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Venkataseshan Jagannathan, Pragasam Viswanathan
Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Nuzha Allassad Alhuzail
This article examines how three generations of Bedouin women in southern Israel express what home means to them through the names they give it: bayt , maskan , and dar . Home has always been significant in the lives of Bedouin women, but Bedouin society is undergoing major changes-culturally, socially, and in the form of settlement. The external form of the Bedouin home has changed, too, from a tent to a stone house, from an open structure to a closed one, from being part of the open space of the desert to being a limited space in a neighborhood...
2018: Journal of housing and the built environment: HBE
Felipe Alves de Almeida, Erika Lorena Giraldo Vargas, Deisy Guimarães Carneiro, Uelinton Manoel Pinto, Maria Cristina Dantas Vanetti
Salmonella belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family which is widely distributed in the environment due to its adaptive capacity to stress conditions. In addition, Salmonella is able to perform a type of cell-to-cell communication called quorum sensing, which leads to differential gene expression. The quorum sensing system mediated by AI-1, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), is incomplete in Salmonella because the luxI homolog gene, which encodes for AI-1 synthase, is missing in the genome. However, a homologue of LuxR, known as SdiA, is present and allows the detection of signaling molecules produced by other species of bacteria, leading to regulation of gene expression, mainly related to virulence and biofilm formation...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Min-Kyu Kwak, Han-Bong Ryu, Sung-Hyun Song, Jin-Won Lee, Sa-Ouk Kang
YlaD, a membrane-anchored anti-sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis , contains a HX3 CXXC motif that functions as a redox-sensing domain and belongs to one of the zinc-coordinated anti-sigma factor families. Despite previously showing that the YlaC transcription is controlled by YlaD, experimental evidence of how the YlaC-YlaD interaction is affected by active cysteines and/or metal ions is lacking. Here, we showed that the P yla promoter is autoregulated solely by YlaC. Moreover, reduced YlaD contained zinc and iron, while oxidized YlaD did not...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Kiri Hunter, Catherine Cook
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore new graduate nurses' experiences of professional socialisation by registered nurses in hospital-based practice settings, and identify strategies that support professional identity development. BACKGROUND: Professionalism is reinforced and stabilised in the clinical environment through the 'hidden curriculum', with major learning coming from practice role-models. New graduates observe attitudes, behaviours, decision-making and skills, and gain feedback from registered nurses, which they translate into their own practice...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Xueliang Niu, Xiaoyan Li, Wei Chen, Xiaobao Li, Wenju Weng, Chunxiao Yin, Ruixia Dong, Wei Sun, Guangjiu Li
Quercetin belongs to flavonoid drug that has favorable properties such as antiviral, anticancer, anti-allergic and anti-tumor. Therefore a sensitive method is highly required for quercetin determination. In this paper, a three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel (3D-rGA) with excellent porous framework was synthesized via one-step hydrothermal technique. The characteristics and performances of 3D-rGA were checked by SEM, TEM, BET, XRD, Raman, FT-IR, XPS and electrochemical methods, which exhibited good properties including unique porous structure, large surface area and excellent conductivity...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Orso Maria Lucherini, Donato Rigante, Jurgen Sota, Claudia Fabiani, Laura Obici, Marco Cattalini, Marco Gattorno, Luca Cantarini
An apparently unprovoked recurrent inflammation is the quintessential hallmark of autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs), a large and heterogeneous group of disorders in which there is poor regulation of the innate immune system with no clearly demonstrated autoimmune machinery involvement. Innate immunity pathways are diverse and our understanding of their molecular composition and function is continuously expanding. The impaired immune responses we observe in monogenic AIDs, mostly in the hereditary periodic fever syndromes, is officiated by target molecules of microbial origin (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and also host molecules (danger-associated molecular patterns)...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Xin-Mi Song, Lin-Ya Zhang, Xiao-Bin Fu, Fan Wu, Jing Tan, Hong-Liang Li
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are the critical elements responsible for binding and transporting odors and pheromones in the sensitive olfactory system in insects. Honey bees are representative social insects that have complex odorants and pheromone communication systems relative to solitary insects. Here, we first cloned and characterized OBP11 ( AcerOBP11 ), from the worker bees antennae of Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana . Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis, most sequences homologous to AcerOBP11 belong to the typical OBPs family...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lola Boutin, Emmanuel Scotet
Vγ9Vδ2 T cells represent a major unconventional γδ T cell subset located in the peripheral blood of adults in humans and several non-human primates. Lymphocytes that constitute this transitional subset can sense subtle level changes of intracellular phosphorylated intermediates of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway (phosphoantigens, pAg), such as isopentenyl pyrophosphate, during cell stress events. This unique antigenic activation process operates in a rigorous framework that requires the expression of butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1/CD277) molecules, which are type I glycoproteins that belong to the B7 family...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Bruno D Fonseca, Roni M Lahr, Christian K Damgaard, Tommy Alain, Andrea J Berman
The ribosome is an essential unit of all living organisms that commands protein synthesis, ultimately fuelling cell growth (accumulation of cell mass) and cell proliferation (increase in cell number). The eukaryotic ribosome consists of 4 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 80 ribosomal proteins (RPs). Despite its fundamental role in every living organism, our present understanding of how higher eukaryotes produce the various ribosome components is incomplete. Uncovering the mechanisms utilized by human cells to generate functional ribosomes will likely have far-reaching implications in human disease...
May 2, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Weiwei Li, Baixing Wu, Wibowo Adian Soca, Lei An
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the ringleader of Classical swine fever (CSF). The non-structural protein 5B (NS5B) encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that is a key enzyme initiating viral RNA replication by a de novo mechanism. It is also an attractive target for the development of anti-CSFV drugs. To gain a better understanding on the mechanism of CSFV RNA synthesis, here we solved the first crystal structure of CSFV-NS5B. Our studies show that the CSFV-NS5B RdRp contains characteristic fingers, palm domain and thumb domain as well as a unique N-terminal domain (NTD) that had never been observed...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tabassum Zafar, Ab Qayoom Naik, Vinoy K Shrivastava
Background: Mice are widely accepted research models of great clinical significance. Maintenance of laboratory mice breed is an essential aspect for performing research activities in various fields of science. Infanticide is one of the prominent causes of litter loss during maintenance of laboratory mice stock. The present study is an effort to monitor the effect of change in ambient temperature of female mice below the normal range on cannibalism and infanticide during early postparturition phase...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Manon Torres, Denis Becquet, Séverine Guillen, Bénédicte Boyer, Mathias Moreno, Marie-Pierre Blanchard, Jean-Louis Franc, Anne-Marie François-Bellan
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which are sequences of more than 200 nucleotides without a defined reading frame, belong to the regulatory non-coding RNA's family. Although their biological functions remain largely unknown, the number of these lncRNAs has steadily increased and it is now estimated that humans may have more than 10,000 such transcripts. Some of these are known to be involved in important regulatory pathways of gene expression which take place at the transcriptional level, but also at different steps of RNA co- and post-transcriptional maturation...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Molin Chen, Wei Tang, Xiuguo Hua
BACKGROUND: Porcine teschoviruses (PTVs) are small non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive sense genomic RNA, belonging to the family Picornaviridae. Natural infections of teschoviruses are limited to pigs. RESULTS: In this study, a PTV HuN-1 was found that it could be proliferated in PK-15 cell, and it came from the pig fecal samples from Hunan province, in central China. The complete genome of the HuN-1 was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The complete genome of HuN-1 isolate is 7098 nt, which shares the highest sequence identity (85...
April 27, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Somayeh Torabi Delshad, Siyavash Soltanian, Hassan Sharifiyazdi, Masoud Haghkhah, Peter Bossier
AIMS: A variety of pathogens use quorum sensing (QS) to control the expression of their virulence factors. QS interference has hence been proposed as a promising anti-virulence strategy. The specific aim of this study was to isolate bacteria from trout tissue able to degrade N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones (AHL), a QS molecule family. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total 132 isolates were screened for AHL degradation using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as a biosensor. Twenty four quorum quenching (QQ) isolates were identified biochemically and characterized using 16S rDNA sequencing...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yerali Gandica, Marco Valerio Geraci, Sophie Béreau, Jean-Yves Gnabo
Drawing on recent contributions inferring financial interconnectedness from market data, our paper provides new insights on the evolution of the US financial industry over a long period of time by using several tools coming from network science. Relying on a Time-Varying Parameter Vector AutoRegressive (TVP-VAR) approach on stock market returns to retrieve unobserved directed links among financial institutions, we reconstruct a fully dynamic network in the sense that connections are let to evolve through time...
2018: PloS One
Miriam Vignando, Marilena Aiello, Francesco Foroni, Gabriella Marcon, Mauro Tettamanti, Raffaella I Rumiati
In order to make sense of the objects we encounter in everyday life we largely rely on previous knowledge stored in our semantic memory. Semantic memory is considered dependent on lifelong experience and cultural knowledge. So far, a few studies have investigated the role of expertise on the organization of semantic memory, whereas life-long experience has largely been overlooked. In this study, we investigated this issue using food concepts. In particular, we administered different semantic tasks using food (natural and transformed) and non-food (living and non-living things) as stimuli to participants belonging to three different age cohorts (56-74, 75-91, 100-108), who were also asked to report on the dietary habits held throughout their life...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rimma Kalina, Irina Gladkikh, Pavel Dmitrenok, Oleg Chernikov, Sergey Koshelev, Aleksandra Kvetkina, Sergey Kozlov, Emma Kozlovskaya, Margarita Monastyrnaya
Sea anemones are an abundant source of various biologically active peptides. The hydrophobic 20% ethanol fraction of tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa was shown to contain at least 159 peptide compounds including neurotoxins, proteinase and α-amylase inhibitors, as well as modulators of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). The three new peptides, π-AnmTX Hcr 1b-2, -3, and -4 (41 aa) (short names Hcr 1b-2, -3, -4), identified by a combination of reversed-phase liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were found to belong to the class 1b sea anemone neurotoxins...
April 22, 2018: Peptides
Daniel C Oshi, Wendel D Abel, Chinwendu F Agu, Tana F Ricketts Roomes, Steve Weaver, Tania Rae, Patrice Whitehorne Smith, Joy Harrison, Sarah N Oshi
Background: The prevalence of alcohol use is quite high in the Caribbean region, and specifically, in Barbados. Alcohol use has been documented to negatively affect the way students behave within and outside school. This study set out to examine the role alcohol plays in students’ behavioural problems at school. Methods: An analysis of crosssectional data collected during the National Secondary Schools Survey was done. Mean (and standard deviation), frequencies and percentages were computed, and differences in proportions among the groups were assessed using Pearson’s Chi Square...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Insa Bakenhus, Sonja Voget, Anja Poehlein, Thorsten Brinkhoff, Rolf Daniel, Meinhard Simon
Planktotalea frisia SH6-1T Hahnke et al. (Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:1619-24, 2012) is a planktonic marine bacterium isolated during a phytoplankton bloom from the southern North Sea. It belongs to the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae . Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of the type strain SH6-1T . The genome comprises 4,106,736 bp and contains 4128 protein-coding and 38 RNA genes. The draft genome sequence provides evidence for at least three extrachromosomal elements, encodes genes for DMSP utilization, quorum sensing, photoheterotrophy and a type IV secretion system...
2018: Standards in Genomic Sciences
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