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Julia König, Marco Alexandre Guerreiro, Derek Peršoh, Dominik Begerow, Jochen Krauss
Epichloë endophytes associated with cool-season grass species can protect their hosts from herbivory and can suppress mycorrhizal colonization of the hosts' roots. However, little is known about whether or not Epichloë endophyte infection can also change the foliar fungal assemblages of the host. We tested 52 grassland study sites along a land-use intensity gradient in three study regions over two seasons (spring vs. summer) to determine whether Epichloë infection of the host grass Lolium perenne changes the fungal community structure in leaves...
2018: PeerJ
Adedayo O Mofikoya, Minna Kivimäenpää, James D Blande, Jarmo K Holopainen
The perennial evergreen woody shrub, Rhododendron tomentosum, confers associational resistance against herbivory and oviposition on neighbouring plants through passive adsorption of some of its constitutively emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The adsorption process is dependent on transport of VOCs in the air. In polluted atmospheres, the VOCs may be degraded and adsorption impeded. We studied the effect of elevated ozone regimes on the adsorption of R. tomentosum volatiles to white cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and the oviposition of the specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella on the exposed plants...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Meng Ye, Nathalie Veyrat, Hao Xu, Lingfei Hu, Ted C J Turlings, Matthias Erb
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) can mediate tritrophic interactions by attracting natural enemies of insect herbivores such as predators and parasitoids. Whether HIPVs can also mediate tritrophic interactions by influencing the attractiveness of the herbivores themselves remains unknown. We explored this question by studying the role of indole, a common HIPV in the plant kingdom. We found that herbivory-induced indole increases the recruitment of the solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis rufiventris to maize plants that are induced by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars...
May 2018: Science Advances
Monika Heyer, Sandra S Scholz, Dagmar Voigt, Michael Reichelt, Didier Aldon, Ralf Oelmüller, Wilhelm Boland, Axel Mithöfer
Calcium is an important second messenger in plants that is released into the cytosol early after recognition of various environmental stimuli. Decoding of such calcium signals by calcium sensors is the key for the plant to react appropriately to each stimulus. Several members of Calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) act as calcium sensors and some are known to mediate both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Here, we study the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CML9 in different stress responses. CML9 was reported earlier as defense regulator against Pseudomonas syringae...
2018: PloS One
Jonatan Rodríguez, Mariasole Calbi, Sergio R Roiloa, Luís González
The anthropogenic displacement of species around the world results in new environmental situations where native and exotic species coexist. Exotic plants have to face native herbivores, and interactions between introduced plants and native herbivores seem to play an important role in the invasiveness of some exotic plant species. We studied the role of clonal integration in induce morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses in the clonal invader Carpobrotus edulis against the attack of the native snail Theba pisana...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jingfei Guo, Jinfeng Qi, Kanglai He, Jianqiang Wu, Shuxiong Bai, Tiantao Zhang, Jiuran Zhao, Zhenying Wang
The Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée) is a destructive pest of maize (Zea mays L.). Despite large-scale commercial maize production, little is known about the defensive responses of field-grown commercial maize to O. furnacalis herbivory, and how these responses result in direct and indirect defense against this pest. To elucidate the maize transcriptome response to O. furnacalis feeding, leaves of maize hybrid Jingke968 were infested with O. furnacalis for 0, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h. O. furnacalis feeding elicited stronger and more rapid changes in the defense-related gene expression (i...
May 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Jacob R Goheen, David J Augustine, Kari E Veblen, Duncan M Kimuyu, Todd M Palmer, Lauren M Porensky, Robert M Pringle, Jayashree Ratnam, Corinna Riginos, Mahesh Sankaran, Adam T Ford, Abdikadir A Hassan, Rhiannon Jakopak, Tyler R Kartzinel, Samson Kurukura, Allison M Louthan, Wilfred O Odadi, Tobias O Otieno, Alois M Wambua, Hillary S Young, Truman P Young
African savannas support an iconic fauna, but they are undergoing large-scale population declines and extinctions of large (>5 kg) mammals. Long-term, controlled, replicated experiments that explore the consequences of this defaunation (and its replacement with livestock) are rare. The Mpala Research Centre in Laikipia County, Kenya, hosts three such experiments, spanning two adjacent ecosystems and environmental gradients within them: the Kenya Long-Term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE; since 1995), the Glade Legacies and Defaunation Experiment (GLADE; since 1999), and the Ungulate Herbivory Under Rainfall Uncertainty experiment (UHURU; since 2008)...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Mikhail V Kozlov, Dmitry E Gavrikov, Vitali Zverev, Elena L Zvereva
Insect herbivory imposes stress on host plants. This stress may cause an increase in leaf fluctuating asymmetry (FA), which is defined as the magnitude of the random deviations from a symmetrical leaf shape. We tested the hypothesis that differences in leaf FA among individual shoots of downy birch, Betula pubescens , are at least partly explained by local damage caused by insects in the previous year. Unexpectedly, we found that in the year following the damage imposed by miners, leafrollers and defoliators, damaged birch shoots produced leaves with lower FAs compared to shoots from the same tree that had not been damaged by insects...
May 11, 2018: Insects
Robert S Steneck, Peter J Mumby, Chancey MacDonald, Douglas B Rasher, George Stoyle
Managing diverse ecosystems is challenging because structuring drivers are often processes having diffuse impacts that attenuate from the people who were "managed" to the expected ecosystem-wide outcome. Coral reef fishes targeted for management only indirectly link to the ecosystem's foundation (reef corals). Three successively weakening interaction tiers separate management of fishing from coral abundance. We studied 12 islands along the 700-km eastern Caribbean archipelago, comparing fished and unfished coral reefs...
May 2018: Science Advances
Erandi Vargas-Ortiz, Itay Gonda, John R Smeda, Martha A Mutschler, James J Giovannoni, Georg Jander
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), the most economically important insect pest on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), also feeds on other Solanaceae, including cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). We used tomato genetic mapping populations to investigate natural variation in CPB resistance. CPB bioassays with 74 tomato lines carrying introgressions of Solanum pennellii in S. lycopersicum cv. M82 identified introgressions from S. pennellii on chromosomes 1 and 6 conferring CPB susceptibility, whereas introgressions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 10 conferred higher resistance...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Loïc Tadrist, Marc Saudreau, Pascal Hémon, Xavier Amandolese, André Marquier, Tristan Leclercq, Emmanuel de Langre
The wind-induced motion of the foliage in a tree is an important phenomenon both for biological issues (photosynthesis, pathogens development or herbivory) and for more subtle effects such as on wi-fi transmission or animal communication. Such foliage motion results from a combination of the motion of the branches that support the leaves, and of the motion of the leaves relative to the branches. Individual leaf dynamics relative to the branch, and branch dynamics have usually been studied separately. Here, in an experimental study on a whole tree in a large-scale wind tunnel, we present the first empirical evidence that foliage motion is actually dominated by individual leaf flutter at low wind velocities, and by branch turbulence buffeting responses at higher velocities...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
R Toby Pennington, Caroline E R Lehmann, Lucy M Rowland
In the tropics, research, conservation and public attention focus on rain forests, but this neglects that half of the global tropics have a seasonally dry climate. These regions are home to dry forests and savannas (Figures 1 and 2), and are the focus of this Primer. The attention given to rain forests is understandable. Their high species diversity, sheer stature and luxuriance thrill biologists today as much as they did the first explorers in the Age of Discovery. Although dry forest and savanna may make less of a first impression, they support a fascinating diversity of plant strategies to cope with stress and disturbance including fire, drought and herbivory...
May 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Richard A Gill, Rory C O'Connor, Aaron Rhodes, Tara B B Bishop, Daniel C Laughlin, Samuel B St Clair
Resource availability and biotic interactions control opportunities for the establishment and expansion of invasive species. Studies on biotic resistance to plant invasions have typically focused on competition and occasionally on herbivory, while resource-oriented studies have focused on water or nutrient pulses. Through synthesizing these approaches, we identify conditions that create invasion opportunities. In a nested fully factorial experiment, we examined how chronic alterations in water availability and rodent density influenced the density of invasive species in both the Mojave Desert and the Great Basin Desert after fire...
May 7, 2018: Oecologia
Natalia V Dolgova, Susan Nehzati, Sanjukta Choudhury, Tracy C MacDonald, Nathan R Regnier, Andrew M Crawford, Olena Ponomarenko, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering
BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential element with a rich and varied chemistry in living organisms. It plays a variety of important roles ranging from being essential in enzymes that are critical for redox homeostasis to acting as a deterrent for herbivory in hyperaccumulating plants. Despite its importance there are many open questions, especially related to its chemistry in situ within living organisms. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review discusses X-ray spectroscopy and imaging of selenium in biological samples, with an emphasis on the methods, and in particular the techniques of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI)...
May 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ran Li, Lucas Cortes Llorca, Meredith Christine Schuman, Yang Wang, Lanlan Wang, Youngsung Joo, Ming Wang, Daniel Giddings Vassão, Ian T Baldwin
The jasmonate (JA) phytohormone signaling system is an important mediator of plant defense against herbivores. Plants deficient in JA signaling are more susceptible to herbivory as a result of deficiencies in defensive trait expression. Recent studies have implicated the circadian clock in regulating JA-mediated defenses, but the molecular mechanisms linking the clock to JA signaling are unclear. Here we report that wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) plants rendered deficient in the clock component ZEITLUPE (ZTL) by RNA interference (RNAi) have attenuated resistance to the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis...
May 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
L Collins, M M Boer, V Resco de Dios, S A Power, E R Bendall, S Hasegawa, R Ochoa Hueso, J Piñeiro Nevado, R A Bradstock
A trend of increasing woody plant density, or woody thickening, has been observed across grassland and woodland ecosystems globally. It has been proposed that increasing atmospheric [CO2 ] is a major driver of broad scale woody thickening, though few field-based experiments have tested this hypothesis. Our study utilises a Free Air CO2 Enrichment experiment to examine the effect of elevated [CO2 ] (eCO2 ) on three mechanisms that can cause woody thickening, namely (i) woody plant recruitment, (ii) seedling growth, and (iii) post-disturbance resprouting...
April 27, 2018: Oecologia
Mark Fishbein, Shannon C K Straub, Julien Boutte, Kimberly Hansen, Richard C Cronn, Aaron Liston
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Leaf surface traits, such as trichome density and wax production, mediate important ecological processes such as anti-herbivory defense and water-use efficiency. We present a phylogenetic analysis of Asclepias plastomes as a framework for analyzing the evolution of trichome density and presence of epicuticular waxes. METHODS: We produced a maximum-likelihood phylogeny using plastomes of 103 species of Asclepias. We reconstructed ancestral states and used model comparisons in a likelihood framework to analyze character evolution across Asclepias...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Jun Shi, Jasmin Joshi, Katja Tielbörger, Koen J F Verhoeven, Mirka Macel
Admixture is the hybridization between populations within one species. It can increase plant fitness and population viability by alleviating inbreeding depression and increasing genetic diversity. However, populations are often adapted to their local environments and admixture with distant populations could break down local adaptation by diluting the locally adapted genomes. Thus, admixed genotypes might be selected against and be outcompeted by locally adapted genotypes in the local environments. To investigate the costs and benefits of admixture, we compared the performance of admixed and within-population F1 and F2 generations of the European plant Lythrum salicaria in a reciprocal transplant experiment at three European field sites over a 2-year period...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ivan Hiltpold, W Gregory Shriver
It has long been thought that most birds do not use volatile cues to perceive their environment. Aside from some scavenging birds, this large group of vertebrates was believed to mostly rely on highly developed vision while foraging and there are relatively few studies exploring bird response to volatile organic compounds. In response to insect herbivory, plants release volatile organic compounds to attract parasitoids and predators of the pests. To test if insectivorous birds use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), dispensers emitting a synthetic blend of HIPV typically emitted after insect herbivory were deployed in a maize field along with imitation clay caterpillars...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Sandra R Schachat, Conrad C Labandeira, S Augusta Maccracken
Sampling standardization has not been fully addressed for the study of insect herbivory in the fossil record. The effects of sampling within a single locality were explored almost a decade ago, but the importance of sampling standardization for comparisons of herbivory across space and time has not yet been evaluated. Here, we present a case study from the Permian in which we evaluate the impact of sampling standardization on comparisons of insect herbivory from two localities that are similar in age and floral composition...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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