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Eva Rothäusler, Hannes Reinwald, Boris A López, Fadia Tala, Martin Thiel
The persistence of floating seaweeds, which depends on abiotic conditions but also herbivory, had previously been mostly tested in outdoor mesocosm experiments. In order to investigate if the obtained mesocosm results of high seaweed persistence under natural environmental conditions and under grazing pressure can be extrapolated to field situations, we conducted in situ experiments. During two summers (2007 and 2008), Macrocystis pyrifera was tethered (for 14 days) to lines in the presence and absence of the amphipod Peramphithoe femorata at three sites (Iquique, Coquimbo, Calfuco)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Lindsay G Carlson, Karen H Beard, Peter B Adler
Both the direct effects of warming on a species' vital rates and indirect effects of warming caused by interactions with neighboring species can influence plant populations. Furthermore, herbivory mediates the effects of warming on plant community composition in many systems. Thus, determining the importance of direct and indirect effects of warming, while considering the role of herbivory, can help predict long-term plant community dynamics. We conducted a field experiment in the coastal wetlands of western Alaska to investigate how warming and herbivory influence the interactions and abundances of two common plant species, a sedge, Carex ramenskii , and a dwarf shrub, Salix ovalifolia ...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Emilie Champagne, Ben D Moore, Steeve D Côté, Jean-Pierre Tremblay
Associational effects, that is, the influence of neighboring plants on herbivory suffered by a plant, are an outcome of forage selection. Although forage selection is a hierarchical process, few studies have investigated associational effects at multiple spatial scales. Because the nutritional quality of plants can be spatially structured, it might differently influence associational effects across multiple scales. Our objective was to determine the radius of influence of neighbor density and nutritional quality on balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ) herbivory by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in winter...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Lotte Korell, Birgit R Lang, Isabell Hensen, Harald Auge, Helge Bruelheide
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chiara Ravaglioli, Antonella Capocchi, Debora Fontanini, Giovanna Mori, Caterina Nuccio, Fabio Bulleri
Coastal ecosystems are exposed to multiple stressors. Predicting their outcomes is complicated by variations in their temporal regimes. Here, by means of a 16-month experiment, we investigated tolerance and resistance traits of Posidonia oceanica to herbivore damage under different regimes of nutrient loading. Chronic and pulse nutrient supply were combined with simulated fish herbivory, treated as a pulse stressor. At ambient nutrient levels, P. oceanica could cope with severe herbivory, likely through an increase in photosynthetic activity...
February 21, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Quinn R Ollivier, Edward Hammill, David J Booth, Elizabeth M P Madin, Charles Hinchliffe, Alastair R Harborne, Catherine E Lovelock, Peter I Macreadie, Trisha B Atwood
Benthic fauna play a crucial role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling at the sediment-water boundary in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial systems, grazing herbivores have been shown to influence below-ground communities through alterations to plant distribution and composition, however whether similar cascading effects occur in aquatic systems is unknown. Here, we assess the relationship between benthic invertebrates and above-ground fish grazing across the 'grazing halos' of Heron Island lagoon, Australia...
2018: PloS One
Tomonori Shinya, Shigetaka Yasuda, Kiwamu Hyodo, Rena Tani, Yuko Hojo, Yuka Fujiwara, Kei Hiruma, Takuma Ishizaki, Yasunari Fujita, Yusuke Saijo, Ivan Galis
Plant defense against herbivores is modulated by herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs) from oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva of insects. Furthermore, feeding wounds initiate plant's self-damage responses modulated by danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) such as immune defense-promoting plant elicitor peptides (Peps). While temporal and spatial co-existence of both patterns during herbivory implies a possibility of their close interactions, molecular mechanisms remain undetermined. Here, we report that exogenous application of rice (Oryza sativa) peptides (OsPeps) can elicit multiple defense responses in rice cell cultures...
March 7, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yi Hu, Jon G Sanders, Piotr Łukasik, Catherine L D'Amelio, John S Millar, David R Vann, Yemin Lan, Justin A Newton, Mark Schotanus, Daniel J C Kronauer, Naomi E Pierce, Corrie S Moreau, John T Wertz, Philipp Engel, Jacob A Russell
Nitrogen acquisition is a major challenge for herbivorous animals, and the repeated origins of herbivory across the ants have raised expectations that nutritional symbionts have shaped their diversification. Direct evidence for N provisioning by internally housed symbionts is rare in animals; among the ants, it has been documented for just one lineage. In this study we dissect functional contributions by bacteria from a conserved, multi-partite gut symbiosis in herbivorous Cephalotes ants through in vivo experiments, metagenomics, and in vitro assays...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Amelia E Fowles, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Nicole A Hill, Russell J Thomson, Elisabeth M A Strain, Timothy J Alexander, James Kirkpatrick, Graham J Edgar
Macroalgal beds provide important habitat structure and support primary production for rocky reef communities, but are increasingly degraded as a result of human pressures. Various sources of pollution can have both direct and interactive effects on stressed ecosystems. In particular, interactions involving invertebrate grazers could potentially weaken or strengthen the overall impact of pollution on macroalgal beds. Using a paired impact-control experimental design, we tested the effects of multiple pollution sources (fish farms, marinas, sewerage, and stormwater) on translocated and locally established algal assemblages, while also considering the influence of invertebrate grazers...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Benedicte Riber Albrectsen, Abu Bakar Siddique, Vicki Huizu Guo Decker, Martin Unterseher, Kathryn M Robinson
Salicinoid phenolic glycosides are common defence substances in salicaceous trees and specialist leaf beetles use these compounds for their own defence against predators. Salicinoids vary qualitatively and qualitatively in aspen (Populus tremula) and this variation has a genetic basis. The foliar endophyte mycobiome is plentiful and we hypothesised that it is related to plant genotype, potentially mediated by salicinoid composition, and that interactions with the leaf beetle Chrysomela tremula may alter this relationship...
March 1, 2018: Oecologia
Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Jedediah F Brodie
Animals can have both positive (e.g. via seed dispersal) and negative (e.g. via herbivory) impacts on plants. The net effects of these interactions remain difficult to predict and may be affected by overhunting and habitat disturbance, two widespread threats to tropical forests. Recent studies have documented their separate effects on plant recruitment but our understanding of how defaunation and logging interact to influence tropical tree communities is limited. From 2013 to 2016, we followed the fate of marked tree seedlings ( n = 1489) from 81 genera in and outside experimental plots...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Alice Ruckert, L Niel Allen, Ricardo A Ramirez
Spider mites, a cosmopolitan pest of agricultural and landscape plants, thrive under hot and dry conditions, which could become more frequent and extreme due to climate change. Recent work has shown that neonicotinoids, a widely used class of systemic insecticides that have come under scrutiny for non-target effects, can elevate spider mite populations. Both water-stress and neonicotinoids independently alter plant resistance against herbivores. Yet, the interaction between these two factors on spider mites is unclear, particularly for Banks grass mite (Oligonychus pratensis; BGM)...
2018: PloS One
Koji Noge, Shigeru Tamogami
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles play important roles in plant-insect and plant-plant interactions. The common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis, is often infested by the flea beetle, Altica oleracea, on which the predatory blue shield bug, Zicrona caerulea, is usually found. This observation suggests that the predatory bug can discriminate infested plants from intact ones to locate its prey. In this study, l-leucine-derived nitrogen-containing compounds [isovaleronitrile (3-methylbutanenitrile), (E/Z)-isovaleraldoxime and 3-methyl-1-nitrobutane] and some terpenes were identified as a characteristic volatile blend from herbivore-infested O...
March 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Abigail L Scott, Paul H York, Clare Duncan, Peter I Macreadie, Rod M Connolly, Megan T Ellis, Jessie C Jarvis, Kristin I Jinks, Helene Marsh, Michael A Rasheed
Seagrass meadows support key ecosystem services, via provision of food directly for herbivores, and indirectly to their predators. The importance of herbivores in seagrass meadows has been well-documented, but the links between food webs and ecosystem services in seagrass meadows have not previously been made explicit. Herbivores interact with ecosystem services - including carbon sequestration, cultural values, and coastal protection. Interactions can be positive or negative and depend on a range of factors including the herbivore identity and the grazing type and intensity...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vikki L Rodgers, Nicholas G Smith, Susanne S Hoeppner, Jeffrey S Dukes
Predicting the effects of climate change on tree species and communities is critical for understanding the future state of our forested ecosystems. We used a fully factorial precipitation (three levels; ambient, -50 % ambient, +50 % ambient) by warming (four levels; up to +4 °C) experiment in an old-field ecosystem in the northeastern USA to study the climatic sensitivity of seedlings of six native tree species. We measured whole plant-level responses: survival, total leaf area (TLA), seedling insect herbivory damage, as well as leaf-level responses: specific leaf area (SLA), leaf-level water content (LWC), foliar nitrogen (N) concentration, foliar carbon (C) concentration and C:N ratio of each of these deciduous species in each treatment across a single growing season...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Pirjo Koivusaari, Johanna Pohjanen, Piippa R Wäli, Saija H K Ahonen, Karita Saravesi, Anna Mari Markkola, Kaisa Haapala, Marko Suokas, Janne J Koskimäki, Mysore V Tejesvi, Anna Maria Pirttilä
Plant meristems were previously thought to be sterile. Today, meristem-associated shoot endophytes are mainly reported as contaminants from plant tissue cultures, the number of observed species being very low. However, the few strains characterized have the capacity for infecting host cells and affecting plant growth and development. Here we studied the communities of endophytic bacteria in the buds of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii (N. I. Orlova) Hämet-Ahti) exposed to winter moth (Operophtera brumata L...
February 22, 2018: Tree Physiology
Sara L Jackrel, Timothy C Morton
Differences among individuals within species affect community and ecosystem processes in many systems, and may rival the importance of differences between species. Intraspecific variation consists of both plastic and genetic components that are regulated by different processes and operate on different time scales. Therefore, probing which mechanisms can affect traits sufficiently strongly to affect ecosystem processes is fundamental to understanding the consequences of individual variation. We find that a dominant deciduous tree of Pacific Northwest riparian ecosystems, red alder, exhibits strong and synergistic responses to nutrient resources and herbivory stress...
February 26, 2018: Oecologia
Roman T Kellenberger, Gaylord A Desurmont, Philipp M Schlüter, Florian P Schiestl
Biotic stress can induce plastic changes in fitness-relevant plant traits. Recently, it has been shown that such changes can be transmitted to subsequent generations. However, the occurrence and extent of transmission across different types of traits is still unexplored. Here, we assessed the emergence and transmission of herbivory-induced changes in Brassica rapa and their impact on interactions with insects. We analysed changes in morphology and reproductive traits as well as in flower and leaf volatile emission during two generations with leaf herbivory by Mamestra brassicae and Pieris brassicae and two subsequent generations without herbivory...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
L G Egea, R Jiménez-Ramos, J J Vergara, I Hernández, F G Brun
Global (e.g. climate change) and local factors (e.g. nutrient enrichment) act together in nature strongly hammering coastal ecosystems, where seagrasses play a critical ecological role. This experiment explores the combined effects of warming, acidification and ammonium enrichment on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa under a full factorial mesocosm design. Warming increased plant production but at the expense of reducing carbon reserves. Meanwhile, acidification had not effects on plant production but increased slightly carbon reserves, while a slight stimulation of net production and a slight decrease on carbon reserves under ammonium supply were recorded...
February 20, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Carmen K Blubaugh, Jacob S Asplund, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Matthew J Morra, Christopher R Philips, Inna E Popova, John P Reganold, William E Snyder
Plant defenses often mediate whether competing chewing and sucking herbivores indirectly benefit or harm one another. Dual guild herbivory also can muddle plant signals used by specialist natural enemies to locate prey, further complicating the net impact of herbivore-herbivore interactions in naturally diverse settings. While dual guild herbivore communities are common in nature, their community trilevel consequences are unclear, as chemically mediated tri-trophic interactions are rarely evaluated in field environments...
February 21, 2018: Ecology
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