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AgRP/NPY neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#1
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123503/hyperleptinemia-in-neonatally-overfed-female-rats-does-not-dysregulate-feeding-circuitry
#2
Ilvana Ziko, Luba Sominsky, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Kit-Yi Yam, Simone De Luca, Aniko Korosi, Sarah J Spencer
Neonatal overfeeding during the first weeks of life in male rats is associated with a disruption in the peripheral and central leptin systems. Neonatally overfed male rats have increased circulating leptin in the first 2 weeks of life, which corresponds to an increase in body weight compared to normally fed counterparts. These effects are associated with a short-term disruption in the connectivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the regions of the hypothalamus responsible for control of energy balance and food intake...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071448/effects-of-acute-handling-stress-on-short-term-central-expression-of-orexigenic-anorexigenic-genes-in-zebrafish
#3
Raul Cortés, Mariana Teles, Miguel Oliveira, Camino Fierro-Castro, Lluis Tort, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter
Physiological mechanisms driving stress response in vertebrates are evolutionarily conserved. These mechanisms involve the activation of both the hypothalamic-sympathetic-chromaffin cell (HSC) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. In fish, the reduction of food intake levels is a common feature of the behavioral response to stress but the central mechanisms coordinating the energetic response are not well understood yet. In this work, we explore the effects of acute stress on key central systems regulating food intake in fish as well as on total body cortisol and glucose levels...
October 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031712/mitochondrial-uncoupling-in-the-melanocortin-system-differentially-regulates-npy-and-pomc-neurons-to-promote-weight-loss
#4
Natalie Jane Michael, Stephanie Elise Simonds, Marco van den Top, Michael Alexander Cowley, David Spanswick
OBJECTIVE: The mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), historically used as a treatment for obesity, is known to cross the blood-brain-barrier, but its effects on central neural circuits controlling body weight are largely unknown. As hypothalamic melanocortin neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons represent key central regulators of food intake and energy expenditure we investigated the effects of DNP on these neurons, food intake and energy expenditure...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768176/a-hypothalamic-phosphatase-switch-coordinates-energy-expenditure-with-feeding
#5
Garron T Dodd, Zane B Andrews, Stephanie E Simonds, Natalie J Michael, Michael DeVeer, Jens C Brüning, David Spanswick, Michael A Cowley, Tony Tiganis
Beige adipocytes can interconvert between white and brown-like states and switch between energy storage versus expenditure. Here we report that beige adipocyte plasticity is important for feeding-associated changes in energy expenditure and is coordinated by the hypothalamus and the phosphatase TCPTP. A fasting-induced and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of TCPTP, inhibited insulin signaling in AgRP/NPY neurons, repressed the browning of white fat and decreased energy expenditure. Conversely feeding reduced hypothalamic TCPTP, to increase AgRP/NPY neuronal insulin signaling, white adipose tissue browning and energy expenditure...
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694769/hypothalamic-integration-of-metabolic-endocrine-and-circadian-signals-in-fish-involvement-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#6
REVIEW
María J Delgado, José M Cerdá-Reverter, José L Soengas
The regulation of food intake in fish is a complex process carried out through several different mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) with hypothalamus being the main regulatory center. As in mammals, a complex hypothalamic circuit including two populations of neurons: one co-expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and the second one population co-expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is involved in the integration of information relating to food intake control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690493/emerging-signaling-pathway-in-arcuate-feeding-related-neurons-role-of-the-acbd7
#7
REVIEW
Damien Lanfray, Denis Richard
The understanding of the mechanisms whereby energy balance is regulated is essential to the unraveling of the pathophysiology of obesity. In the last three decades, focus was put on the metabolic role played by the hypothalamic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and the neurons co-localizing agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These neurons are part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway, whose role is key in energy balance regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675783/insulin-and-leptin-excite-anorexigenic-proopiomelanocortin-neurons-via-activation-of-trpc5-channels
#8
REVIEW
Jian Qiu, Edward J Wagner, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are vital anorexigenic neurons. Both the insulin receptor and leptin receptor are coupled to activation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) to regulate multiple functions that increase POMC neuronal excitability. Using whole-cell recording in several mammalian species, we have found that both insulin and leptin depolarized POMC neurons via activation of TRPC5 channels. TRPC5 channels have been rigorously characterized as the downstream effector based on their biophysical properties, pharmacological profile and localization by immunocytochemistry and scRT-PCR...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649723/distribution-and-female-reproductive-state-differences-in-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#9
Danielle T Porter, David A Roberts, Karen P Maruska
Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632132/antagonistic-modulation-of-npy-agrp-and-pomc-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-by-noradrenalin
#10
Lars Paeger, Ismene Karakasilioti, Janine Altmüller, Peter Frommolt, Jens Brüning, Peter Kloppenburg
In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) satiety signaling (anorexigenic) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing and hunger signaling (orexigenic) agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are key components of the neuronal circuits that control food intake and energy homeostasis. Here, we assessed whether the catecholamine noradrenalin directly modulates the activity of these neurons in mice. Perforated patch clamp recordings showed that noradrenalin changes the activity of these functionally antagonistic neurons in opposite ways, increasing the activity of the orexigenic NPY/AgRP neurons and decreasing the activity of the anorexigenic POMC neurons...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628036/arcuate-neuropeptide-y-inhibits-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-multiple-neuropathways
#11
Zhigang Shi, Christopher J Madden, Virginia L Brooks
Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623340/adenovirus-mediated-suppression-of-hypothalamic-glucokinase-affects-feeding-behavior
#12
Romina María Uranga, Carola Millán, María José Barahona, Antonia Recabal, Magdiel Salgado, Fernando Martinez, Patricio Ordenes, Roberto Elizondo-Vega, Fernando Sepúlveda, Elena Uribe, María de Los Ángeles García-Robles
Glucokinase (GK), the hexokinase involved in glucosensing in pancreatic β-cells, is also expressed in arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons and hypothalamic tanycytes, the cells that surround the basal third ventricle (3V). Several lines of evidence suggest that tanycytes may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Tanycytes have extended cell processes that contact the feeding-regulating neurons in the AN, particularly, agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606559/adiponectin-at-physiological-level-glucose-independently-enhances-inhibitory-postsynaptic-current-onto-npy-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#13
Shigetomo Suyama, Wang Lei, Naoto Kubota, Takashi Kadowaki, Toshihiko Yada
Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Accumulating evidences suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARC). The ARC contains orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti related peptide (AgRP) neurons and anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, the first order neurons for feeding regulation. We recently reported that intracerebroventricular injection of adiponectin at low glucose level suppressed food intake, while at elevated glucose level it promoted food intake, exhibiting glucose-dependent reciprocal effects...
October 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580287/insulin-controls-food-intake-and-energy-balance-via-npy-neurons
#14
Kim Loh, Lei Zhang, Amanda Brandon, Qiaoping Wang, Denovan Begg, Yue Qi, Melissa Fu, Rishikesh Kulkarni, Jonathan Teo, Paul Baldock, Jens C Brüning, Gregory Cooney, Greg Neely, Herbert Herzog
OBJECTIVES: Insulin signaling in the brain has been implicated in the control of satiety, glucose homeostasis and energy balance. However, insulin signaling is dispensable in energy homeostasis controlling AgRP or POMC neurons and it is unclear which other neurons regulate these effects. Here we describe an ancient insulin/NPY neuronal network that governs energy homeostasis across phyla. METHODS: To address the role of insulin action specifically in NPY neurons, we generated a variety of models by selectively removing insulin signaling in NPY neurons in flies and mice and testing the consequences on energy homeostasis...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561903/arcuate-nucleus-neuropeptide-coexpression-and-connections-to-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-neurones-in-the-female-rhesus-macaque
#15
C True, D Takahashi, M Kirigiti, S R Lindsley, C Moctezuma, A Arik, M S Smith, P Kievit, K L Grove
The underlying hypothalamic neurocircuitry by which metabolism and feeding regulates reproductive function has been well-studied in the rodent; however, recent data have demonstrated significant neuroanatomical differences in the human brain. The present study had three objectives, centred on arcuate nucleus neuropeptides regulating feeding and reproduction: (i) to characterise coexpression patterns in the female nonhuman primate; (ii) to establish whether these neuronal populations make potential contacts with gonadotophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones; and (iii) to determine whether these contacts differ between the low and high GnRH-releasing states of pre-puberty and adulthood, respectively...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547758/ghrelin-receptors-mediate-ghrelin-induced-excitation-of-agouti-related-protein-neuropeptide-y-but-not-pro-opiomelanocortin-neurons
#16
Shao-Rui Chen, Hong Chen, Jing-Jing Zhou, Geetali Pradhan, Yuxiang Sun, Hui-Lin Pan, De-Pei Li
Ghrelin increases food intake and body weight by stimulating orexigenic agouti-related protein (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and inhibiting anorexic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghsr) mediates the effect of ghrelin on feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. However, the role of Ghsr in the ghrelin effect on these two populations of neurons is unclear. We hypothesized that Ghsr mediates the effect of ghrelin on AgRP and POMC neurons. In this study, we determined whether Ghsr similarly mediates the effects of ghrelin on AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons using cell type-specific Ghsr-knockout mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473259/the-central-effects-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh-in-chicks-involve-changes-in-gene-expression-of-neuropeptide-y-and-other-factors-in-distinct-hypothalamic-nuclei
#17
Meghan S Delp, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a satiety-inducing factor in birds and mammals although central mechanisms mediating its effects on appetite in birds are poorly understood. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine effects of centrally-injected α-MSH on c-Fos and gene expression in chick appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei. At 4days post-hatch, 3h-fasted chicks were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 0 (vehicle) or 0.12nmol α-MSH and 1h later, hypothalamus samples were collected for measuring c-Fos immunoreactivity and mRNA abundance of appetite-associated factors in hypothalamic nuclei...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455431/hypothalamic-effects-of-neonatal-diet-reversible-and-only-partially-leptin-dependent
#18
Luba Sominsky, Ilvana Ziko, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Julie Quach, Sarah J Spencer
Early life diet influences metabolic programming, increasing the risk for long-lasting metabolic ill health. Neonatally overfed rats have an early increase in leptin that is maintained long term and is associated with a corresponding elevation in body weight. However, the immediate and long-term effects of neonatal overfeeding on hypothalamic anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) circuitry, and if these are directly mediated by leptin, have not yet been examined...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450851/regulation-of-agouti-related-protein-and-pro-opiomelanocortin-gene-expression-in-the-avian-arcuate-nucleus
#19
REVIEW
Timothy Boswell, Ian C Dunn
The arcuate nucleus is generally conserved across vertebrate taxa in its neuroanatomy and neuropeptide expression. Gene expression of agouti-related protein (AGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been established in the arcuate nucleus of several bird species and co-localization demonstrated for AGRP and NPY. The proteins encoded by these genes exert comparable effects on food intake in birds after central administration to those seen in other vertebrates, with AGRP and NPY being orexigenic and CART and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone anorexigenic...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424580/the-role-of-microrna-in-the-modulation-of-the-melanocortinergic-system
#20
REVIEW
Adel Derghal, Mehdi Djelloul, Jérôme Trouslard, Lourdes Mounien
The central control of energy balance involves a highly regulated neuronal network within the hypothalamus and the dorsal vagal complex. In these structures, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are known to reduce meal size and to increase energy expenditure. In addition, leptin, a peripheral signal that relays information regarding body fat content, modulates the activity of melanocortin pathway neurons including POMC-, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)/Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, melanocortin receptors (MC3R and MC4R)-expressing neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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