned beaver-assisted restoration, focussing on changes in vegetation over 12years within an agriculturally-degraded fen following beaver release, based on repeated sampling of fixed plots...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692414/how-common-is-within-plant-signalling-via-volatiles
#5
Tao Li, James D Blande
Many plants respond to herbivory by releasing a complex blend of volatiles that may differ from that emitted by intact counterparts. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) mediate many interactions among plants and their community members, including alerting undamaged leaves of the attacked or neighbouring plants to impending danger. It has been postulated that HIPVs evolved for within-plant signalling and that other organisms subsequently evolved to use them. However, only seven studies have reported HIPV-mediated within-plant signalling, most conducted in the laboratory or greenhouse...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692168/indirect-effects-of-ecosystem-engineering-combine-with-consumer-behavior-to-determine-the-spatial-distribution-of-herbivory
#6
Blaine D Griffen, Megan E Riley, Zachary J Cannizzo, Ilka C Feller
1.Ecosystem engineers alter environments by creating, modifying, or destroying habitats. The indirect impacts of ecosystem engineering on trophic interactions should depend on the combination of the spatial distribution of engineered structures and the foraging behavior of consumers that use these structures as refuges. 2.In this study, we assessed the indirect effects of ecosystem engineering by a wood-boring beetle in a neotropical mangrove forest system. We identified herbivory patterns in a dwarf mangrove forest on the archipelago of Twin Cays, Belize...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669001/long-term-deer-exclosure-alters-soil-properties-plant-traits-understory-plant-community-and-insect-herbivory-but-not-the-functional-relationships-among-them
#7
Jörg G Stephan, Fereshteh Pourazari, Kristina Tattersdill, Takuya Kobayashi, Keita Nishizawa, Jonathan R De Long
Evidence of the indirect effects of increasing global deer populations on other trophic levels is increasing. However, it remains unknown if excluding deer alters ecosystem functional relationships. We investigated how sika deer exclosure after 18 years changed soil conditions, the understory plant community, the traits of a dominant understory plant (Sasa palmata), herbivory by three insect-feeding guilds, and the functional relationships between these properties. Deer absence decreased understory plant diversity, but increased soil organic matter and ammonium concentrations...
July 1, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665036/ghjaz2-attenuates-cotton-resistance-to-biotic-stresses-via-inhibiting-the-transcriptional-activity-of-ghbhlh171
#8
Xin He, Longfu Zhu, Ghulam Mustafa Wassan, Yujing Wang, Yuhuan Miao, Muhammad Shaban, Haiyan Hu, Heng Sun, Xianlong Zhang
Plants evolve effective mechanisms to protect themselves against multiple stresses and employ jasmonates (JA) as vital defense signals to defend against pathogen infection. Accumulation of JA induced by signals from biotic and abiotic stresses, results in degradation of Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain (JAZ) proteins, and then de-repressed the JAZ-repressed transcription factors (such as MYC2) to activate defense responses and developmental processes. Here, we characterized a JAZ family protein, GhJAZ2, from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which was induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and inoculation of Verticillium dahliae...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662572/beyond-fermentation-other-important-services-provided-to-endothermic-herbivores-by-their-gut-microbiota
#9
M Denise Dearing, Kevin D Kohl
For decades, comparative biologists have recognized the importance of microbial partners in facilitating herbivory as a successful feeding strategy. Most of this success is attributed to the ability of gut microbes to digest recalcitrant dietary fiber and provides usable nutrients to their hosts. Gut microbes can also provide numerous other functions, such as vitamin synthesis, nitrogen recycling, and the detoxification of plant secondary compounds. Here, we review these microbial functions in herbivorous mammals and birds, highlighting studies that utilize recently developed metagenomic techniques...
June 28, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662425/herbivory-induced-maternal-effects-on-growth-and-defense-traits-in-the-clonal-species-alternanthera-philoxeroides
#10
Bi-Cheng Dong, Ting Fu, Fang-Li Luo, Fei-Hai Yu
Plants have evolved a variety of defense traits against foliar herbivory, including the production of primary and secondary metabolites, the allocation of chemical compounds, and morphological plasticity. Using two vegetative generations of the invasive clonal species Alternanthera philoxeroides, we investigated the effects of maternal and offspring herbivory by Planococcus minor on the integrative defense strategy of plants. Herbivory severely inhibited leaf, stolon and root growth, as well as the production of primary metabolites (soluble sugars, starch, and total non-structural carbohydrates in stolons), and decreased average leaf area and specific leaf area of the second-generation A...
June 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658392/maize-plants-produce-direct-resistance-elicited-by-tetranychus-urticae-koch-acari-tetranychidae
#11
P D Paulo, C G Lima, A B Dominiquini, M A M Fadini, S M Mendes, C G S Marinho
Plants can be attacked by a wide variety of herbivores. Thus, developing protective mechanisms for resistance against these agents is an advantage for survival and reproduction. Over the course of evolution, many resistance mechanisms against herbivory have been developed by the plants. Induced direct and indirect resistance mechanisms can manifest in plants after herbivore attack. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is not a pest of maize crops (Zea mays), despite being reported infesting plants that may have resistances against this herbivore...
June 26, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655293/plant-manipulation-through-gall-formation-constrains-amino-acid-transporter-evolution-in-sap-feeding-insects
#12
Chaoyang Zhao, Paul D Nabity
BACKGROUND: The herbivore lifestyle leads to encounters with plant toxins and requires mechanisms to overcome suboptimal nutrient availability in plant tissues. Although the evolution of bacterial endosymbiosis alleviated many of these challenges, the ability to manipulate plant nutrient status has evolved in lineages with and without nutritional symbionts. Whether and how these alternative nutrient acquisition strategies interact or constrain insect evolution is unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of galling and free-living aphidomorphs to characterize how amino acid transporter evolution is influenced by the ability to manipulate plant resource availability...
June 27, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653444/ambient-temperature-mediated-changes-in-hepatic-gene-expression-of-a-mammalian-herbivore-neotoma-lepida
#13
Patrice Kurnath Connors, Jael R Malenke, M Denise Dearing
Herbivores regularly ingest natural toxins produced by plants as a defence against herbivory. Recent work suggests that compound toxicity is exacerbated at higher ambient temperatures. This phenomenon, known as temperature-dependent toxicity (TDT), is the likely result of decreased liver function at warmer temperatures; however, the underlying cause of TDT remains speculative. In the present study, we compared the effects of temperature and dietary plant toxins on differential gene expression in the liver of an herbivorous rodent (Neotoma lepida), using species-specific microarrays...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652352/insect-outbreak-shifts-the-direction-of-selection-from-fast-to-slow-growth-rates-in-the-long-lived-conifer-pinus-ponderosa
#14
Raul de la Mata, Sharon Hood, Anna Sala
Long generation times limit species' rapid evolution to changing environments. Trees provide critical global ecosystem services, but are under increasing risk of mortality because of climate change-mediated disturbances, such as insect outbreaks. The extent to which disturbance changes the dynamics and strength of selection is unknown, but has important implications on the evolutionary potential of tree populations. Using a 40-y-old Pinus ponderosa genetic experiment, we provide rare evidence of context-dependent fluctuating selection on growth rates over time in a long-lived species...
June 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651535/molecular-phylogeny-reveals-food-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-true-ladybird-beetles-coleoptera-coccinellidae-coccinellini
#15
Hermes E Escalona, Andreas Zwick, Hao-Sen Li, Jiahui Li, Xingmin Wang, Hong Pang, Diana Hartley, Lars S Jermiin, Oldřich Nedvěd, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Adam Ślipiński, Wioletta Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Many species are aphidophagous, feeding as larvae and adults on aphids, but some species also feed on other hemipterous insects (i.e., heteropterans, psyllids, whiteflies), beetle and moth larvae, pollen, fungal spores, and even plant tissue. Several species are biological control agents or widespread invasive species (e.g., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas))...
June 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649719/regulation-of-growth-defense-balance-by-the-jasmonate-zim-domain-jaz-myc-transcriptional-module
#16
Ian T Major, Yuki Yoshida, Marcelo L Campos, George Kapali, Xiu-Fang Xin, Koichi Sugimoto, Dalton de Oliveira Ferreira, Sheng Yang He, Gregg A Howe
The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) promotes the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins to relieve repression on diverse transcription factors (TFs) that execute JA responses. However, little is known about how combinatorial complexity among JAZ-TF interactions maintains control over myriad aspects of growth, development, reproduction, and immunity. We used loss-of-function mutations to define epistatic interactions within the core JA signaling pathway and to investigate the contribution of MYC TFs to JA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana...
June 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648374/cryptic-invasions-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Pedro Morais, Martin Reichard
Cryptic invasions are defined as the introduction and spread of non-native lineages within the species' native range (intra-specific cryptic invasion) or the invasion of non-native species that goes unnoticed due to misidentification as a native or another invasive species (inter-specific cryptic invasion). While population-specific attributes are acknowledged to play a critical role in the success and impact of biological invasions in general, our knowledge of the causes and consequences of cryptic invasions is largely neglected...
June 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647808/characterization-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-regrowth-patterns-suggests-a-trade-off-between-undamaged-fitness-and-damage-tolerance
#18
Daniel R Scholes, Erika N Rasnick, Ken N Paige
Herbivory is a fundamental type of plant-animal interaction that presents substantial selection pressure on plants to replace lost tissues and to prevent subsequent losses in fitness. Apical herbivory, which entails removal or damage to the apical meristem, causes a change in plant architecture by disrupting the balance of hormones produced in part by the apical meristem. Therefore, for an annual semelparous plant, the ability to preserve reproductive success following damage (i.e., to tolerate damage) is largely dependent on the plant's pre-damage investment into fitness and its regrowth pattern following damage...
July 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642497/interactive-effects-of-plant-neighbourhood-and-ontogeny-on-insect-herbivory-and-plant-defensive-traits
#19
Xoaquín Moreira, Gaétan Glauser, Luis Abdala-Roberts
Plant ontogenetic stage and features of surrounding plant neighbourhoods can strongly influence herbivory and defences on focal plants. However, the effects of both factors have been assessed independently in previous studies. Here we tested for the independent and interactive effects of neighbourhood type (low vs. high frequency of our focal plant species in heterospecific stands) and ontogeny on leaf herbivory, physical traits and chemical defences of the English oak Quercus robur. We further tested whether plant traits were associated with neighbourhood and ontogenetic effects on herbivory...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638396/defoliating-insect-mass-outbreak-affects-soil-n-fluxes-and-tree-n-nutrition-in-scots-pine-forests
#20
Maren M Grüning, Judy Simon, Heinz Rennenberg, Anne L-M-Arnold
Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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