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hypothalamic regulation of metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#1
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329911/mrna-expression-and-metabolic-regulation-of-npy-and-agrp1-2-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#2
Inyoung Jeong, Eunmi Kim, Suhyun Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Jae Young Seong, Hae-Chul Park
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in vertebrates. In mammals, NPY neurons coexpress Agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and NPY/AgRP neurons activate orexigenic signaling to increase food intake. Zebrafish express npy and two agrp genes, agrp1 and agrp2, in the brain. Similar to mammals, NPY and AgRP1 act as orexigenic factors in zebrafish, but the exact distribution of NPY and AgRP neurons in the zebrafish brain and the regulation of these genes by metabolic states remain unclear...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321171/sgk1-foxo3-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-mediates-glucocorticoid-increased-adiposity
#3
Yalan Deng, Yuzhong Xiao, Feixiang Yuan, Yaping Liu, Xiaoxue Jiang, Jiali Deng, Geza Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray-Fejes-Toth, Shanghai Chen, Yan Chen, Hao Ying, Qiwei Zhai, Yousheng Shu, Feifan Guo
Although central nervous system has been implicated in glucocorticoid-induced fat mass gain, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of our current study was to investigate the possible involvement of hypothalamic serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) in glucocorticoid-increased adiposity. It is well-known that SGK1 expression is induced by acute glucocorticoid treatment, interestingly, we found its expression was decreased in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, including POMC neurons, following chronic dexamethasone (Dex) treatment...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316939/dietary-fats-promote-functional-and-structural-changes-in-the-median-eminence-blood-spinal-fluid-interface-the-protective-role-for-bdnf
#4
Albina F Ramalho, Bruna Bombassaro, Nathalia R Dragano, Carina Solon, Joseane Morari, Milena Fioravante, Roberta Barbizan, Licio A Velloso, Eliana P Araujo
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats activates an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus, damaging key neurons involved in the regulation of caloric intake and energy expenditure. It is currently unknown why the mediobasal hypothalamus is the main target of diet-induced brain inflammation. We hypothesized that dietary fats can damage the median eminence blood/spinal fluid interface. METHODS: Swiss mice were fed on a high-fat diet, and molecular and structural studies were performed employing real-time PCR, immunoblot, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and metabolic measurements...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296625/molecular-therapy-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-obesity-by-an-autoregulatory-bdnf-vector
#5
Jason J Siu, Nicholas J Queen, Xianglan Liu, Wei Huang, Travis McMurphy, Lei Cao
Mutations in the melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R) comprise the most common monogenic form of severe early-onset obesity, and conventional treatments are either ineffective long-term or contraindicated. Immediately downstream of MC4R-in the pathway for regulating energy balance-is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our previous studies show that adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated hypothalamic BDNF gene transfer alleviates obesity and diabetes in both diet-induced and genetic models. To facilitate clinical translation, we developed a built-in autoregulatory system to control therapeutic gene expression mimicking the body's natural feedback systems...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290621/a-gut-brain-axis-regulating-glucose-metabolism-mediated-by-bile-acids-and-competitive-fibroblast-growth-factor-actions-at-the-hypothalamus
#6
Shunmei Liu, Genevieve Marcelin, Clemence Blouet, Jae Hoon Jeong, Young-Hwan Jo, Gary J Schwartz, Streamson Chua
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids have been implicated as important regulators of glucose metabolism via activation of FXR and GPBAR1. We have previously shown that FGF19 can modulate glucose handling by suppressing the activity of hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons. As bile acids stimulate the release of FGF19/FGF15 into the circulation, we pursued the potential of bile acids to improve glucose tolerance via a gut-brain axis involving FXR and FGF15/FGF19 within enterocytes and FGF receptors on hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285858/hypothalamic-pomc-expression-is-required-for-peripheral-insulin-action-on-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-through-regulating-stat3-in-sepsis-rats
#7
Bin Feng, Nannan Zhang, Kaipeng Duan, Bimin Shi
Liver injury and dysregulated glucose homoeostasis are common manifestations during sepsis. Although plenty of studies reported insulin could protect against multiple organ injuries caused by critical infections among patients, little was known about the precise mechanism. We investigated whether liver inflammatory pathway and central neuropeptides were involved in the process. In sepsis rats, hepatic IKK/NF-κB pathway and STAT3 were strongly activated, along with reduced body weight, blood glucose and suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis (GNG)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277394/nitric-oxide-treatment-attenuates-muscle-atrophy-during-hind-limb-suspension-in-mice
#8
Judy E Anderson, Antonia Zhu, Tooru M Mizuno
Debilitating muscle-disuse atrophy in aging or obesity i has huge socioeconomic impact. Since nitric oxide (NO) mediates muscle satellite cell activation and induces hypertrophy with exercise in old mice, we tested whether treatment with the NO donor, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), during hind limb suspension would reduce atrophy. Mice were suspended 18 days, with or without daily ISDN (66mg/kg). Muscles were examined for atrophy (weight, fiber diameter); regulatory changes in atrogin-1 (a negative regulator of muscle mass), myostatin (inhibit myogenesis), and satellite cell proliferation; and metabolic responses in myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), liver lipid, and hypothalamic gene expression...
December 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259622/noni-morinda-citrifolia-modulates-the-hypothalamic-expression-of-stress-and-metabolic-related-genes-in-broilers-exposed-to-acute-heat-stress
#9
Hossein Rajaei-Sharifabadi, Laura Ellestad, Tom Porter, Annie Donoghue, Walter G Bottje, Sami Dridi
Heat stress (HS) adversely affects growth performance and inflicts heavy economic losses to the poultry industry. There is, therefore, a critical need to identify new alternative strategies to alleviate the negative effects induced by HS. The tropic medicinal plant, Morinda citrifolia (Noni), is being used in livestock nutrition, however the literature is limited and conflicting for its impact on growth performance. The present study aimed to determine the effect of Noni on feeding and drinking behavior as well as on the hypothalamic expression of stress- and metabolic-related genes in broiler chickens exposed to acute HS...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248436/estrogen-signaling-in-the-medial-amygdala-decreases-emotional-stress-responses-and-obesity-in-ovariectomized-rats
#10
Christina M Estrada, Valentina Ghisays, Elizabeth T Nguyen, Jody L Caldwell, Joshua Streicher, Matia B Solomon
Declining estradiol (E2), as occurs during menopause, increases risk for obesity and psychopathology (i.e., depression, anxiety). E2 modulates mood and energy homeostasis via binding to estrogen receptors (ER) in the brain. The often comorbid and bidirectional relationship between mood and metabolic disorders suggests shared hormonal and/or brain networks. The medial amygdala (MeA) is abundant in ERs and regulates mood, endocrine, and metabolic stress responses; therefore we tested the hypothesis that E2 in the MeA mitigates emotional and metabolic dysfunction in a rodent model of surgical menopause...
December 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247843/dietary-betaine-supplementation-in-hens-modulates-hypothalamic-expression-of-cholesterol-metabolic-genes-in-f1-cockerels-through-modification-of-dna-methylation
#11
Abdulrahman A Idriss, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Yan Hu, Qinwei Sun, Nagmeldin A Omer, Halima Abobaker, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine is widely used in animal nutrition to promote growth, development and methyl donor during methionine metabolism through nutritional reprogramming via regulation of gene expression. Prenatal betaine exposure is reported to modulate hypothalamic cholesterol metabolism in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether feeding hens with betaine-supplemented diet may affect hypothalamic cholesterol metabolism in F1 offspring. In this study, hens were fed with basal or betaine-supplemented (0.5%) for 30days, and the eggs were collected for incubation...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234283/high-fat-diet-decreases-neuronal-activation-in-the-brain-induced-by-resistin-and-leptin
#12
Naif Alsuhaymi, Hamza Habeeballah, Martin J Stebbing, Emilio Badoer
Resistin and leptin are adipokines which act in the brain to regulate metabolic and cardiovascular functions which in some instances are similar, suggesting activation of some common brain pathways. High-fat feeding can reduce the number of activated neurons observed following the central administration of leptin in animals, but the effects on resistin are unknown. The present work compared the distribution of neurons in the brain that are activated by centrally administered resistin, or leptin alone, and, in combination, in rats fed a high fat (HFD) compared to a normal chow diet (ND)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224101/estradiol-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis
#13
Ismael González-García, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Miguel López
Physiologically, estrogens carry out a myriad of functions, the most essential being the regulation of the reproductive axis. Currently, it is also dogmatic that estrogens play an important role modulating energy balance and metabolism. In this sense, it is well known that low estrogens levels, occurring due to ovarian insufficiency, in conditions such as menopause or ovariectomy (OVX), are associated with increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure, leading to weight gain and obesity at long term...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224096/origins-and-functions-of-the-ventrolateral-vmh-a-complex-neuronal-cluster-orchestrating-sex-differences-in-metabolism-and-behavior
#14
William C Krause, Holly A Ingraham
The neuroendocrine brain or hypothalamus has emerged as one of the most highly sexually dimorphic brain regions in mammals, and specifically in rodents. It is not surprising that hypothalamic nuclei play a pivotal role in controlling sex-dependent physiology. This brain region functions as a chief executive officer or master regulator of homeostatic physiological systems to integrate both external and internal signals. In this review, we describe sex differences in energy homeostasis that arise in one area of the hypothalamus, the ventrolateral subregion of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) with a focus on how male and female neurons function in metabolic and behavioral aspects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223282/the-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-and-biological-rhythms-the-discovery-of-tsh-s-unexpected-role-using-animal-models
#15
REVIEW
Keisuke Ikegami, Takashi Yoshimura
Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for development, growth, and metabolism. It is also clear that the synthesis and secretion of TH are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Animal models have helped advance our understanding of the roles and regulatory mechanisms of TH. The animals' bodies develop through coordinated timing of cell division and differentiation. Studies of frog metamorphosis led to the discovery of TH and their role in development. However, to adapt to rhythmic environmental changes, animals also developed various endocrine rhythms...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212950/pi3k%C3%AE-inactivation-in-leptin-receptor-cells-increases-leptin-sensitivity-but-disrupts-growth-and-reproduction
#16
David Garcia-Galiano, Beatriz C Borges, Jose Donato, Susan J Allen, Nicole Bellefontaine, Mengjie Wang, Jean J Zhao, Kenneth M Kozloff, Jennifer W Hill, Carol F Elias
The role of PI3K in leptin physiology has been difficult to determine due to its actions downstream of several metabolic cues, including insulin. Here, we used a series of mouse models to dissociate the roles of specific PI3K catalytic subunits and of insulin receptor (InsR) downstream of leptin signaling. We show that disruption of p110α and p110β subunits in leptin receptor cells (LRΔα+β) produces a lean phenotype associated with increased energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and thermogenesis. LRΔα+β mice have deficient growth and delayed puberty...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190687/leptin-reverses-hyperglycemia-and-hyperphagia-in-insulin-deficient-diabetic-rats-by-pituitary-independent-central-nervous-system-actions
#17
Alexandre A da Silva, John E Hall, Jussara M do Carmo
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been postulated to play a major role in mediating the antidiabetic effects of leptin. We tested if the pituitary is essential for the chronic central nervous system mediated actions of leptin on metabolic and cardiovascular function in insulin-dependent diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Male 12-week-old hypophysectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (Hypo, n = 5) were instrumented with telemetry probes for determination of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) 24-hrs/day and an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula was placed into the brain lateral ventricle for continuous leptin infusion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189166/oxytocin-and-eating-disorders-a-narrative-review-on-emerging-findings-and-perspectives
#18
Katrin Giel, Stephan Zipfel, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin regulates reproductive behavior and mother-infant interaction, and conclusive studies in humans indicate that oxytocin is also a potent modulator of psychosocial function. Pilot experiments have yielded first evidence that this neuropeptide moreover influences eating behavior. Brain administration of oxytocin in animals with normal weight, but also with diet-induced or genetically induced obesity, attenuates food intake and reduces body weight. In normal-weight and obese individuals, acute intranasal oxytocin delivery curbs calorie intake from main dishes and snacks...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180108/palmitate-induces-neuroinflammation-er-stress-and-pomc-mrna-expression-in-hypothalamic-mhypoa-pomc-gfp-neurons-through-novel-mechanisms-that-are-prevented-by-oleate
#19
Erika K Tse, Denise D Belsham
Dietary fats can modulate brain function. How free fatty acids (FFAs) alter hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons remain undefined. The saturated FFA, palmitate, increased neuroinflammatory and ER stress markers, as well as Pomc mRNA levels, but did not affect insulin signaling, in mHypoA-POMC/GFP-2 neurons. This effect was mediated through the MAP kinases JNK and ERK. Further, the increase in Pomc was dependent on palmitoyl-coA synthesis, but not de novo ceramide synthesis, as inhibition of SPT enhanced palmitate-induced Pomc expression, while methylpalmitate had no effect...
November 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174000/deficiency-of-leptin-receptor-in-myeloid-cells-disrupts-hypothalamic-metabolic-circuits-and-causes-body-weight-increase
#20
Yuanqing Gao, Andrés Vidal-Itriago, Irina Milanova, Nikita L Korpel, Martin J Kalsbeek, Robby Zachariah Tom, Andries Kalsbeek, Susanna M Hofmann, Chun-Xia Yi
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is a cytokine produced by adipose tissue that acts mainly on the hypothalamus to regulate appetite and energy homeostasis. Previous studies revealed that the leptin receptor is expressed not only in neurons, but also in glial cells. Microglia are resident immune cells in the brain that play an essential role in immune defense and neural network development. Previously we reported that microglial morphology and cytokine production are changed in the leptin receptor deficient db/db mouse, suggesting that leptin's central effects on metabolic control might involve signaling through microglia...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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