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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525801/social-and-built-environment-factors-related-to-children-s-independent-mobility-the-importance-of-neighbourhood-cohesion-and-connectedness
#1
En-Yi Lin, Karen Witten, Melody Smith, Penelope Carroll, Lanuola Asiasiga, Hannah Badland, Karl Parker
This study examines aspects of neighbourhood social environments (namely, neighbourhood safety, cohesion and connection) and child-specific built environment attributes in relation to children's independent mobility. The results suggest that children aged 8-13 years with parents who perceive their neighbourhood as more cohesive and more connected, and are located closer to school, engaged in higher levels of independently mobile trips. The qualitative component of this research revealed that for NZ European, Māori, Samoan and other Pacific parents, 'people danger' was the most common concern for letting their children go out alone, whereas for Asian and Indian parents, 'traffic danger' was the most common reason for their concern...
May 16, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525565/social-network-clustering-of-sexual-violence-experienced-by-adolescent-girls
#2
Holly B Shakya, Christopher J Fariss, Christopher Ojeda, Anita Raj, Elizabeth Reed
We used data on 3139 girl social network friendship dyads from 3 waves (Waves I 1994-1995, II 1996, and IV 2007-2008), of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to assess whether friends' reports of Sexual Violence (SV) and friends' substance use risk scores predict adolescent and young adult SV. Longitudinal analyses also tested the association of Wave I/II risk factors with Wave IV reports of SV, and Wave I/II SV with network connectivity at Wave II. Adjusting for her own substance use, each one-point increase in a friend's substance use score increased a respondent's odds of SV by 1...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522307/using-temporal-self-regulation-theory-to-understand-healthy-and-unhealthy-eating-intentions-and-behaviour
#3
Rachel Evans, Paul Norman, Thomas L Webb
OBJECTIVES: The present research investigated whether Temporal Self-Regulation Theory (TST) can be used to help understand healthy and unhealthy eating intentions and behaviour. DESIGN: A prospective design with two waves of data collection one week apart. METHOD: An online survey measured the key components of TST (i.e., connectedness, timing and valence beliefs, intentions, past behaviour, habit strength, perceived environmental cues, and self-control) with respect to eating fruit and vegetables (F&V; N = 133) or unhealthy snacks (N = 125)...
May 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520635/decreasing-disparities-in-child-development-assessment-identifying-and-discussing-possible-delays-in-the-special-supplemental-nutrition-program-for-women-infants-and-children-wic
#4
Katharine E Zuckerman, Alison E Chavez, Julie A Reeder
OBJECTIVE: To assess how staff at the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) address potential developmental delays and parent developmental concerns in children <5 years. METHODS: A Web-based survey of Oregon WIC staff in nonadministrative roles assessed staff interactions with parents regarding concerning child development/behavior, perceptions of connectedness with local developmental resources, and knowledge of typical child development...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515203/wild-birds-respond-to-flockmate-loss-by-increasing-their-social-network-associations-to-others
#5
Josh A Firth, Bernhard Voelkl, Ross A Crates, Lucy M Aplin, Dora Biro, Darren P Croft, Ben C Sheldon
Understanding the consequences of losing individuals from wild populations is a current and pressing issue, yet how such loss influences the social behaviour of the remaining animals is largely unexplored. Through combining the automated tracking of winter flocks of over 500 wild great tits (Parus major) with removal experiments, we assessed how individuals' social network positions responded to the loss of their social associates. We found that the extent of flockmate loss that individuals experienced correlated positively with subsequent increases in the number of their social associations, the average strength of their bonds and their overall connectedness within the social network (defined as summed edge weights)...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513995/inner-strength-and-its-relationship-to-health-threats-in-ageing-a-cross-sectional-study-among-community-dwelling-older-women
#6
Erika Boman, Berit Lundman, Björn Nygren, Kristofer Årestedt, Regina Santamäki Fischer
AIM: To explore the relationship between inner strength and health threats among community-dwelling older women. BACKGROUND: Inner strength is described as a resource that promotes experiences of health, despite adversities. Inner strength and its dimensions (i.e. connectedness, creativity, firmness and flexibility) can be assessed using the Inner Strength Scale (ISS). Exploring attributes of weaker inner strength may yield valuable information about areas to focus on in enhancing a person's inner strength and may ultimately lead to the perception of better health...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507820/self-centeredness-and-selflessness-happiness-correlates-and-mediating-psychological-processes
#7
Michael Dambrun
The main objective of this research was to test central assumptions from the Self-centeredness/Selflessness Happiness Model. According to this model, while self-centered psychological functioning induces fluctuating happiness, authentic-durable happiness results from selflessness. Distinct mediating processes are supposed to account for these relationships: afflictive affects (e.g., anger, fear, jealousy, frustration) in the case of the former, and both emotional stability and feelings of harmony in the case of the latter...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506925/social-connectedness-mental-health-and-the-adolescent-brain
#8
REVIEW
M Lamblin, C Murawski, S Whittle, A Fornito
Social relationships promote health and wellbeing. Brain regions regulating social behavior continue to develop throughout adolescence, as teens learn to navigate their social environment with increasing sophistication. Adolescence is also a time of increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders, many of which are characteristically associated with social dysfunction. In this review, we consider the links between adolescent brain development and the broader social environment. We examine evidence that individual differences in social ability, partly determined by genetic influences on brain structure and function, impact the quality and quantity of social ties during adolescence and that, conversely, the structure of one's social network exerts complex yet profound influences on individual behavior and mental health...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504307/family-based-promotion-of-mental-health-in-children-affected-by-hiv-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Theresa S Betancourt, Lauren C Ng, Catherine M Kirk, Robert T Brennan, William R Beardslee, Sara Stulac, Christine Mushashi, Estella Nduwimana, Sylvere Mukunzi, Beatha Nyirandagijimana, Godfrey Kalisa, Cyamatare F Rwabukwisi, Vincent Sezibera
BACKGROUND: Children affected by HIV are at risk for poor mental health. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI-HIV), a family home-visiting intervention to promote mental health and improve parent-child relationships in families with caregivers living with HIV, hypothesizing that child and family outcomes would be superior to usual care social work services. METHODS: Eighty two families (N = 170 children, 48...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499848/understanding-obesity-in-the-context-of-an-indigenous-population-a-qualitative-study
#10
Ricky Bell, Catherine Smith, Leigh Hale, Geoffrey Kira, Steve Tumilty
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a progressive global phenomenon that is disparately prevalent amongst Indigenous populations. While there is a growing body of literature investigating the extrinsic contributors to obesity, there is a lack of evidence to elucidate intrinsic drivers in the context of an Indigenous population. METHODS: Qualitative research theory, inclusive of Indigenous knowledge systems, was applied to the narratives of 15 Indigenous (Māori) people aged between 18 and 65 to contextualise their understandings of obesity...
May 9, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498025/understanding-meaning-in-life-interventions-in-patients-with-advanced-disease-a-systematic-review-and-realist-synthesis
#11
Mariona Guerrero-Torrelles, Cristina Monforte-Royo, Andrea Rodríguez-Prat, Josep Porta-Sales, Albert Balaguer
BACKGROUND: Among patients with advanced disease, meaning in life is thought to enhance well-being, promote coping and improve the tolerance of physical symptoms. It may also act as a buffer against depression and hopelessness. As yet, there has been no synthesis of meaning in life interventions in which contextual factors, procedures and outcomes are described and evaluated. AIMS: To identify meaning in life interventions implemented in patients with advanced disease and to describe their context, mechanisms and outcomes...
February 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498005/school-protective-factors-and-substance-use-among-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-adolescents-in-california-public-schools
#12
Kris Tunac De Pedro, Monica Christina Esqueda, Tamika D Gilreath
PURPOSE: The majority of studies examining substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth have focused on a wide array of risk factors (e.g., victimization). Few studies have explored the protective role of schools. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature and inform programs aimed at reducing substance use among LGB youth. More specifically, this study explores the extent to which school connectedness and support from teachers and other adults at school are associated with substance use among LGB youth in school and within the past 30 days...
May 12, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497985/examining-medical-student-specialty-choice-through-a-gender-lens-an-orientational-qualitative-study
#13
Victoria Smith, Cheri Bethune, Katrina F Hurley
Phenomenon: A growing number of women are entering the medical workforce, yet their distribution across medical specialties remains nonuniform. We sought to describe how culture, bias, and socialization shape gendered thinking regarding specialty choice at a Canadian undergraduate medical institution. APPROACH: We analyzed transcripts from the Career Choices Project: 16 semistructured focus group discussions with 70 students graduating from Memorial University of Newfoundland in 2003, 2006, 2007, and 2008...
May 12, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488985/an-alternative-paradigm-for-evidence-based-medicine-revisiting-lawrence-weed-md-s-systems-approach
#14
Ali Rafik Shukor
Lawrence Weed, MD, is renowned for being the father of the Problem-Oriented Medical Record (POMR), the medical care standard for collecting, managing, and contextualizing patient data in medical records. What have been consistently overlooked are his teachings on knowledge coupling, which refers to matching patient data with associated medical knowledge. Together, the POMR standard and knowledge coupling are meant to form the basis of a systems approach that enables individualized evidence-based decision making within the context of multimorbidity and patient complexity...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486515/beyond-knowing-nature-contact-emotion-compassion-meaning-and-beauty-are-pathways-to-nature-connection
#15
Ryan Lumber, Miles Richardson, David Sheffield
Feeling connected to nature has been shown to be beneficial to wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviour. General nature contact and knowledge based activities are often used in an attempt to engage people with nature. However the specific routes to nature connectedness have not been examined systematically. Two online surveys (total n = 321) of engagement with, and value of, nature activities structured around the nine values of the Biophila Hypothesis were conducted. Contact, emotion, meaning, and compassion, with the latter mediated by engagement with natural beauty, were predictors of connection with nature, yet knowledge based activities were not...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483290/school-connectedness-and-high-school-graduation-among-maltreated-youth
#16
Allison Lemkin, Caroline J Kistin, Howard J Cabral, Ann Aschengrau, Megan Bair-Merritt
Maltreated youth have higher rates of school dropout than their non-maltreated peers. School connectedness is a modifiable predictor of school success. We hypothesized maltreated youth's school connectedness (supportive relationships with adults at school and participation in school clubs) would be positively associated with high school graduation. We included youth with at least one Child Protective Services (CPS) report by age twelve from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect, a prospective cohort study...
May 5, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481599/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-peer-delivered-permanent-supportive-housing-impact-of-housing-on-mental-and-overall-health-in-an-ethnically-diverse-population
#17
Annette S Crisanti, Danielle Duran, R Neil Greene, Jessica Reno, Carol Luna-Anderson, Deborah B Altschul
Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is an evidence-based health intervention for persons experiencing homelessness, but the impact of individual mechanisms within this intervention on health requires further research. This study examines the longitudinal impact of the mechanism of supportive housing within a peer-delivered PSH model on overall health and mental health (as measured by psychological distress and self-report of bothersome symptoms) outcomes in an ethnically diverse population. The 237 participants in the study included persons who were homeless or at risk of homelessness and who also had been diagnosed with a serious mental illness...
May 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477095/have-mischievous-responders-misidentified-sexual-minority-youth-disparities-in-the-national-longitudinal-study-of-adolescent-to-adult-health
#18
Jessica N Fish, Stephen T Russell
The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) has been instrumental in identifying sexual minority youth health disparities. Recent commentary suggested that some Wave 1 youth responders, especially males, intentionally mismarked same-sex attraction and, as a result, published reports of health disparities from these data may be suspect. We use two recently developed approaches to identify "jokesters" and mischievous responding and apply them to the Add Health data. First, we show that Wave 1 same-sex attracted youth, including those who later reported completely heterosexual identities in adulthood, were no more likely than different-sex attracted youth and consistently heterosexual participants to be "jokesters...
May 5, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470161/-evolutionary-concept-analysis-of-spirituality
#19
Il Sun Ko, So Young Choi, Jin Sook Kim
PURPOSE: This study was done to clarify attributes, antecedents, and consequences of spirituality. METHODS: Rodgers's evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyze fifty seven studies from the literature related to spirituality as it appears in systematic literature reviews of theology, medicine, counseling & psychology, social welfare, and nursing. RESULTS: Spirituality was found to consist of two dimensions and eight attributes: 1) vertical dimension: 'intimacy and connectedness with God' and 'holy life and belief', 2) horizontal dimension: 'self-transcendence', 'meaning and purpose in life', 'self-integration', and 'self-creativity' in relationship with self, 'connectedness' and 'trust' in relationship with others·neighbors·nature...
April 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468665/initiating-an-undiagnosed-diseases-program-in-the-western-australian-public-health-system
#20
Gareth Baynam, Stephanie Broley, Alicia Bauskis, Nicholas Pachter, Fiona McKenzie, Sharron Townshend, Jennie Slee, Cathy Kiraly-Borri, Anand Vasudevan, Anne Hawkins, Lyn Schofield, Petra Helmholz, Richard Palmer, Stefanie Kung, Caroline E Walker, Caron Molster, Barry Lewis, Kym Mina, John Beilby, Gargi Pathak, Cathryn Poulton, Tudor Groza, Andreas Zankl, Tony Roscioli, Marcel E Dinger, John S Mattick, William Gahl, Stephen Groft, Cynthia Tifft, Domenica Taruscio, Paul Lasko, Kenjiro Kosaki, Helene Wilhelm, Bela Melegh, Jonathan Carapetis, Sayanta Jana, Gervase Chaney, Allison Johns, Peter Wynn Owen, Frank Daly, Tarun Weeramanthri, Hugh Dawkins, Jack Goldblatt
BACKGROUND: New approaches are required to address the needs of complex undiagnosed diseases patients. These approaches include clinical genomic diagnostic pipelines, utilizing intra- and multi-disciplinary platforms, as well as specialty-specific genomic clinics. Both are advancing diagnostic rates. However, complementary cross-disciplinary approaches are also critical to address those patients with multisystem disorders who traverse the bounds of multiple specialties and remain undiagnosed despite existing intra-specialty and genomic-focused approaches...
May 3, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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