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hypothalamic regulation of metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771336/fto-is-a-transcriptional-repressor-to-auto-regulate-its-own-gene-and-potentially-associated-with-homeostasis-of-body-weight
#1
Shu-Jing Liu, Hui-Ling Tang, Qian He, Ping Lu, Tao Fu, Xu-Ling Xu, Tao Su, Mei-Mei Gao, Shumin Duan, Yan Luo, Yue-Sheng Long
Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein is a ferrous ion (Fe2+)/2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent demethylase preferentially catalyzing m6A sites in RNA. The FTO gene is highly expressed in the hypothalamus with fluctuation in response to various nutritional conditions, which is believed to be involved in the control of whole body metabolism. However, the underlying mechanism in response to different nutritional cues remains poorly understood. Here we show that ketogenic diet-derived ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) transiently increases FTO expression in both mouse hypothalamus and cultured cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755406/the-role-of-kiss1-neurons-as-integrators-of-endocrine-metabolic-and-environmental-factors-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis
#2
REVIEW
Shel-Hwa Yeo, William H Colledge
Kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling in the hypothalamus is required for reproduction and fertility in mammals. Kiss1 neurons are key regulators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Arcuate Kiss1 neurons project to GnRH nerve terminals in the median eminence, orchestrating the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) through the intricate interaction between GnRH pulse frequency and the pituitary gonadotrophs. Arcuate Kiss1 neurons, also known as KNDy neurons in rodents and ruminants because of their co-expression of neurokinin B and dynorphin represent an ideal hub to receive afferent inputs from other brain regions in response to physiological and environmental changes, which can regulate the HPG axis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752762/feeding-and-glp-1-receptor-activation-stabilize-%C3%AE-catenin-in-specific-hypothalamic-nuclei-in-male-rats
#3
Hayden J L McEwen, Emmanuelle Cognard, Sharon R Ladyman, Zin Khant-Aung, Alexander Tups, Peter R Shepherd, David R Grattan
β-catenin is a multifunctional protein that can act in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway to regulate gene expression but can also bind to cadherin proteins in adherens junctions where it plays a key role in regulating cytoskeleton linked with these junctions. Recently, evidence has been presented indicating an essential role for β-catenin in regulating trafficking of insulin vesicles in β-cells and showing that changes in nutrient levels rapidly alter levels of β-catenin in these cells. Given the importance of neuroendocrine hormone secretion in the regulation of whole body glucose homeostasis, the objective of this study was to investigate whether β-catenin signalling is regulated in the hypothalamus during the normal physiological response to food intake...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750244/regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-distribution-by-agouti-related-protein-in-male-mice
#4
Matthew T Maier, Anna Vilhelmsson, Sharon M Louie, Eirini Vagena, Daniel K Nomura, Suneil K Koliwad, Allison W Xu
Proper regulation of energy metabolism requires CNS neurons to respond dynamically to signals that reflect the body's energy reserve, and one such signal is leptin. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is markedly upregulated in leptin deficiency, a condition that is associated with severe obesity, diabetes and hepatic steatosis. Since deleting AgRP in mice does not alter energy balance, we sought to determine whether AgRP plays an indispensable role in regulating energy and hepatic lipid metabolism in the sensitized background of leptin deficiency...
May 9, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740399/the-emerging-role-s-for-kisspeptin-in-metabolism-in-mammals
#5
REVIEW
Andrew Wolfe, Mehboob A Hussain
Kisspeptin was initially identified as a metastasis suppressor. Shortly after the initial discovery, a key physiologic role for kisspeptin emerged in the regulation of fertility, with kisspeptin acting as a neurotransmitter via the kisspeptin receptor, its cognate receptor, to regulate hypothalamic GnRH neurons, thereby affecting pituitary-gonadal function. Recent work has demonstrated a more expansive role for kisspeptin signaling in a variety of organ systems. Kisspeptin has been revealed as a significant player in regulating glucose homeostasis, feeding behavior, body composition as well as cardiac function...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740148/alterations-of-proteome-mitochondrial-dynamic-and-autophagy-in-the-hypothalamus-during-activity-based-anorexia
#6
Séverine Nobis, Alexis Goichon, Najate Achamrah, Charlène Guérin, Saida Azhar, Philippe Chan, Aline Morin, Christine Bôle-Feysot, Jean Claude do Rego, David Vaudry, Pierre Déchelotte, Liliana Belmonte, Moïse Coëffier
Restrictive anorexia nervosa is associated with reduced eating and severe body weight loss leading to a cachectic state. Hypothalamus plays a major role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. In the present study, alterations of hypothalamic proteome and particularly of proteins involved in energy and mitochondrial metabolism have been observed in female activity-based anorexia (ABA) mice that exhibited a reduced food intake and a severe weight loss. In the hypothalamus, mitochondrial dynamic was also modified during ABA with an increase of fission without modification of fusion...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738801/-p-clphse-2-stabilizes-metabolic-function-in-a-rat-model-of-neuroendocrine-obesity-induced-by-monosodium-glutamate
#7
Caroline B Quines, Suzan G Rosa, Daniela Velasquez, Vinicius C Prado, José S S Neto, Cristina W Nogueira
Obesity is a chronic and complex medical condition characterized by excessive fat accumulation and its complications include metabolic syndrome, diabetes and chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to expand the knowledge about p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe)2 effects on enzymes and proteins involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates in a model of neuroendocrine obesity induced by MSG. Male Wistar rats were treated during the first ten postnatal days with MSG (4 g/kg, s.c.) and received (p-ClPhSe)2 (10 mg/kg, i...
May 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732438/acute-sleep-disruption-and-high-fat-diet-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-are-not-related-to-glucose-tolerance-in-mice
#8
Jacqueline M Ho, Nicole H Ducich, Nhat-Quynh K Nguyen, Mark R Opp
Chronic insufficient sleep is a major societal problem and is associated with increased risk of metabolic disease. Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to hyperphagia and weight gain in diet-induced obesity, but insufficient sleep-induced neuroinflammation has yet to be examined in relation to metabolic function. We therefore fragmented sleep of adult male C57BL/6J mice for 18 h daily for 9 days to determine whether sleep disruption elicits inflammatory responses in brain regions that regulate energy balance and whether this relates to glycemic control...
January 2018: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730183/genes-underlying-delayed-puberty
#9
REVIEW
S R Howard
The genetic control of pubertal timing has been a field of active investigation for the last decade, but remains a fascinating and mysterious conundrum. Self-limited delayed puberty (DP), also known as constitutional delay of growth and puberty, represents the extreme end of normal pubertal timing, and is the commonest cause of DP in both boys and girls. Familial self-limited DP has a clear genetic basis. It is a highly heritable condition, which often segregates in an autosomal dominant pattern (with or without complete penetrance) in the majority of families...
May 3, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729230/role-of-hypothalamus-in-aging-and-its-underlying-cellular-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung Choe
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, a set of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST) neurons, a set of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons, and a set of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons contribute to age-related physiological decline in energy metabolism, hormone regulation, circadian rhythm, and reproduction, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728128/the-ovarian-estrogen-synthesis-function-was-impaired-in-y123f-mouse-and-partly-restored-by-exogenous-fsh-supplement
#11
Xiaoyu Tu, Miao Liu, Jianan Tang, Yu Zhang, Yan Shi, Lin Yu, Zhaogui Sun
BACKGROUND: LepR tyrosine site mutation mice (Y123F) exhibit decreased serum E2 levels, immature reproductive organs, infertility as well as metabolic abnormalities. Although the actions of leptin and lepR in the control of reproductive function are thought to be exerted mainly via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, relatively less is known regarding their local effects on the peripheral ovary, especially on steroid hormone synthesis. Meanwhile, whether the decreased fertility of Y123F mouse could be restored by gonadotropin has not been clear yet...
May 4, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713692/multimodal-regulation-of-circadian-glucocorticoid-rhythm-by-central-and-adrenal-clocks
#12
Gi Hoon Son, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Sooyoung Chung, Kyungjin Kim
Adrenal glucocorticoids (GCs) control a wide range of physiological processes, including metabolism, cardiovascular and pulmonary activities, immune and inflammatory responses, and various brain functions. During stress responses, GCs are secreted through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, whereas circulating GC levels in unstressed states follow a robust circadian oscillation with a peak around the onset of the active period of a day. A recent advance in chronobiological research has revealed that multiple regulatory mechanisms, along with classical neuroendocrine regulation, underlie this GC circadian rhythm...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712668/tcptp-regulates-insulin-signalling-in-agrp-neurons-to-coordinate-glucose-metabolism-with-feeding
#13
Garron T Dodd, Robert S Lee-Young, Jens C Brüning, Tony Tiganis
Insulin regulates glucose metabolism by eliciting effects on peripheral tissues as well as the brain. Insulin receptor (IR) signalling inhibits AgRP-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus to contribute to the suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) by insulin, whereas AgRP neuronal activation attenuates brown adipose tissue (BAT) glucose uptake. The tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP suppresses IR signalling in AgRP neurons. Hypothalamic TCPTP is induced by fasting and degraded after feeding. Here we assessed the influence of TCPTP in AgRP neurons in the control of glucose metabolism...
April 30, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706932/potential-functions-of-igfbp-2-for-ovarian-folliculogenesis-and-steroidogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Marion Spitschak, Andreas Hoeflich
Ovarian follicles, as transient structural and functional complexes with the oocyte and the associated cells, determine the female reproductive cycle and thus fertility. Ovarian function is subject to the strict control of hormones and growth factors and thus regulated by auto-, para-, and endocrine mechanisms but influenced also by endogenous factors. During the waves of follicular growth and development, one follicle (monoovulatory) or a limited number of them (polyovulatory) are selected under hypothalamic-gonadal control for maturation until ovulation, resulting in the fertile oocyte...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699927/mtorc1-dependent-increase-in-oxidative-metabolism-in-pomc-neurons-regulates-food-intake-and-action-of-leptin
#15
Magalie Haissaguerre, Amandine Ferrière, Vincent Simon, Nicolas Saucisse, Nathalie Dupuy, Caroline André, Samantha Clark, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Antoine Tabarin, Daniela Cota
OBJECTIVE: Nutrient availability modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hypothalamus. In turn, ROS regulate hypothalamic neuronal activity and feeding behavior. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is an important cellular integrator of the action of nutrients and hormones. Here we tested the hypothesis that modulation of mTORC1 activity, particularly in Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons, mediates the cellular and behavioral effects of ROS...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691693/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-mercury-exposure-alter-thyroid-hormone-levels-and-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-of-zebrafish-larvae
#16
Yaling Sun, Yingwen Li, Zhihao Liu, Qiliang Chen
Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals that can cause severe damage to fish. Studies have demonstrated that Hg has a specific affinity for the endocrine system, but little is known about the effects of Hg on thyroid endocrine system in fish. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 1, 4, and 16 μg/L Hg2+ (added as HgCl2 ) from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 168 hpf. Thyroid hormone (TH) levels and mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were determined...
April 24, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682594/the-role-of-leptin-in-maintaining-plasma-glucose-during-starvation
#17
Rachel J Perry, Gerald I Shulman
For 20 years it has been known that concentrations of leptin, a hormone produced by the white adipose tissue (WAT) largely in proportion to body fat, drops precipitously with starvation, particularly in lean humans and animals. The role of leptin to suppress the thyroid and reproductive axes during a prolonged fast has been well defined; however, the impact of leptin on metabolic regulation has been incompletely understood. However emerging evidence suggests that, in starvation, hypoleptinemia increases activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting WAT lipolysis, increasing hepatic acetyl-CoA concentrations, and maintaining euglycemia...
March 2018: Postdoc Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678724/thyroid-hormone-actions-on-male-reproductive-system-of-teleost-fish
#18
REVIEW
Aldo Tovo-Neto, Maira da Silva Rodrigues, Hamid R Habibi, Rafael Henrique Nóbrega
Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in the regulation of many biological processes of vertebrates, such as growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and reproduction. An increasing number of studies have been focused on the involvement of THs in the male reproductive system of vertebrates, in particular of fish. Therefore, this mini-review aims to summarize the main findings on THs role in male reproductive system of fish, focusing on sex differentiation, testicular development and spermatogenesis. The existing data in the literature have demonstrated that THs exert their roles at the different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...
April 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676541/primary-cilia-as-a-signaling-platform-for-control-of-energy-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
Do Kyeong Song, Jong Han Choi, Min Seon Kim
Obesity has become a common healthcare problem worldwide. Cilia are tiny hair-like organelles on the cell surface that are generated and anchored by the basal body. Non-motile primary cilia have been considered to be evolutionary rudiments until a few decades, but they are now considered as important signaling organelles because many receptors, channels, and signaling molecules are highly expressed in primary cilia. A potential role of primary cilia in metabolic regulation and body weight maintenance has been suspected based on rare genetic disorders termed as ciliopathy, such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Alström syndrome, which manifest as obesity...
April 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670283/genetic-identification-of-leptin-neural-circuits-in-energy-and-glucose-homeostases
#20
Jie Xu, Christopher L Bartolome, Cho Shing Low, Xinchi Yi, Cheng-Hao Chien, Peng Wang, Dong Kong
Leptin, a hormone produced in white adipose tissue, acts in the brain to communicate fuel status, suppress appetite following a meal, promote energy expenditure and maintain blood glucose stability1,2 . Dysregulation of leptin or its receptors (LEPR) results in severe obesity and diabetes3-5 . Although intensive studies on leptin have transformed obesity and diabetes research2,6 , clinical applications of the molecule are still limited 7 , at least in part owing to the complexity and our incomplete understanding of the underlying neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Nature
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