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hypothalamic regulation of metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#1
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128891/prmt1-promotes-hyperglycemia-in-a-foxo1-dependent-manner-affecting-glucose-metabolism-during-hypobaric-hypoxia-exposure-in-rat-model
#2
Susovon Bayen, Supriya Saini, Priya Gaur, Arul Joseph Duraisamy, Alpesh Kumar Sharma, Karan Pal, Praveen Vats, Shashi Bala Singh
PURPOSE: High-altitude (HA) environment causes changes in cellular metabolism among unacclimatized humans. Previous studies have revealed that insulin-dependent activation of protein kinase B (Akt) regulates metabolic processes via discrete transcriptional effectors. Moreover, protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT)1-dependent arginine modification of forkhead box other (FoxO)1 protein interferes with Akt-dependent phosphorylation. The present study was undertaken to test the involvement of PRMT1 on FoxO1 activation during hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure in rat model...
November 11, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128625/lxr-activation-increases-the-expression-of-gnrh-and-%C3%AE-msh-in-the-rat-hypothalamus-in-vivo
#3
María Sol Kruse, Lucas Gabriel Suarez, Héctor Coirini
Liver X receptors (LXR) are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Recently, we described LXR receptors expression in the hypothalamus but their function in this brain area remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the function of LXR on the expression of factors produced in the hypothalamus in vitro and in vivo by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. More precisely we studied the expression of GnRH and GHRH, αMSH and NPY in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128343/post-stroke-depression-mechanisms-and-pharmacological-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Antonio Moretti
Depression, the most frequent psychiatric disorder following ischaemic stroke, negatively affects survivals' functional outcome, response to rehabilitation and quality of life. Approximately, one-third of them are affected by post-stroke depression (PSD), making it a serious social and public health problem and anti-depressant preventive and curative therapies worth investigating. However, a two-way association between depression and stroke has been also established: stroke increases the risk of PSD, but depression is an independent risk factor for stroke...
November 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121875/effect-of-short-term-diet-restriction-on-gene-expression-in-the-bovine-hypothalamus-using-next-generation-rna-sequencing-technology
#5
Daragh Matthews, Michael G Diskin, David A Kenny, Christopher J Creevey, Kate Keogh, Sinead M Waters
BACKGROUND: Negative energy balance (NEB) is an imbalance between energy intake and energy requirements for lactation and body maintenance affecting high-yielding dairy cows and is of considerable economic importance due to its negative impact on fertility and health in dairy herds. It is anticipated that the cow hypothalamus experiences extensive biochemical changes during the early post partum period in an effort to re-establish metabolic homeostasis. However, there is variation in the tolerance to NEB between individual cows...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111188/food-intake-regulation-by-leptin-mechanisms-mediating-gluconeogenesis-and-energy-expenditure
#6
REVIEW
Zulfia Hussain, Junaid Ali Khan
Regulation of blood glucose levels and body fat is critical for survival. Leptin circulates freely in blood and controls body weight and food intake mainly through hypothalamic receptors and regulates glucose metabolism in the liver both directly through leptin receptors and indirectly via the hypothalamic receptors of central nervous system. Leptin affects food intake regulation and eventually glucose metabolism, lipometabolism, endocrine and immune functions, reproductive function, adipose tissue metabolism and energy expenditure...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107598/bone-metabolism-in-anorexia-nervosa-and-hypothalamic-amenorrhea
#7
Sharon H Chou, Christos Mantzoros
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) are states of chronic energy deprivation associated with severely compromised bone health. Poor bone accrual during adolescence followed by increased bone loss results in lifelong low bone density, degraded bone architecture, and higher risk of fractures, despite recovery from AN/HA. Amenorrhea is only one of several compensatory responses to the negative energy balance. Other hypothalamic-pituitary hormones are affected and contribute to bone deficits, including activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and growth hormone resistance...
October 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107289/disruption-of-the-homeodomain-transcription-factor-orthopedia-homeobox-otp-is-associated-with-obesity-and-anxiety
#8
Lee Moir, Elena G Bochukova, Rebecca Dumbell, Gareth Banks, Rasneer S Bains, Patrick M Nolan, Cheryl Scudamore, Michelle Simon, Kimberly A Watson, Julia Keogh, Elana Henning, Audrey Hendricks, Stephen O'Rahilly, Inês Barroso, Adrienne E Sullivan, David C Bersten, Murray L Whitelaw, Susan Kirsch, Elizabeth Bentley, I Sadaf Farooqi, Roger D Cox
OBJECTIVE: Genetic studies in obese rodents and humans can provide novel insights into the mechanisms involved in energy homeostasis. METHODS: In this study, we genetically mapped the chromosomal region underlying the development of severe obesity in a mouse line identified as part of a dominant N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. We characterized the metabolic and behavioral phenotype of obese mutant mice and examined changes in hypothalamic gene expression...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102876/maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-sex-specific-endocannabinoid-system-changes-in-newborn-rats-and-programs-adiposity-energy-expenditure-and-food-preference-in-adulthood
#9
Camilla P Dias-Rocha, Mariana M Almeida, Erika M Santana, Julia C B Costa, Juliana G Franco, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Isis H Trevenzoli
Early life inadequate nutrition triggers developmental adaptations and adult chronic disease. Maternal high-fat (HF) diet promotes visceral obesity and hypothalamic leptin resistance in male rat offspring at weaning and adulthood. Obesity is related to over active endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists mainly of endogenous ligands, cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and the enzymes fatty acid anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). We hypothesized that perinatal maternal HF diet would regulate offspring ECS in hypothalamus and brown adipose tissue (BAT) at birth, prior to visceral obesity development, and program food preference and energy expenditure of adult offspring...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099999/high-fat-simple-carbohydrate-diet-intake-induces-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-dysregulation-in-c57bl-6j-male-mice
#10
Swarnalatha Banavara Nagaraj, Neena Roy, Mahesh Manjunath Gouda, Rajeish Moger, Asha Abraham
Given the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome (MetS), we wanted to explore if high fat simple carbohydrate (HFSC) diet affect hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. One month old male C57BL/6J mice were fed with Control (C) and HFSC (T) feed (n=18 each) respectively for 5 months. T3 showed a significant increase in T(13.5%) compared to age matched C by 5th month.TSH was significantly high (1mo:1.9fold; 3mo:2.66 fold; 5mo:3.5fold) from 1stmonth to 5thmonth in T compared to age matched C...
November 3, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097992/circadian-and-metabolic-effects-of-light-implications-in-weight-homeostasis-and-health
#11
REVIEW
Santiago A Plano, Leandro P Casiraghi, Paula García Moro, Natalia Paladino, Diego A Golombek, Juan J Chiesa
Daily interactions between the hypothalamic circadian clock at the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral circadian oscillators regulate physiology and metabolism to set temporal variations in homeostatic regulation. Phase coherence of these circadian oscillators is achieved by the entrainment of the SCN to the environmental 24-h light:dark (LD) cycle, coupled through downstream neural, neuroendocrine, and autonomic outputs. The SCN coordinate activity and feeding rhythms, thus setting the timing of food intake, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and active and basal metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089925/advances-in-understanding-of-structural-reorganization-in-the-hypothalamic-neurosecretory-system
#12
REVIEW
Seiji Miyata
The hypothalamic neurosecretory system synthesizes neuropeptides in hypothalamic nuclei and releases them from axonal terminals into the circulation in the neurohypophysis (NH) and median eminence (ME). This system plays a crucial role in regulating body fluid homeostasis and social behaviors as well as reproduction, growth, metabolism, and stress responses, and activity-dependent structural reorganization has been reported. Current knowledge on dynamic structural reorganization in the NH and ME, in which the axonal terminals of neurosecretory neurons directly contact the basement membrane (BM) of a fenestrated vasculature, is discussed herein...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089613/glp-1-and-igf-i-levels-are-elevated-in-late-infancy-in-low-birthweight-infants-independently-of-glp-1-receptor-polymorphisms-and-neonatal-nutrition
#13
M Díaz, C García-Beltran, A López-Bermejo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
Low birth weight followed by rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with increased risks for obesity and diabetes in adulthood. Modulation of glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion by (epi)genetic mechanisms or nutrition may influence in part this risk. Formula fed infants born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) have higher circulating GLP-1 at age 4 months than breastfed SGA or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Here, we assessed GLP-1 concentrations in healthy AGA (n=149) and SGA (n=107) subjects at age 12 months, and their association with endocrine-metabolic and body composition parameters and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) rs6923761 and rs3765467 polymorphisms...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089444/pre-synaptic-regulation-of-leptin-in-a-defined-lateral-hypothalamus-ventral-tegmental-area-neurocircuitry-depends-on-energy-state
#14
Jing-Jing Liu, Nicholas T Bello, Zhiping P Pang
Synaptic transmission controls information flow in the brain and expression of all brain-related behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole cell patch clamp recordings and posthoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076504/the-special-relationship-glia-neuron-interactions-in-the-neuroendocrine-hypothalamus
#15
REVIEW
Jerome Clasadonte, Vincent Prevot
Natural fluctuations in physiological conditions require adaptive responses involving rapid and reversible structural and functional changes in the hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuits that control homeostasis. Here, we discuss the data that implicate hypothalamic glia in the control of hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuits, specifically neuron-glia interactions in the regulation of neurosecretion as well as neuronal excitability. Mechanistically, the morphological plasticity displayed by distal processes of astrocytes, pituicytes and tanycytes modifies the geometry and diffusion properties of the extracellular space...
October 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075199/brain-ceramide-metabolism-in-the-control-of-energy-balance
#16
REVIEW
Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Miguel López, Mélanie Campana, Hervé le Stunff
The regulation of energy balance by the central nervous system (CNS) is a key actor of energy homeostasis in mammals, and deregulations of the fine mechanisms of nutrient sensing in the brain could lead to several metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Indeed, while neuronal activity primarily relies on glucose (lactate, pyruvate), the brain expresses at high level enzymes responsible for the transport, utilization and storage of lipids. It has been demonstrated that discrete neuronal networks in the hypothalamus have the ability to detect variation of circulating long chain fatty acids (FA) to regulate food intake and peripheral glucose metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071701/-the-hypothalamus-in-huntington-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
E Bellosta-Diago, A Viloria-Alebesque, S Santos-Lasaosa, L J Lopez Del Val
INTRODUCTION: Disorders affecting sleep and the circadian rhythm, autonomic clinical signs and symptoms, and neuroendocrine alterations are frequent characteristics in Huntington's disease, some of which present in early stages of the disease. It is reasonable to think that some of these features could result from a hypothalamic dysfunction affecting the centre regulating sleep, metabolism and the autonomic nervous system. AIM: The study presents the evidence available to date that suggests the involvement of a hypothalamic disorder in Huntington's disease...
November 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053815/insulin-immuno-neutralization-decreases-food-intake-in-chickens-without-altering-hypothalamic-transcripts-involved-in-food-intake-and-metabolism
#18
M Proszkowiec-Weglarz, J Dupont, N Rideau, C Gespach, J Simon, T E Porter
In mammals, insulin regulates blood glucose levels and plays a key regulatory role in appetite via the hypothalamus. In contrast, chickens are characterized by atypical glucose homeostasis, with relatively high blood glucose levels, reduced glucose sensitivity of pancreatic beta cells, and large resistance to exogenous insulin. The aim of the present study was to investigate in chickens the effects of 5 h fasting and 5 h insulin immuno-neutralization on hypothalamic mRNA levels of 23 genes associated with food intake, energy balance, and glucose metabolism...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044434/glp-1-increases-kiss-1-mrna-expression-in-kisspeptin-expressing-neuronal-cells
#19
Aki Oride, Haruhiko Kanasaki, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Tomomi Hara, Tuvshintugs Tumurbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Feeding-related metabolic factors exert regulatory influences on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an anorexigenic hormone synthesized from the ileum in response to food intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct effect of GLP-1 on hypothalamic kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression using the rat clonal hypothalamic cell line rHypoE-8. GLP-1 significantly increased Kiss-1 mRNA expression in rHypoE-8 cells up to 1.94 ± 0.22-fold...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042645/effects-of-intranasal-insulin-application-on-the-hypothalamic-bold-response-to-glucose-ingestion
#20
Anna M van Opstal, Abimbola A Akintola, Marjan van der Elst, Rudi G Westendorp, Hanno Pijl, Diana van Heemst, Jeroen van der Grond
The hypothalamus is a crucial structure in the brain that responds to metabolic cues and regulates energy homeostasis. Patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrate a lack of hypothalamic neuronal response after glucose ingestion, which is suggested to be an underlying cause of the disease. In this study, we assessed whether intranasal insulin can be used to enhance neuronal hypothalamic responses to glucose ingestion. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 4-double cross-over experiment, hypothalamic activation was measured in young non- diabetic subjects by determining blood-oxygen-level dependent MRI signals over 30 minutes before and after ingestion of 75 g glucose dissolved in 300 ml water, under intranasal insulin or placebo condition...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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