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hypothalamic regulation of metabolism

L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
S Pauliina Markkula, David Lyons, Chen-Yu Yueh, Christine Riches, Paul Hurst, Barbara Fielding, Lora K Heisler, Mark L Evans
Specialized metabolic-sensors in the hypothalamus regulate blood glucose levels by influencing hepatic glucose output and hypoglycemic counter regulatory responses. Hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as a metabolic signal mediating responses to changes in glucose, other substrates and hormones. The role of ROS in the brain's control of glucose homeostasis remains unclear. We hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a relatively stable form of ROS, acts as a sensor of neuronal glucose consumption and availability and that lowering brain H2O2 with the enzyme catalase would lead to systemic responses increasing blood glucose...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Cinthia García-Luna, Paulina Soberanes-Chavez, Patricia de Gortari
Feeding patterns are important factors in obesity evolvement. Time-restricted feeding schedules (tRF) during resting phase change energy homeostasis regulation, disrupting the circadian release of metabolism-regulating hormones, such as leptin, insulin and corticosterone and promoting body weight gain. Thyroid (HPT) and adrenal (HPA) axes exhibit a circadian regulation and are involved in energy expenditure, thus studying their parameters in tRF paradigms will elucidate their role in energy homeostasis impairments under such conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Anna Ulyanova, Xuan Vinh To, A B M A Asad, Weiping Han, Kai-Hsiang Chuang
Hypothalamus plays the central role in regulating energy homeostasis. To understand the hypothalamic neurocircuit in responding to leptin, Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) was applied. Highly elevated signal could be mapped in major nuclei of the leptin signaling pathway, including the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in fasted mice and the enhancement was reduced by leptin administration. However, whether changes in MEMRI signal reflect Ca(2+) channel activity, neuronal activation or connectivity in the leptin signaling pathway are not clear...
October 8, 2016: NeuroImage
Ismael González-García, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Miguel López
Hypothalamic lipid metabolism plays a major role in the physiological regulation of energy balance. Modulation of several enzymatic activities that control lipid biosynthesis, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), impacts both feeding and energy expenditure. However, lipids can also cause pathological alterations in the hypothalamus. Lipotoxicity is promoted by excess lipids in tissues non suitable for their storage. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that lipotoxicity is a pathophysiological mechanism leading to metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis...
October 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Mayumi Nishi
The hypothalamus controls metabolism, stress responses, and instinctive behaviors for individual survival and species preservation. Recent studies suggest that hypothalamic neurons retain plasticity throughout adulthood, which enables these neurons to respond to various kinds of changes in environment, nutrients, and fluctuating hormones. One of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of neural plasticity is the formation of a stable extracellular matrix (ECM) structure called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs are large aggregates of heterogeneous ECM molecules such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan, their link proteins, and tenascin-R...
October 6, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Lionel Carneiro, Sarah Geller, Audrey Hébert, Cendrine Repond, Xavier Fioramonti, Corinne Leloup, Luc Pellerin
Ketone bodies have been shown to transiently stimulate food intake and modify energy homeostasis regulatory systems following cerebral infusion for a moderate period of time (<6 hours). As ketone bodies are usually enhanced during episodes of fasting, this effect might correspond to a physiological regulation. In contrast, ketone bodies levels remain elevated for prolonged periods during obesity, and thus could play an important role in the development of this pathology. In order to understand this transition, ketone bodies were infused through a catheter inserted in the carotid to directly stimulate the brain for a period of 24 hours...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rim Hassouna, Alexandra Labarthe, Virginie Tolle
Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis, ghrelin plays a unique role as the first one identified to increases appetite and stimulate GH secretion. This review highlights the latest mechanism by which ghrelin modulates body growth, appetite and energy metabolism by exploring pharmacological actions of the hormone and consequences of genetic or pharmacological blockade of the ghrelin/GHS-R (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor) system on physiological responses in specific nutritional situations...
September 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these inhibitory signals are weakened and supplanted by stimulatory signals that, in turn, stimulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) - a hypothalamic neuropeptide governing reproduction...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Soledad Pitra, Yumei Feng, Javier E Stern
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and obesity are highly interrelated diseases, being critical components of the metabolic syndrome. Despite the growing prevalence of this syndrome in the world population, efficient therapies are still missing. Thus, identification of novel targets and therapies are warranted. An enhanced activity of the hypothalamic renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including the recently discovered prorenin (PR) and its receptor (PRR), has been implicated as a common mechanism underlying aberrant sympatho-humoral activation that contributes to both metabolic and cardiovascular dysregulation in the metabolic syndrome...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Ammy M Santiago, Deborah J Clegg, Vanessa H Routh
OBJECTIVE: Brain regulation of glucose homeostasis is sexually dimorphic; however, the impact sex hormones have on specific neuronal populations within the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), a metabolically sensitive brain region, has yet to be fully characterized. Glucose-excited (GE) and -inhibited (GI) neurons are located throughout the VMN and may play a critical role in glucose and energy homeostasis. Within the ventrolateral portion of the VMN (VL-VMN), glucose sensing neurons and estrogen receptor (ER) distributions overlap...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
David C H Metzger, Patricia M Schulte
Maternal stress can have long-term effects on neurodevelopment that can influence offspring performance and population evolutionary trajectories. To examine the mechanistic basis for these neurodevelopmental effects of maternal stress, we used RNA-seq to assess differential gene expression across the brain transcriptome of adult male and female threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from stressed and unstressed mothers. We identified sexually divergent effects of maternal stress on the brain transcriptome...
September 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Roberto Elizondo-Vega, Christian Cortés-Campos, María José Barahona, Claudio Carril, Patricio Ordenes, Magdiel Salgado, Karina Oyarce, María de Los Angeles García-Robles
Hypothalamic glucosensing, which involves the detection of glucose concentration changes by brain cells and subsequent release of orexigenic or anorexigenic neuropeptides, is a crucial process that regulates feeding behavior. Arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons are classically thought to be responsible for hypothalamic glucosensing through a direct sensing mechanism; however, recent data has shown a metabolic interaction between tanycytes and AN neurons through lactate that may also be contributing to this process...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Imre Farkas, Csaba Vastagh, Erzsébet Farkas, Flóra Bálint, Katalin Skrapits, Erik Hrabovszky, Csaba Fekete, Zsolt Liposits
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a metabolic signal molecule, regulates reproduction, although, the involved molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated, yet. Therefore, responsiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the GLP-1 analog Exendin-4 and elucidation of molecular pathways acting downstream to the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) have been challenged. Loose patch-clamp recordings revealed that Exendin-4 (100 nM-5 μM) elevated firing rate in hypothalamic GnRH-GFP neurons of male mice via activation of GLP-1R...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Luba Sominsky, Ilvana Ziko, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Zane B Andrews, Sarah J Spencer
Early life overweight is a significant risk factor for developmental programming of adult obesity due to changes in the availability of metabolic factors crucial for the maturation of brain appetite-regulatory circuitry. The appetite-stimulating hormone, ghrelin, has been recently identified as a major regulator of the establishment of hypothalamic feeding pathways. Ghrelin exists in circulation in two major forms, as acylated and des-acylated ghrelin. While most research has focused on acyl ghrelin, the role of neonatal des-acyl ghrelin in metabolic programming is currently unknown...
September 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Inês Pinto, Simon Wilkinson, Daniel Virella, Marta Alves, Conceição Calhau, Rui Coelho
INTRODUCTION: Quality of the parent-infant relationship influences the mechanisms of development of the child's physiological stress regulation. This study explored associations between attachment strategies and both cortisol and thyroid stimulating hormone, hypothesized to be respectively a potential mediator and a potential intervening variable of the mother-child relationship in obese children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sample of 83 obese children (46 boys), aged 10...
May 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Hong-Xing Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. DATA SOURCES: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". STUDY SELECTION: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Kavya Devarakonda, Charles V Mobbs
The concept that hypothalamic glucose signaling plays an important role in regulating energy balance, e.g., as instantiated in the so-called "glucostat" hypothesis, is one of the oldest in the field of metabolism. However the mechanisms by which neurons in the hypothalamus sense glucose, and the function of glucose signaling in the brain, has been difficult to establish. Nevertheless recent studies probing mechanisms of glucose signaling have also strongly supported a role for glucose signaling in regulating energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and food-induced reward...
September 13, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Cristina Contreras, Ismael González-García, Patricia Seoane-Collazo, Noelia Martínez-Sánchez, Laura Liñares-Pose, Eva Rial-Pensado, Johan Fernø, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Núria Casals, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Miguel López
The chaperone GRP78/BiP (glucose regulated protein 78 kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein) modulates protein folding in reply to cellular insults that lead to ER stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hypothalamic GRP78 on energy balance, with particular interest on thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). For this purpose, we used diet-induced obese rats and thapsigargin-treated rats and by combining metabolic, histologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, thermographic and molecular techniques, we studied the effect of genetic manipulation of hypothalamic GRP78...
September 15, 2016: Diabetes
Kentaro Kaneko, Pingwen Xu, Elizabeth L Cordonier, Siyu S Chen, Amy Ng, Yong Xu, Alexei Morozov, Makoto Fukuda
The CNS contributes to obesity and metabolic disease; however, the underlying neurobiological pathways remain to be fully established. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is expressed in multiple hypothalamic nuclei that control whole-body metabolism and is activated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Genetic ablation of CNS Rap1 protects mice from dietary obesity, glucose imbalance, and insulin resistance in the periphery and from HFD-induced neuropathological changes in the hypothalamus, including diminished cellular leptin sensitivity and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation...
September 13, 2016: Cell Reports
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