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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790567/regional-diversity-in-the-murine-cortical-vascular-network-is-revealed-by-synchrotron-x-ray-tomography-and-is-amplified-with-age
#1
J A Núñez, A Goring, B Javaheri, H Razi, D Gomez-Nicola, A A Pitsillides, P J Thurner, D Gomez-Nicola, P Schneider, C E Clarkin
TCortical bone is permeated by a system of pores, occupied by the blood supply and osteocytes. With ageing, bone mass reduction and disruption of the microstructure are associated with reduced vascular supply. Insight into the regulation of the blood supply to the bone could enhance the understanding of bone strength determinants and fracture healing. Using synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography, the distribution of vascular canals and osteocyte lacunae was assessed in murine cortical bone and the influence of age on these parameters was investigated...
May 23, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790136/-mutual-support-beyond-suffering-and-mortality-spiritual-care-for-families-of-terminal-cancer-patients
#2
Wan-Ping Yang, Chien-Wei Liu, Sheng-Fen Sung
With the progression of cancer and the approach of death in terminal cancer patients, the suffering of the family members of patients increases drastically, often leading into a difficult spiritual journey. The needs for spiritual care in this population generally consist of: 1. Empathy: Bearing the psychological stress due to the sharing of physical pain with the patients; 2. Powerlessness: Regretting not having the power to turn the tide; 3. Loneliness: Becoming exhausted due to facing heavy physical workloads alone; 4...
June 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787866/handedness-dependent-functional-organizational-patterns-within-the-bilateral-vestibular-cortical-network-revealed-by-fmri-connectivity-based-parcellation
#3
V Kirsch, R Boegle, D Keeser, E Kierig, B Ertl-Wagner, T Brandt, M Dieterich
Current evidence points towards a vestibular cortex that involves a multisensory bilateral temporo-parietal-insular network with a handedness-dependent hemispheric lateralization. This study aimed to identify handedness-dependent organizational patterns of (lateralized and non-lateralized) functional subunits within the human vestibular cortex areas. 60 healthy volunteers (30 left-handed and 30 right-handed) were examined on a 3T MR scanner using resting state functional MRI (fMRI). The data was analyzed in four major steps using a functional connectivity based parcellation (fCBP) approach: (1) independent component analysis (ICA) on a whole brain level to identify different resting state networks (RSN); (2) creation of a vestibular informed mask from four whole brain ICs that included reference coordinates of the vestibular network extracted from meta-analyses of vestibular neuroimaging experiments; (3) Re-ICA confined to the vestibular informed mask; (4) cross-correlation of the activated voxels within the vestibular subunits (parcels) to each other (P-to-P) and to the whole-brain RSN (P-to-RSN)...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783104/school-climate-and-physical-adolescent-relationship-abuse-differences-by-sex-socioeconomic-status-and-bullying
#4
Sonia Jain, Alison K Cohen, Taylor Paglisotti, Malavika A Subramanyam, Alison Chopel, Elizabeth Miller
Little is known about the association between school climate and adolescent relationship abuse (ARA). We used 2011-2012 data from surveys of California public school students (in the United States of America) who were in a dating relationship in the last year (n = 112 378) to quantify the association between different school climate constructs and physical ARA. Fifty-two percent of students were female, and all students were in 9th or 11th grade (approximately ages 14-17). Over 11% of students reported experiencing physical ARA in the last year...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781708/risk-and-protective-factors-for-wellbeing-in-older-veterans-in-new-zealand
#5
Polly Yeung, Joanne Allen, Hazel K Godfrey, Fiona Alpass, Christine Stephens
OBJECTIVES: To compare indicators relating to aging and health among veterans and non-veterans, and identify factors associated with subjective wellbeing (SWB) of older New Zealand veterans. METHODS: Self-reported data were obtained from participants in a longitudinal cohort study of New Zealand older adults. Responses from 352 veterans and 1500 non-veterans (age range of 55-86 and gender matched) were selected as a comparison group on indicators related to health and aging...
May 21, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772961/contrasts-in-older-persons-experiences-and-significant-others-perceptions-of-existential-loneliness
#6
Helena Larsson, Anna-Karin Edberg, Ingrid Bolmsjö, Margareta Rämgård
BACKGROUND: As frail older people might have difficulties in expressing themselves, their needs are often interpreted by others, for example, by significant others, whose information health care staff often have to rely on. This, in turn, can put health care staff in ethically difficult situations, where they have to choose between alternative courses of action. One aspect that might be especially difficult to express is that of existential loneliness. We have only sparse knowledge about whether, and in what way, the views of frail older persons and their significant others concerning existential loneliness are in concordance...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764872/development-and-testing-of-the-youth-alcohol-norms-survey-yans-instrument-to-measure-youth-alcohol-norms-and-psychosocial-influences
#7
Sharyn K Burns, Bruce Maycock, Janina Hildebrand, Yun Zhao, Steve Allsop, Roanna Lobo, Peter Howat
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate an online instrument to: (1) identify common alcohol-related social influences, norms and beliefs among adolescents; (2) clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents; (3) describe the characteristics of social connections that contribute to the transmission of alcohol norms; and (4) identify the influence of alcohol marketing on adolescent norm development. SETTING: The online Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) was administered in secondary schools in Western Australia PARTICIPANTS: Using a 2-week test-retest format, the YANS was administered to secondary school students (n=481, age=13-17 years, female 309, 64...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747526/nostalgia-as-a-psychological-resource-for-people-with-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-evidence-of-effectiveness-from-experimental-studies
#8
Sanda Umar Ismail, Richard Cheston, Gary Christopher, Jane Meyrick
Objective This review systematically examines evidence relating to the effect of nostalgia on psychological well-being through a meta-analysis of measures of social connectedness, self-esteem, meaning in life, self-continuity, optimism and positive and negative affect. RATIONALE: If nostalgia is to be used as a clinical intervention to boost well-being in dementia by reducing threat, then it is important to assess its therapeutic potential. Results Searches carried out in July 2014 and updated in February 2018 identified 47 eligible experimental studies comparing nostalgic reminiscence and non-nostalgic reminiscence to be included in the meta-analysis...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741456/psychometric-properties-of-the-danish-student-well-being-questionnaire-assessed-in-250-000-student-responders
#9
Janni Niclasen, Maria Keilow, Carsten Obel
BACKGROUND: Well-being is considered a prerequisite for learning. The Danish Ministry of Education initiated the development of a new 40-item student well-being questionnaire in 2014 to monitor well-being among all Danish public school students on a yearly basis. The aim of this study was to investigate the basic psychometric properties of this questionnaire. METHODS: We used the data from the 2015 Danish student well-being survey for 268,357 students in grades 4-9 (about 85% of the study population)...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739394/towards-a-framework-for-analyzing-determinants-of-performance-of-community-health-workers-in-malaria-prevention-and-control-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Helen Mwiinga Chipukuma, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Choolwe Jacobs, Gershom Chongwe, Mumbi Chola, Hikabasa Halwiindi, Jessy Zgambo, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) are an important human resource in improving coverage of and success to interventions aimed at reducing malaria incidence. Evidence suggests that the performance of CHWs in malaria programs varies in different contexts. However, comprehensive frameworks, based on systematic reviews, to guide the analysis of determinants of performance of CHWs in malaria prevention and control programs are lacking. METHODS: We systematically searched Google Scholar, Science Direct, and PubMed including reference lists that had English language publications...
May 8, 2018: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734354/urban-occupational-structures-as-information-networks-the-effect-on-network-density-of-increasing-number-of-occupations
#11
Shade T Shutters, José Lobo, Rachata Muneepeerakul, Deborah Strumsky, Charlotta Mellander, Matthias Brachert, Teresa Farinha, Luis M A Bettencourt
Urban economies are composed of diverse activities, embodied in labor occupations, which depend on one another to produce goods and services. Yet little is known about how the nature and intensity of these interdependences change as cities increase in population size and economic complexity. Understanding the relationship between occupational interdependencies and the number of occupations defining an urban economy is relevant because interdependence within a networked system has implications for system resilience and for how easily can the structure of the network be modified...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726005/development-and-validation-of-the-bullying-and-cyberbullying-scale-for-adolescents-a-multi-dimensional-measurement-model
#12
Hannah J Thomas, James G Scott, Jason M Coates, Jason P Connor
BACKGROUND: Intervention on adolescent bullying is reliant on valid and reliable measurement of victimization and perpetration experiences across different behavioural expressions. AIMS: This study developed and validated a survey tool that integrates measurement of both traditional and cyber bullying to test a theoretically driven multi-dimensional model. SAMPLE: Adolescents from 10 mainstream secondary schools completed a baseline and follow-up survey (N = 1,217; Mage  = 14 years; 66...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725136/unexpected-agency-on-the-threshold-asylum-seekers-narrating-from-an-asylum-seeker-centre
#13
Halleh Ghorashi, Marije de Boer, Floor Ten Holder
Several studies have described the condition of asylum seekers as being on the threshold or in-between structures . Victor Turner's concept of liminality and Agamben's state of exception have been used extensively to analyse this condition, mostly to show the negative implications of the ambiguous legal (non-) status. This article argues that the condition of liminality provides an intensified doubleness of impossibility and possibility for action, which casts a different light on conceptualizing agency. Without disregarding the downside of this liminal, in-between condition, the article shows that the lack of 'normalized' connectedness to the new structure combined with physical distance from the past structure, enables reflection and feeds the power of imagination...
May 2018: Current Sociology. la Sociologie Contemporaine.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724153/sociality-and-intergenerational-transfer-of-older-adults-nostalgia
#14
Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides, Sara Robertson
Interest in nostalgia has blossomed, yet its nature in older adulthood and potential for intergenerational transfer to younger adults has remained neglected. In Experiment 1, we focused on the content of older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) recollections and asked whether older adults' nostalgia could be transferred to younger adults. We showed that nostalgia expressed in older adults' narratives was positively associated with nostalgia reported by young-adult readers. In Experiment 2, undergraduates read a nostalgic or ordinary narrative written by an older adult...
May 3, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708008/masculinity-social-connectedness-and-mental-health-men-s-diverse-patterns-of-practice
#15
Sarah K McKenzie, Sunny Collings, Gabrielle Jenkin, Jo River
Men's mental health has remained undertheorized, particularly in terms of the gendered nature of men's social relations. While the importance of social connections and strong supportive networks for improving mental health and well-being is well documented, we know little about men's social support networks or how men go about seeking or mobilizing social support. An in-depth understanding of the gendered nature of men's social connections and the ways in which the interplay between masculinity and men's social connections can impact men's mental health is needed...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702306/network-analysis-of-empathy-items-from-the-interpersonal-reactivity-index-in-1973-young-adults
#16
Giovanni Briganti, Chantal Kempenaers, Stéphanie Braun, Eiko I Fried, Paul Linkowski
The aim of this work is to perform a network analysis on the French adaptation of the interpersonal reactivity index (IRI) scale from a large Belgian database and provide additional information for the construct of empathy. We analyze a database of 1973 healthy young adults who were queried on the IRI scale. A regularized partial correlation network is estimated. In the visualization of the model, items are displayed as nodes, edges represent regularized partial correlations between the nodes. Centrality denotes a node's connectedness with other nodes in the network...
April 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698019/group-based-physical-activity-for-older-adults-goal-randomized-controlled-trial-exercise-adherence-outcomes
#17
Mark R Beauchamp, Geralyn R Ruissen, William L Dunlop, Paul A Estabrooks, Samantha M Harden, Svenja A Wolf, Yan Liu, Toni Schmader, Eli Puterman, A William Sheel, Ryan E Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, across the globe older adults represent the least active section of society. PURPOSE: The GrOup-based physical Activity for oLder adults (GOAL) trial was a three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) that was designed to test the efficacy of two group-based exercise programs for older adults, informed by self-categorization theory (SCT), in comparison to a standard group-based exercise program...
May 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694130/simple-rules-govern-the-patterns-of-arctic-sea-ice-melt-ponds
#18
Predrag Popović, B B Cael, Mary Silber, Dorian S Abbot
Climate change, amplified in the far north, has led to rapid sea ice decline in recent years. In the summer, melt ponds form on the surface of Arctic sea ice, significantly lowering the ice reflectivity (albedo) and thereby accelerating ice melt. Pond geometry controls the details of this crucial feedback; however, a reliable model of pond geometry does not currently exist. Here we show that a simple model of voids surrounding randomly sized and placed overlapping circles reproduces the essential features of pond patterns...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683079/the-link-between-domestic-violence-and-abuse-and-animal-cruelty-in-the-intimate-relationships-of-people-of-diverse-genders-and-or-sexualities-a-binational-study
#19
Damien W Riggs, Nik Taylor, Heather Fraser, Catherine Donovan, Tania Signal
Over the past three decades, a growing body of research has focused on experiences of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) among people of diverse genders and/or sexualities. Missing, however, has been a focus on what is known as "the link" between DVA and animal cruelty with regard to people of diverse genders and/or sexualities. The present article reports on a study of 503 people living in either Australia or the United Kingdom, who reported on both their intimate human relationships and their relationships with animals, including relationships that were abusive...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679604/outdoor-play-and-nature-connectedness-as-potential-correlates-of-internalized-mental-health-symptoms-among-canadian-adolescents
#20
Caroline Piccininni, Valerie Michaelson, Ian Janssen, William Pickett
Exposures to outdoor environments have great potential to be protective factors for the mental health of young people. In a national analysis of Canadian adolescents, we explored how such exposures, as well as self-perceptions of connectedness with nature, each related to the prevalence of recurrent psychosomatic symptoms. The data source for this cross-sectional study, consisting of a weighted sample of 29,784 students aged 11-15 years from 377 schools, was the 2013/2014 cycle of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study...
April 18, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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