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Malaria and panama

Raúl G Saraiva, Callie R Huitt-Roehl, Abhai Tripathi, Yi-Qiang Cheng, Jürgen Bosch, Craig A Townsend, George Dimopoulos
The Chromobacterium sp. Panama bacterium has in vivo and in vitro anti-Plasmodium properties. To assess the nature of the Chromobacterium-produced anti-Plasmodium factors, chemical partition was conducted by bioassay-guided fractionation where different fractions were assayed for activity against asexual stages of P. falciparum. The isolated compounds were further partitioned by reversed-phase FPLC followed by size-exclusion chromatography; high resolution UPLC and ESI/MS data were then collected and revealed that the most active fraction contained a cyclic depsipeptide, which was identified as romidepsin...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hercules Sakkas, Petros Bozidis, Ashley Franks, Chrissanthy Papadopoulou
Oropouche fever is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Oropouche virus (OROV), an arthropod transmitted Orthobunyavirus circulating in South and Central America. During the last 60 years, more than 30 epidemics and over half a million clinical cases attributed to OROV infection have been reported in Brazil, Peru, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago. OROV fever is considered the second most frequent arboviral febrile disease in Brazil after dengue fever. OROV is transmitted through both urban and sylvatic transmission cycles, with the primary vector in the urban cycle being the anthropophilic biting midge Culicoides paraensis ...
April 4, 2018: Viruses
Lisbeth Amarilis Hurtado, José E Calzada, Chystrie A Rigg, Milagros Castillo, Luis Fernando Chaves
BACKGROUND: Malaria has historically been entrenched in indigenous populations of the República de Panamá. This scenario occurs despite the fact that successful methods for malaria elimination were developed during the creation of the Panamá Canal. Today, most malaria cases in the República de Panamá affect the Gunas, an indigenous group, which mainly live in autonomous regions of eastern Panamá. Over recent decades several malaria outbreaks have affected the Gunas, and one hypothesis is that such outbreaks could have been exacerbated by climate change, especially by anomalous weather patterns driven by the EL Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...
February 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
G Dennis Shanks
Blackwater fever is a massive hemolytic event usually occurring in the context of repeated falciparum malaria infections and intermittent quinine use. Its etiology is poorly understood, and it is rarely seen today. Historical epidemiological observations from the 20th century demonstrated variable patterns in prisoners in Andaman Islands, refugees in Macedonia, canal workers in Panama, expatriates in Rhodesia, and Second World War soldiers. Rates of blackwater fever per 1,000 malaria cases varied over two orders of magnitude...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Lorenzo Cáceres, José E Calzada, Amanda Gabster, Josue Young, Ricardo Márquez, Rolando Torres, Margarita Griffith
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to recognize the social representation of the Guna indigenous population by identifying cultural elements related to malaria, in order to create an intercultural approach to any health intervention to control and prevent the disease. METHODS: This qualitative study has an anthropological focus that used participant observation, informal conversations, focus groups, interviews, in-depth interviews with key actors. Analyses included review, classification and categorization of interviews...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
Roy E Gandy, Raven M Christopher, Charles B Rodning
If statesmanship can be characterized as a bed rock of principles, a strong moral compass, a vision, and an ability to articulate and effect that vision, then the fortitude, tenacity, imperturbability, and resilience of William Crawford Gorgas cannot be overestimated. As Chief Sanitary Officer in Cuba and as Chief Medical Officer in Panama, he actualized strategies to eradicate the vectors of yellow fever and malaria. His superiors initially pigeonholed his requisitions, refused to provide him with any authority, and clamored for his dismissal...
March 1, 2017: American Surgeon
Andrés López-Rubio, Juan Suaza-Vasco, Paula L Marcet, Natalia Ruíz-Molina, Lorenzo Cáceres, Charles Porter, Sandra Uribe
A reference 535 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI), acquired from specimens of An. neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1913 from its type locality in Panama, was used as a tool for distinguishing this species from others in the subgenus Kerteszia. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between An. neivai and other species in the subgenus (An. bellator Dyar & Knab 1906, An. homunculus Komp 1937, An cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908 and An. laneanus Corrêa & Cerqueira, 1944) produced K2P genetic distances of 8...
October 17, 2016: Zootaxa
William Lainhart, Larissa C Dutari, Jose R Rovira, Izis M C Sucupira, Marinete M Póvoa, Jan E Conn, Jose R Loaiza
From 2002-2005, Panama experienced a malaria epidemic that has been associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation weather patterns, decreased funding for malaria control, and landscape modification. Case numbers quickly decreased afterward, and Panama is now in the pre-elimination stage of malaria eradication. To achieve this new goal, the characterization of epidemiological risk factors, foci of transmission, and important anopheline vectors is needed. Of the 24,681 reported cases in these analyses (2000-2014), ~62% occurred in epidemic years and ~44% in indigenous comarcas (5...
May 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Macarthur Charles, Sanchita Das, Rachel Daniels, Laura Kirkman, Glavdia G Delva, Rodney Destine, Ananias Escalante, Leopoldo Villegas, Noah M Daniels, Kristi Shigyo, Sarah K Volkman, Jean W Pape, Linnie M Golightly
Hispaniola is the only Caribbean island to which Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic. Resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine has rarely been reported in Haiti, which is located on Hispaniola, but the K76T pfcrt (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter) gene mutation that confers chloroquine resistance has been detected intermittently. We analyzed 901 patient samples collected during 2006-2009 and found 2 samples showed possible mixed parasite infections of genetically chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive parasites...
May 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Margarita Griffith, José Rovira, Rolando Torres, José Calzada, Carlos Victoria, Lorenzo Cáceres
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys allow to determine the degree of knowledge on the management of malaria in a given population, as well as the attitudes and practices that contribute or not to its transmission. OBJECTIVE: To identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices that favor or not the transmission of malaria in the indigenous Guna population of Madungandí. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by applying a survey to the heads of the families in a sample of 40% of households in three communities with high malaria incidence...
October 2015: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
José E Calzada, Ricardo Marquez, Chystrie Rigg, Carlos Victoria, Manuel De La Cruz, Luis F Chaves, Lorenzo Cáceres
BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the epidemiological and entomological factors associated with a recent malaria outbreak that occurred in 2012 in a socially marginalized population from Guna Yala Comarca in Panama. METHODS: A descriptive and observational study was conducted by analysing demographic and epidemiological data from all malaria cases registered during 2012 in the Comarca Guna Yala, Panama. Malaria intensity indicators were calculated during the study period...
2015: Malaria Journal
Giovan F Gómez, Sara A Bickersmith, Ranulfo González, Jan E Conn, Margarita M Correa
Phylogenetic analysis of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences were used to evaluate initial identification and to investigate phylogenetic relationships of seven Anopheles morphospecies of the Arribalzagia Series from Colombia. Phylogenetic trees recovered highly supported clades for An. punctimaculas.s., An. calderoni, An. malefactor s.l., An. neomaculipalpus, An. apicimacula s.l., An. mattogrossensis and An. peryassui. This study provides the first molecular confirmation of An...
2015: PloS One
Nicanor Obaldia
BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors is important for the establishment of malaria elimination programmes tailored to specific regions. Type of house construction had been associated with increasing risk of acquiring malaria. This study aimed at establishing the association between determinants of low socio-economic status (SES) and type of house construction with the likelihood of living in a Plasmodium vivax malarious corregimiento (smallest political division) in Panama during 2009-2012...
2015: Malaria Journal
Nicanor Obaldia, Nicholas K Baro, Jose E Calzada, Ana M Santamaria, Rachel Daniels, Wesley Wong, Hsiao-Han Chang, Elizabeth J Hamilton, Myriam Arevalo-Herrera, Socrates Herrera, Dyann F Wirth, Daniel L Hartl, Matthias Marti, Sarah K Volkman
Identifying the source of resurgent parasites is paramount to a strategic, successful intervention for malaria elimination. Although the malaria incidence in Panama is low, a recent outbreak resulted in a 6-fold increase in reported cases. We hypothesized that parasites sampled from this epidemic might be related and exhibit a clonal population structure. We tested the genetic relatedness of parasites, using informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms and drug resistance loci. We found that parasites were clustered into 3 clonal subpopulations and were related to parasites from Colombia...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Peter J Hotez, Laila Woc-Colburn, Maria Elena Bottazzi
A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread...
August 2014: International Journal for Parasitology
Paige Sachs, Gloria Alicia Diaz Rodriguez, Ireneo Briceno, Russell King, Nicole L Achee, John P Grieco
Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An...
December 2013: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Sarah Higginbotham, Weng Ruh Wong, Roger G Linington, Carmenza Spadafora, Liliana Iturrado, A Elizabeth Arnold
The extraordinary biological diversity of tropical forests harbors a rich chemical diversity with enormous potential as a source of novel bioactive compounds. Of particular interest are new environments for microbial discovery. Sloths--arboreal mammals commonly found in the lowland forests of Panama--carry a wide variety of micro- and macro-organisms on their coarse outer hair. Here we report for the first time the isolation of diverse and bioactive strains of fungi from sloth hair, and their taxonomic placement...
2014: PloS One
Sarah J Higginbotham, A Elizabeth Arnold, Alicia Ibañez, Carmenza Spadafora, Phyllis D Coley, Thomas A Kursar
Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama...
2013: PloS One
Jose R Loaiza, Matthew J Miller
Aedeomyia squamipennis and Culex (Melanoconion) ocossa, two ubiquitous Neotropical mosquito species, are likely involved in the transmission of several bird pathogens in Gamboa, central Panama. However, knowledge on their eco-epidemiological profiles is still incomplete. Our goal in this study was to investigate temporal trends of vector density and their relationship with avian plasmodia prevalence. This information is central to identifying the risk posed by each vector species to the avian community locally...
November 2013: Parasitology Research
Jose R Loaiza, Marilyn E Scott, Eldredge Bermingham, Oris I Sanjur, Jose R Rovira, Larissa C Dutari, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Sara Bickersmith, Jan E Conn
Anopheles punctimacula s.l. is a regional malaria vector in parts of Central America, but its role in transmission is controversial due to its unresolved taxonomic status. Two cryptic species, An. malefactor and An. calderoni, have been previously confused with this taxon, and evidence for further genetic differentiation has been proposed. In the present study we collected and morphologically identified adult female mosquitoes of An. punctimacula s.l. from 10 localities across Panama and one in Costa Rica. DNA sequences from three molecular regions, the three prime end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (3' COI), the Barcode region in the five prime end of the COI (5' COI), and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) were used to test the hypothesis of new molecular lineages within An...
October 2013: Acta Tropica
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