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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329797/social-connectedness-perceived-isolation-and-dementia-does-the-social-environment-moderate-the-relationship-between-genetic-risk-and-cognitive-well-being
#1
Judith L Poey, Jeffrey A Burr, J Scott Roberts
Purpose of the Study: This study examined whether the social environment moderates the relationship between the APOE e4 allele and cognitive functioning. Design and Methods: The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) data and multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate these relationships for a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged 70 and older (n = 779). Results: Living alone (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 5...
January 24, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315204/connectedness-underlies-the-underestimation-of-the-horizontal-vertical-illusion-in-l-shaped-configurations
#2
Yongchun Cai, Ci Wang, Chao Song, Zhi Li
L-shaped configuration is a commonly used stimulus configuration in studying horizontal vertical illusion. Here, we report that the horizontal vertical illusion is substantially underestimated when the L-shaped configuration is used for evaluating the illusion. Experiment 1 found that, in a length perception task, the perceived length of a vertical bar was about 10% longer than that of a horizontal bar with the same physical size. Similar amount of HVI was found in a length comparison task, in which the length of a horizontal bar was compared to that of a vertical bar and the two bars were presented separately in space or in time...
March 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315188/social-goals-impact-adolescent-substance-use-through-influencing-adolescents-connectedness-to-their-schools
#3
Samuel N Meisel, Craig R Colder
Although developmental models of risk behavior highlight the role of school connectedness in the etiology of adolescent substance use, no studies to our knowledge have assessed longitudinal mediational models examining how adolescents form bonds to their school, and how the quality of those bonds relate to substance use. To address this gap, the current study used four waves of data, spanning ages 11-16 (grades 5-11), to examine the association between individual differences in agentic (Dominance/Power) and communal (Nurturance/Affiliation) social goals and school connectedness, and in turn, whether levels of school connectedness are associated with substance use...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306748/does-landscape-connectivity-shape-local-and-global-social-network-structure-in-white-tailed-deer
#4
Erin L Koen, Marie I Tosa, Clayton K Nielsen, Eric M Schauber
Intraspecific social behavior can be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. While much research has focused on how characteristics of individuals influence their roles in social networks, we were interested in the role that landscape structure plays in animal sociality at both individual (local) and population (global) levels. We used female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois, USA, to investigate the potential effect of landscape on social network structure by weighting the edges of seasonal social networks with association rate (based on proximity inferred from GPS collar data)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302595/behavioral-indicators-on-a-mobile-sensing-platform-predict-clinically-validated-psychiatric-symptoms-of-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#5
Skyler Place, Danielle Blanch-Hartigan, Channah Rubin, Cristina Gorrostieta, Caroline Mead, John Kane, Brian P Marx, Joshua Feast, Thilo Deckersbach, Alex Sandy Pentland, Andrew Nierenberg, Ali Azarbayejani
BACKGROUND: There is a critical need for real-time tracking of behavioral indicators of mental disorders. Mobile sensing platforms that objectively and noninvasively collect, store, and analyze behavioral indicators have not yet been clinically validated or scalable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to report on models of clinical symptoms for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression derived from a scalable mobile sensing platform. METHODS: A total of 73 participants (67% [49/73] male, 48% [35/73] non-Hispanic white, 33% [24/73] veteran status) who reported at least one symptom of PTSD or depression completed a 12-week field trial...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277711/hiding-feelings-for-whose-sake-attachment-avoidance-relationship-connectedness-and-protective-buffering-intentions
#6
Heike A Winterheld
Why do some people refrain from disclosing distress, even to those they feel closest to? Protective buffering, a coping strategy that involves hiding worries from one's partner, may carry mental health costs for those enacting it and the target of their protection. Although the strategy is often assumed to be targeted at a partner to shield him or her from distress (i.e., used with partner-protective intentions), it can also be used for one's own benefit (i.e., with self-protective intentions). Guided by attachment theory, the current research identified dispositional and relational factors that may explain and predict when people use the strategy to what end...
March 9, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273030/treatment-narratives-of-suicidal-latina-teens
#7
Carolina Hausmann-Stabile, Lauren Gulbas, Luis H Zayas
OBJECTIVES: We examine the treatment narratives of Latina adolescent suicide attempters to understand their experiences undergoing care. METHODS: Content and thematic analysis of 68 interviews with Latina adolescent suicide attempters. RESULTS: Most teens who described positive experiences undergoing treatment (n = 39, 44.1%) did so when discussing outpatient mental health services (n = 30, 72.9%). Latinas felt that the providers who fostered their autonomy and connectedness helped them become active agents in their recovery...
March 8, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263354/shifting-our-focus-to-support-the-educational-journey-of-underrepresented-students
#8
Jessica Alicea-Planas
BACKGROUND: The racial and ethnic distribution of RNs has been unable to keep pace with the growth seen in minority populations. Although nursing schools have recognized the need to increase the number of underrepresented students entering the profession, significant challenges with retention and graduation exist. Guided by Tinto's student integrative model, this study not only sought to understand why students leave, but also to identify what helps them persist. METHOD: A phenomenological approach was used to understand the lived experience of 10 Hispanic nursing students at a Jesuit university in the northeastern United States...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259245/the-efficacy-of-a-relationship-building-intervention-in-5th-grade
#9
Cindy Faith Miller, Karen P Kochel, Lorey A Wheeler, Kimberly A Updegraff, Richard A Fabes, Carol Lynn Martin, Laura D Hanish
The present study reports initial efficacy data for a new school-based intervention - the Relationship Building Intervention (RBI) - that includes a series of teacher-facilitated, structured activities designed to promote positive peer relationships and inclusive classroom communities. The RBI was evaluated in fifth-grade classrooms by estimating multilevel model (MLM) analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) comparing 368 fifth-grade students in intervention classrooms with 259 fifth-graders in control classrooms on social behaviors, perceptions of classroom connectedness, and academic performance...
April 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253844/estimation-of-genetic-connectedness-diagnostics-based-on-prediction-errors-without-the-prediction-error-variance-covariance-matrix
#10
John B Holmes, Ken G Dodds, Michael A Lee
BACKGROUND: An important issue in genetic evaluation is the comparability of random effects (breeding values), particularly between pairs of animals in different contemporary groups. This is usually referred to as genetic connectedness. While various measures of connectedness have been proposed in the literature, there is general agreement that the most appropriate measure is some function of the prediction error variance-covariance matrix. However, obtaining the prediction error variance-covariance matrix is computationally demanding for large-scale genetic evaluations...
March 2, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252015/the-role-of-connectedness-in-haptic-object-perception
#11
Myrthe A Plaisier, Vonne van Polanen, Astrid M L Kappers
We can efficiently detect whether there is a rough object among a set of smooth objects using our sense of touch. We can also quickly determine the number of rough objects in our hand. In this study, we investigated whether the perceptual processing of rough and smooth objects is influenced if these objects are connected. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to identify whether there were exactly two rough target spheres among smooth distractor spheres, while we recorded their response times. The spheres were connected to form pairs: rough spheres were paired together and smooth spheres were paired together ('within pairs arrangement'), or a rough and a smooth sphere were connected ('between pairs arrangement')...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251594/common-region-wins-the-competition-between-extrinsic-grouping-cues-evidence-from-a-task-without-explicit-attention-to-grouping
#12
Pedro R Montoro, Cristina Villalba-García, Dolores Luna, José A Hinojosa
The competition between perceptual grouping factors is a relatively ignored topic, especially in the case of extrinsic grouping cues (e.g., common region or connectedness). Recent studies have examined the integration of extrinsic cues using tasks that induce selective attention to groups based on different grouping cues. However, this procedure could generate alternative strategies for task performance, which are non-related to the perceptual grouping operations. In the current work, we used an indirect task, i...
March 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242682/co-occurrence-of-extremes-in-surface-ozone-particulate-matter-and-temperature-over-eastern-north-america
#13
Jordan L Schnell, Michael J Prather
Heat waves and air pollution episodes pose a serious threat to human health and may worsen under future climate change. In this paper, we use 15 years (1999-2013) of commensurately gridded (1° x 1°) surface observations of extended summer (April-September) surface ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and maximum temperature (TX) over the eastern United States and Canada to construct a climatology of the coincidence, overlap, and lag in space and time of their extremes. Extremes of each quantity are defined climatologically at each grid cell as the 50 d with the highest values in three 5-y windows (∼95th percentile)...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240930/the-time-course-of-the-competition-between-grouping-organizations
#14
Einat Rashal, Yaffa Yeshurun, Ruth Kimchi
Previous research on the competition between grouping organizations focused mainly on their relative strength as measured by subjective reports of the final percept. Considerably less is known about the underlying representations of the competing organizations. We hypothesized that when more than 1 organization is possible, multiple representations are constructed for the alternative organizations. We tested this hypothesis using the primed-matching paradigm. Our primes depicted either a single grouping principle (grouping into columns or rows by brightness similarity, connectedness, or proximity) or 2 grouping principles (brightness similarity and connectedness, or brightness similarity and proximity) that led to competing organizations (e...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222689/family-centred-interventions-by-primary-healthcare-services-for-indigenous-early-childhood-wellbeing-in-australia-canada-new-zealand-and-the-united-states-a-systematic-scoping-review
#15
Janya McCalman, Marion Heyeres, Sandra Campbell, Roxanne Bainbridge, Catherine Chamberlain, Natalie Strobel, Alan Ruben
BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare services in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States have embraced the concept of family-centred care as a promising approach to supporting and caring for the health of young Indigenous children and their families. This scoping review assesses the quality of the evidence base and identifies the published literature on family- centred interventions for Indigenous early childhood wellbeing. METHODS: Fourteen electronic databases, grey literature sources and the reference lists of Indigenous maternal and child health reviews were searched to identify relevant publications from 2000 to 2015...
February 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218869/child-behaviors-of-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-across-play-settings
#16
Megan MacDonald, Bridget Hatfield, Erica Twardzik
The hallmark characteristics of a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are deficits in social communicative skills and the use of repetitive and/or stereotyped behaviors. In addition, children with ASD experience known motor-skill delays. The purpose of this study was to examine salient child behaviors of young children with and without ASD in 2 distinctly different play settings: a traditional social-play-based setting and a motor-behavior-based play setting. Child behavior (engagement toward parent, negativity, and attention) and dyad characteristics (connectedness) were examined in 2 distinctly different play settings...
January 2017: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215380/youth-adult-connectedness-a-key-protective-factor-for-adolescent-health
#17
Renee E Sieving, Annie-Laurie McRee, Barbara J McMorris, Rebecca J Shlafer, Amy L Gower, Hillary M Kapa, Kara J Beckman, Jennifer L Doty, Shari L Plowman, Michael D Resnick
Over the past 30 years, prevention science in the adolescent health field has moved from interventions focused on preventing single problem behaviors to efforts employing a dual approach, addressing risk factors that predict problems while simultaneously nurturing protective factors and promoting positive development. Through an examination of previous research and empirical case examples with vulnerable youth, this article considers the hypothesis that adolescents' sense of connectedness to caring adults acts as a protective factor against a range of risk behaviors...
March 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206803/mental-health-treatment-utilization-in-oif-oef-national-guard-and-reserve-troops-with-and-without-dsm-diagnoses
#18
Jennifer M Primack, Brian Borsari, Madeline B Benz, Madhavi K Reddy, M Tracie Shea
Military service members have an increased risk of developing mental health (MH) problems following deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan, yet only a small percentage seek mental health treatment. The aim of the present study was to explore patterns of MH service utilization within the first 12 months following return from combat deployment. Participants were 169 service members who had returned from war-zone deployment in either Iraq or Afghanistan and had assessments covering a 12-month period following their homecoming...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198648/quality-of-life-among-senior-citizens-in-bhutan
#19
Nidup Dorji, Michael P Dunne, Charrlotte Seib, Sibnath Deb
This study explored associations between quality of life (QOL), spirituality, social integration, chronic diseases, and lifetime adversity among people aged 60 years and older in Bhutan. Adults aged 60 to 101 years (n = 337) completed face-to-face interviews. The main measure included the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire and Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire. The social relationships domain of QOL had the highest mean. Frequent back pain, memory decline, depression, mobility impairment, insomnia, and lung diseases were commonly reported and negatively related to QOL...
January 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187053/factors-associated-with-peer-victimization-among-adolescents-in-taiwan
#20
Hui-Wen Huang, Jyu-Lin Chen, Ruey-Hsia Wang
BACKGROUND: Adolescents who have experienced peer victimization face a higher risk of negative health outcomes. However, little is known about the factors that are associated with peer victimization among adolescents in Taiwan. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the factors related to peer victimization among Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was employed. Three hundred seventy-seven adolescents aged 13-16 years from seven middle schools in southern Taiwan were recruited as participants...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
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