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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921258/models-of-kleptoparasitism-on-networks-the-effect-of-population-structure-on-food-stealing-behaviour
#1
Christoforos Hadjichrysanthou, Mark Broom, Jan Rychtář
The behaviour of populations consisting of animals that interact with each other for their survival and reproduction is usually investigated assuming homogeneity amongst the animals. However, real populations are non-homogeneous. We focus on an established model of kleptoparasitism and investigate whether and how much population heterogeneities can affect the behaviour of kleptoparasitic populations. We consider a situation where animals can either discover food items by themselves or attempt to steal the food already discovered by other animals through aggressive interactions...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920076/falling-upward-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Stephen A Buetow, Pablo Martínez-Martín, Brendan McCormack
Falls can injure, even kill. No one with Parkinson's disease (PD) wants to fall by accident. However, the potential nastiness of falls does not preclude a more nuanced understanding of the personal meaning that falls can have. Rather than view falls as a problem to fear and manage solely by preventing and repairing harm, people with PD and those who care for them may recast falls as a mixed blessing. Falls may be a resource, skill, and catalyst for personal growth. We discuss how falls may give rise to opportunities in interrelated domains: capabilities, credo, character, creativity, chronemics, and connectedness...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917359/dance-is-more-than-therapy-qualitative-analysis-on-therapeutic-dancing-classes-for-parkinson-s
#3
Priscila A Rocha, Susan C Slade, Jodie McClelland, Meg E Morris
OBJECTIVES: To understand the benefits and limitations of therapeutic dancing classes for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and how best to design and implement classes. DESIGN: A stakeholder forum explored the opinions of 18 allied health clinicians, dance instructors, people with PD and caregivers. Data were thematically analysed and interpreted within a grounded theory framework. RESULTS: Four main themes were identified: (1) the need to consider the stage of disease progression when designing classes; (2) recognition that dance is more than just therapy; (3) the benefits of carefully selecting music to move by; (4) ways to design classes that are both feasible and engaging...
October 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917189/protective-factors-promoting-resilience-in-the-relation-between-child-sexual-victimization-and-internalizing-and-externalizing-symptoms
#4
Alba Pérez-González, Georgina Guilera, Noemí Pereda, Adolfo Jarne
Sexual victimization has been one of the most frequently studied forms of child victimization. Its effects are common and diverse; however, not all children and youth exposed to sexual victimization eventually develop adjustment problems. A total of 1105 children and youth (590 male and 515 female) aged between 12 and 17 from northeastern Spain were assessed regarding their experiences of sexual victimization, symptoms of psychopathology, and protective factors. The results showed that all forms of sexual victimization were associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems...
September 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914165/mobile-instant-messaging-for-rural-community-health-workers-a-case-from-malawi
#5
Christoph Pimmer, Susan Mhango, Alfred Mzumara, Francis Mbvundula
BACKGROUND: Mobile instant messaging (MIM) tools, such as WhatsApp, have transformed global communication practice. In the field of global health, MIM is an increasingly used, but little understood, phenomenon. OBJECTIVES: It remains unclear how MIM can be used by rural community health workers (CHWs) and their facilitators, and what are the associated benefits and constraints. To address this gap, WhatsApp groups were implemented and researched in a rural setting in Malawi...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910597/predictors-of-change-in-social-networks-support-and-satisfaction-following-a-first-episode-psychosis-a-cohort-study
#6
Laoise Renwick, Liz Owens, John Lyne, Brian O'Donoghue, Eric Roche, Jonathan Drennan, Ann Sheridan, Mark Pilling, Eadbhard O'Callaghan, Mary Clarke
BACKGROUND: Diminished social networks are common in psychosis but few studies have measured these comprehensively and prospectively to determine how networks and support evolve during the early phase. There is little information regarding perceived support in the early phase of illness. The aim of this study was to describe social support, networks and perceived satisfaction, explore the clinical correlates of these outcomes and examine whether phases of untreated psychosis are linked with social network variables to determine potential opportunities for intervention...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906172/from-misperception-to-social-connection-correlates-and-consequences-of-overestimating-others-social-connectedness
#7
Ashley V Whillans, Chelsea D Christie, Sarah Cheung, Alexander H Jordan, Frances S Chen
Two studies document the existence and correlates of a widespread social belief, wherein individuals who have recently moved to a new social environment see their peers as more socially connected than they themselves are. In Study 1, the prevalence of this belief was documented in a large sample of first-year students ( N = 1,099). In Study 2, the prevalence of this social belief was replicated in a targeted sample of university students ( N = 389). Study 2 also documented both positive and negative implications of this belief...
September 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895503/needs-assessment-with-elder-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon-implications-for-services-and-interventions
#8
Zeina Chemali, Christina P C Borba, Kelsey Johnson, Sama Khair, Gregory L Fricchione
Currently, over 1 million Syrian and Palestinian refugees have fled Syria to take refuge in Lebanon. Among this vulnerable population, elder refugees warrant particular concern, as they shoulder a host of additional health and safety issues that require additional resources. However, the specific needs of elder refugees are often overlooked, especially during times of crisis. Our study used a semi-structured interview to survey the needs of elder refugees and understand their perceived support from Lebanese fieldworkers...
September 12, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882920/the-hat-trick-programme-for-improving-physical-activity-healthy-eating-and-connectedness-among-overweight-inactive-men-study-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-feasibility-trial
#9
Cristina M Caperchione, Joan L Bottorff, John L Oliffe, Steven T Johnson, Kate Hunt, Paul Sharp, Kayla M Fitzpatrick, Ryley Price, S Larry Goldenberg
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer and with improved mental health. Despite these benefits, many men do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and have poor eating behaviours. Many health promotion programmes hold little appeal to men and consequently fail to influence men's health practices. HAT TRICK was designed as a 12-week face-to-face, gender-sensitised intervention for overweight and inactive men focusing on physical activity, healthy eating and social connectedness and was delivered in collaboration with a major junior Canadian ice hockey team (age range 16-20 years)...
September 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879828/potential-of-telepresence-robots-to-enhance-social-connectedness-in-older-adults-with-dementia-an-integrative-review-of-feasibility
#10
Wendy Moyle, Urska Arnautovska, Tamara Ownsworth, Cindy Jones
BACKGROUND: Socially assistive robots are increasingly used as a therapeutic tool for people with dementia, as a means to improve quality of life through social connection. This paper presents a mixed-method integrative review of telepresence robots used to improve social connection of people with dementia by enabling real-time communication with their carers. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library was conducted to gather available evidence on the use of telepresence robots, specifically videoconferencing, to improve social connectedness, in people with dementia...
September 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876445/the-companion-dissertation-enriching-the-doctoral-experience
#11
Erin M Robinson, Catherine Gannon Tagher
BACKGROUND: The completion of a doctoral dissertation has traditionally been an individual journey. Innovative approaches, such as the companion dissertation, are helping to shape doctoral education. The companion dissertation is a collaborative inquiry among two or more doctoral students who share mutual research interests. METHOD: Lack of innovative approaches to doctoral dissertation completion led to the development of a companion dissertation. Generative leadership, specifically focused on processes that influence interaction, served as a useful framework to support this form of innovation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865664/responding-to-aces-with-hope-health-outcomes-from-positive-experiences
#12
Robert D Sege, Charlyn Harper Browne
This article introduces a framework called "HOPE: Health Outcomes From Positive Experiences." The HOPE framework focuses on the need to actively promote positive childhood experiences that contribute to healthy development and well-being, as well as prevent or mitigate the effect of adverse childhood experiences and other negative environmental influences. Key positive childhood experiences fall within 4 broad categories: being in nurturing, supportive relationships; living, developing, playing, and learning in safe, stable, protective, and equitable environments; having opportunities for constructive social engagement and connectedness; and learning social and emotional competencies...
September 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865597/nonsuicidal-self-injury-and-suicidality-among-sexual-minority-youth-risk-factors-and-protective-connectedness-factors
#13
Lindsay A Taliaferro, Jennifer J Muehlenkamp
OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in prevalence of repetitive nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation, and a suicide attempt among youth who identified as bisexual, gay/lesbian, and questioning. In addition, we examined which types of social connections were associated with reduced risk of repetitive NSSI and suicidality among youth who identified with a specific sexual minority group. METHODS: Data came from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. The analytic sample included 77,758 students in grades 9 and 11...
September 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865471/performance-of-community-health-workers-situating-their-intermediary-position-within-complex-adaptive-health-systems
#14
REVIEW
Maryse C Kok, Jacqueline E W Broerse, Sally Theobald, Hermen Ormel, Marjolein Dieleman, Miriam Taegtmeyer
Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors.This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income countries. It examines their unique intermediary position between the communities they serve and actors in the health sector, and the complexity of the health systems in which they operate. The assessment combines evidence from the international literature on CHW programmes with research outcomes from the 5-year REACHOUT consortium, undertaking implementation research to improve CHW performance in six contexts (two in Asia and four in Africa)...
September 2, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864948/building-community-partnerships-using-social-network-analysis-to-strengthen-service-networks-supporting-a-south-carolina-program-for-pregnant-and-parenting-teens
#15
Elizabeth Radcliff, Nathan Hale, Jennifer Browder, Claudia Cartledge
In 2013, South Carolina implemented a multi-year program providing support services for pregnant and parenting teens. Local lead sites were responsible for coordinating service delivery in partnership with other multidisciplinary community-based organizations. We used social network theory and analyses (SNA) to examine changes in partnerships over time. Using two-stage purposeful sampling, we identified three lead sites and their self-reported community partners. We administered two web-based surveys grounded in social network theory that included questions about partnership relationships and organizational characteristics...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860185/genomic-relatedness-strengthens-genetic-connectedness-across-management-units
#16
Haipeng Yu, Matthew L Spangler, Ronald M Lewis, Gota Morota
Genetic connectedness refers to a measure of genetic relatedness across management units (e.g., herds and flocks). With the presence of high genetic connectedness in management units, best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) is known to provide reliable comparisons between genetic values. Genetic connectedness has been studied for pedigree-based BLUP; however, relatively little attention has been paid to using genomic information to measure connectedness. In this study, we assessed genome-based connectedness across management units by applying prediction error variance of difference (PEVD), coefficient of determination (CD), and prediction error correlation (r) to a combination of computer simulation and real data (mice and cattle)...
August 31, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859683/psychosocial-and-career-outcomes-of-peer-mentorship-in-medical-resident-education-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
Helen Pethrick, Lorelli Nowell, Elizabeth Oddone Paolucci, Liza Lorenzetti, Michele Jacobsen, Tracey Clancy, Diane L Lorenzetti
BACKGROUND: Many medical residents lack ready access to social and emotional supports that enable them to successfully cope with the challenges associated with medical residency. This absence of support has been shown to lead to high levels of burnout, decreased mental wellbeing, and difficulty mastering professional competencies in this population. While there is emerging evidence that peer mentoring can be an important source of psychosocial and career-related support for many individuals, the extent of the evidence regarding the benefits of peer mentorship in medical residency education has not yet been established...
August 31, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853323/-the-individual-at-the-centre-a-grounded-theory-explaining-how-sport-clubs-retain-young-adults
#18
Eva-Carin Lindgren, Claes Annerstedt, John Dohsten
PURPOSE: There is still a lack of knowledge regarding which social processes occur in sport clubs and what factors influence young adults to want to remain in a sport club context. Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct a grounded theory (GT) explaining how sport clubs can retain their young adults. METHOD: The study uses an intersectional approach. In line with constructivist GT methodology, data from 14 focus-group interviews (27 coaches and 28 young adults) were collected and analysed using a constant comparative method...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852558/reflecting-the-human-nature-of-ivf-embryos-disappearing-women-in-ethics-law-and-fertility-practice
#19
Jenni Millbank
Many laws and ethical documents instruct us that disembodied embryos created through IVF processes are not mere tissue; they are 'widely regarded' as unique objects of serious moral consideration. Even in jurisdictions which disavow any overt characterization of embryonic personhood, the embryo, by virtue of its uniqueness and orientation toward future development, is said to have a 'special status' or command 'respect'. The woman whose desire for a child or children created this embryo, and who inhabits the body to whom it may one day be returned, is an omission or at best an afterthought in such frameworks...
April 2017: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851276/effects-of-horticultural-therapy-on-elderly-health-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Hui Yu Chan, Roger Chun-Man Ho, Rathi Mahendran, Kheng Siang Ng, Wilson Wai-San Tam, Iris Rawtaer, Chay Hoon Tan, Anis Larbi, Lei Feng, Angelia Sia, Maxel Kian-Wee Ng, Goh Lee Gan, Ee Heok Kua
BACKGROUND: Due to a rapidly ageing population in the world, it is increasingly pertinent to promote successful ageing strategies which are cost-effective, easily accessible, and more likely to be acceptable to the elderly. Past research associates exposure to natural environments and horticultural therapy (HT) with positive psychological, social and physical health benefits. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is designed to evaluate the efficacy of HT in promoting Asian elderly' mental health, cognitive functioning and physical health...
August 29, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
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