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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629513/erythropoietin-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis
#1
Soumyadeep Dey, Constance T Noguchi
Erythropoietin (EPO), known primarily for its erythropoietic activity, is commonly used clinically to treat anemia of chronic kidney disease. However, the expression of EPO receptor (EpoR) beyond erythroid tissue provides for potential extrahematopoietic effects of EPO, including EPO regulation of metabolic homeostasis (Zhang et al., 2014). Small clinical studies have shown that EPO treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Studies in animal models have shown that EPO regulation of metabolism is mainly attributed to its response in fat, and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (Dey et al...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624161/clinical-follow-up-of-the-first-sf-1-insufficient-female-patient
#2
Karine Gerster, Anna Biason-Lauber, Eugen J Schoenle
OBJECTIVE: Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1/NR5A1) plays a crucial role in regulating adrenal development, gonad determination and differentiation, and in the hypothalamic-pituitary control of reproduction and metabolism. In men (46, XY), it is known that mutations in SF-1/NR5A1 gene cause a wide phenotypic spectrum with variable degrees of undervirilization. In recent years, the role of SF-1 in the ovarian function was increasingly discussed and alterations in the gene were related to primary ovarian insufficiency...
June 14, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617197/chronic-early-life-stress-induced-by-limited-bedding-and-nesting-lbn-material-in-rodents-critical-considerations-of-methodology-outcomes-and-translational-potential
#3
Claire-Dominique Walker, Kevin G Bath, Marian Joels, Aniko Korosi, Muriel Larauche, Paul J Lucassen, Margaret J Morris, Charlis Raineki, Tania L Roth, Regina M Sullivan, Yvette Taché, Tallie Z Baram
The immediate and long term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans...
June 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610922/central-administration-of-glp-1-and-gip-decreases-feeding-in-mice
#4
Cherl NamKoong, Min Sun Kim, Byeong-Tak Jang, Young Hee Lee, Young-Min Cho, Hyung Jin Choi
Glucagon-like peptide-1 amide (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones regulating energy metabolism. GLP-1 and GIP combination is suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, the neuronal mechanisms are not yet investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of central GLP-1 and GIP in regulation of body weight homeostasis. The effect of GLP-1 with GIP on food intake, body weight, locomotor activity were determined following intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of GLP-1 and/or GIP in mice...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606559/adiponectin-at-physiological-level-glucose-independently-enhances-inhibitory-postsynaptic-current-onto-npy-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#5
Shigetomo Suyama, Wang Lei, Naoto Kubota, Takashi Kadowaki, Toshihiko Yada
Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Accumulating evidences suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARC). The ARC contains orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti related peptide (AgRP) neurons and anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, the first order neurons for feeding regulation. We recently reported that intracerebroventricular injection of adiponectin at low glucose level suppressed food intake, while at elevated glucose level it promoted food intake, exhibiting glucose-dependent reciprocal effects...
March 22, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592656/hypothalamic-circuits-regulating-appetite-and-energy-homeostasis-pathways-to-obesity
#6
REVIEW
Katharina Timper, Jens C Brüning
The 'obesity epidemic' represents a major global socioeconomic burden that urgently calls for a better understanding of the underlying causes of increased weight gain and its associated metabolic comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Improving our understanding of the cellular basis of obesity could set the stage for the development of new therapeutic strategies. The CNS plays a pivotal role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. Distinct neuronal cell populations, particularly within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, sense the nutrient status of the organism and integrate signals from peripheral hormones including pancreas-derived insulin and adipocyte-derived leptin to regulate calorie intake, glucose metabolism and energy expenditure...
June 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591635/hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-regulates-hydrogen-sulfide-production
#7
Christopher Hine, Hyo-Jeong Kim, Yan Zhu, Eylul Harputlugil, Alban Longchamp, Marina Souza Matos, Preeti Ramadoss, Kevin Bauerle, Lear Brace, John M Asara, C Keith Ozaki, Sheue-Yann Cheng, Subhankar Singha, Kyo Han Ahn, Alec Kimmelman, Ffolliott M Fisher, Pavlos Pissios, Dominic J Withers, Colin Selman, Rui Wang, Kelvin Yen, Valter D Longo, Pinchas Cohen, Andrzej Bartke, John J Kopchick, Richard Miller, Anthony N Hollenberg, James R Mitchell
Decreased growth hormone (GH) and thyroid hormone (TH) signaling are associated with longevity and metabolic fitness. The mechanisms underlying these benefits are poorly understood, but may overlap with those of dietary restriction (DR), which imparts similar benefits. Recently we discovered that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increased upon DR and plays an essential role in mediating DR benefits across evolutionary boundaries. Here we found increased hepatic H2S production in long-lived mouse strains of reduced GH and/or TH action, and in a cell-autonomous manner upon serum withdrawal in vitro...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588355/gene-expression-analysis-in-rat-pancreas-observed-with-whole-transcript-exon-array-after-ventromedial-hypothalamic-lesions
#8
Takayoshi Kiba
BACKGROUND: It was reported previously that using Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0, one of a class of standard 3' based arrays, ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) lesions affected the expressions of cell proliferation-related genes, neuron-related genes, and metabolism-related genes. The released Affymetrix Rat Gene 1.0 ST array has 2 major differences compared with standard 3' based arrays, including Rat Genome 230 2.0: it interrogates the entire mRNA transcript and uses DNA targets. PURPOSE: This study is aimed at assessing the impact of these differences on the array performance...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588096/cns-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-activation-regulates-feeding-behavior-white-fat-browning-and-body-weight
#9
Jennifer E Richard, Lorena López-Ferreras, Belén Chanclón, Kim Eerola, Peter Micallef, Karolina P Skibicka, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm
Pharmacological β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β3AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β3ARs in adipose tissue. However, β3ARs are also found in the brain, in areas such as the brainstem and hypothalamus that provide multisynaptic innervation to brown and white adipose depots...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585208/diet-induced-obesity-and-the-mechanism-of-leptin-resistance
#10
Atilla Engin
Leptin signaling blockade by chronic overstimulation of the leptin receptor or hypothalamic pro-inflammatory responses due to elevated levels of saturated fatty acid can induce leptin resistance by activating negative feedback pathways. Although, long form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) initiates leptin signaling through more than seven different signal transduction pathways, excessive suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) activity is a potential mechanism for the leptin resistance that characterizes human obesity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585195/eat-and-death-chronic-over-eating
#11
Atilla Engin
Obesity-related co-morbidities decrease life quality, reduce working ability and lead to early death. The total amount of dietary fat consumption may be the most potent food-related risk factor for weight gain. In this respect, dietary intake of high-caloric, high-fat diets due to chronic over-eating and sedentary lifestyle lead to increased storage of triglycerides not only in adipose tissue but also ectopically in other tissues . Increased plasma concentrations of non-esterified free fatty acids and lipid-overloaded hypertrophic adipocytes may cause insulin resistance in an inflammation-independent manner...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576684/influence-of-oil-related-environmental-pollutants-on-female-reproduction
#12
REVIEW
Alexander V Sirotkin, Abdul Halim Harrath
The petroleum low-weight aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene, also known as BTEX, are among the most common hazardous sources of environmental contamination. This paper reviews the available data concerning the effects of BTEX on different aspects of female reproduction, including the fecundity, ovaries, central nervous system (CNS), oocytes, embryos, oviducts, cytogenetics of somatic and generative cells, intracellular signaling systems, and hypothalamic, pituitary and peripheral reproductive hormones...
May 31, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561903/arcuate-nucleus-neuropeptide-coexpression-and-connections-to-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-in-the-female-rhesus-macaque
#13
Cadence True, Diana Takahashi, Melissa Kirigiti, Sarah Rene Lindsley, Cloe Moctezuma, Anam Arik, M Susan Smith, Paul Kievit, Kevin L Grove
The underlying hypothalamic neurocircuitry by which metabolism and feeding regulates reproductive function has been well-studied in the rodent; however, recent data demonstrated significant neuroanatomical differences in the human brain. The current study had three objectives, centered on arcuate nucleus neuropeptides regulating feeding and reproduction: 1) characterize coexpression patterns in the female nonhuman primate, 2) establish whether these neuronal populations make potential contacts with GnRH neurons and 3) determine whether these contacts differ between the low and high GnRH-releasing states of pre-puberty and adulthood, respectively...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561756/local-actions-of-melatonin-in-somatic-cells-of-the-testis
#14
REVIEW
Mónica Beatriz Frungieri, Ricardo Saúl Calandra, Soledad Paola Rossi
The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552719/regulation-of-longevity-by-fgf21-interaction-between-energy-metabolism-and-stress-responses
#15
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses...
May 25, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551112/resting-state-hypothalamic-response-to-glucose-predicts-glucose-induced-attenuation-in-the-ventral-striatal-response-to-food-cues
#16
Shan Luo, A James Melrose, Hilary Dorton, Jasmin Alves, John R Monterosso, Kathleen A Page
Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of central nervous system responses to metabolic signals that reflect nutrient availability and to food cues that trigger appetitive responses. Prior work has shown that the hypothalamus is a key brain area that senses and responds to changes in metabolic signals, and exposure to food cues induces the activation of brain areas involved in reward processing. However, it is not known how the hypothalamic responses to changes in metabolic state are related to reward responses to food cues...
May 25, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550108/hypothalamic-ventromedial-lin28a-enhances-glucose-metabolism-in-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Jung Dae Kim, Chitoku Toda, Cristina M Ramírez, Carlos Fernández-Hernando, Sabrina Diano
The Lin28a/Let-7 axis has been studied in peripheral tissues for its role in metabolism regulation. However, its central function remains unclear. Here we found that Lin28a is highly expressed in the hypothalamus compared to peripheral tissues. Its expression is positively correlated with positive energy balance, suggesting a potential central role for Lin28a in metabolism regulation. Thus, we targeted the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH) to selectively overexpress (Lin28aKI(VMH) ) or downregulate (Lin28aKD(VMH) ) Lin28a expression in mice...
May 26, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544147/short-term-fasting-promotes-insulin-expression-in-rat-hypothalamus
#18
Tamara B Dakic, Tanja V Jevdjovic, Mina I Peric, Ivana M Bjelobaba, Milica B Markelic, Bojana S Milutinovic, Iva V Lakic, Nebojsa I Jasnic, Jelena D Djordjevic, Predrag Z Vujovic
In the hypothalamus, insulin takes on many roles involved in energy homoeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine hypothalamic insulin expression during the initial phase of the metabolic response to fasting. Hypothalamic insulin content was assessed by both radioimmunoassay and Western blot. The relative expression of insulin mRNA was examined by qPCR. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the distribution of insulin immunopositivity in the hypothalamus. After 6-h fasting, both glucose and insulin levels were decreased in serum but not in the cerebrospinal fluid...
May 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533422/paternal-hyperglycemia-in-rats-exacerbates-the-development-of-obesity-in-offspring
#19
Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongying Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
Parental history with obesity or diabetes will increase the risk for developing metabolic diseases in offspring. However, literatures as to transgenerational inheritance of metabolic dysfunctions through male lineage are relatively scarce. In current study, we aimed to evaluate influences of paternal hyperglycemia on metabolic phenotypes in offspring. Male SD rats were ip injected with streptozotocin (STZ) or citrate buffer (CB, as control). STZ-injected rats with glucose levels higher than 16 mM were selected to breed with normal female rats...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527391/melanin-concentrating-hormone-and-sleep
#20
REVIEW
Jozelia Gomes Pacheco Ferreira, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Antoine Adamantidis
The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an essential neuromodulator involved with homeostatic regulation and motivated behaviors. The majority of MCH neurons are localized within the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamic and incerto-hypothalamic areas but others regions, as the olfactory turbecle, the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the paramediam pontine reticular formation and the medial preoptic area, can also express the peptide depending on the gender and metabolic state of the animal. If the MCH on these novel sites of expression are also related with the control of wake-sleep cycle will be discuss in this review...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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