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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632132/antagonistic-modulation-of-npy-agrp-and-pomc-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-by-noradrenalin
#1
Lars Paeger, Ismene Karakasilioti, Janine Altmüller, Peter Frommolt, Jens Brüning, Peter Kloppenburg
In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) satiety signaling (anorexigenic) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing and hunger signaling (orexigenic) agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are key components of the neuronal circuits that control food intake and energy homeostasis. Here, we assessed whether the catecholamine noradrenalin directly modulates the activity of these neurons in mice. Perforated patch clamp recordings showed that noradrenalin changes the activity of these functionally antagonistic neurons in opposite ways, increasing the activity of the orexigenic NPY/AgRP neurons and decreasing the activity of the anorexigenic POMC neurons...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630099/kndy-neurone-activation-prior-to-the-lh-surge-of-the-ewe-is-disrupted-by-lps
#2
Chrysanthi Fergani, Jean Routly, David Jones, Lucy Pickavance, Robert Frank Smith, Hilary Dobson
In the ewe, steroid hormones act on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to initiate the GnRH/LH surge. Within the ARC, steroid signal transduction may be mediated by dopamine, β-endorphin or neuropeptide Y (NPY) expressing cells, as well as those co-localising kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (termed KNDy). We investigated the time during the follicular phase when these cells become activated (i.e., co-localise c-Fos) relative to the timing of the LH surge onset and may, therefore, be involved in the surge generating mechanism...
June 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629513/erythropoietin-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis
#3
Soumyadeep Dey, Constance T Noguchi
Erythropoietin (EPO), known primarily for its erythropoietic activity, is commonly used clinically to treat anemia of chronic kidney disease. However, the expression of EPO receptor (EpoR) beyond erythroid tissue provides for potential extrahematopoietic effects of EPO, including EPO regulation of metabolic homeostasis (Zhang et al., 2014). Small clinical studies have shown that EPO treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Studies in animal models have shown that EPO regulation of metabolism is mainly attributed to its response in fat, and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (Dey et al...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628102/regulation-of-body-weight-and-energy-homeostasis-by-neuronal-cell-adhesion-molecule-1
#4
Thomas Rathjen, Xin Yan, Natalia L Kononenko, Min-Chi Ku, Kun Song, Leiron Ferrarese, Valentina Tarallo, Dmytro Puchkov, Gaga Kochlamazashvili, Sebastian Brachs, Luis Varela, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Chun-Xia Yi, Sonja C Schriever, Sudhir Gopal Tattikota, Anne Sophie Carlo, Mirko Moroni, Jan Siemens, Arnd Heuser, Louise van der Weyden, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Thoralf Niendorf, James F A Poulet, Tamas L Horvath, Matthias H Tschöp, Matthias Heinig, Mirko Trajkovski, Volker Haucke, Matthew N Poy
Susceptibility to obesity is linked to genes regulating neurotransmission, pancreatic beta-cell function and energy homeostasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified associations between body mass index and two loci near cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2), which encode membrane proteins that mediate synaptic assembly. We found that these respective risk variants associate with increased CADM1 and CADM2 expression in the hypothalamus of human subjects. Expression of both genes was elevated in obese mice, and induction of Cadm1 in excitatory neurons facilitated weight gain while exacerbating energy expenditure...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628036/arcuate-neuropeptide-y-inhibits-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-multiple-neuropathways
#5
Zhigang Shi, Christopher J Madden, Virginia L Brooks
Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624479/food-restriction-induced-changes-in-motivation-differ-with-stages-of-the-estrous-cycle-and-are-closely-linked-to-rfamide-related-peptide-3-but-not-kisspeptin-in-syrian-hamsters
#6
REVIEW
Noah A Benton, Kim A Russo, Jeremy M Brozek, Ryan Andrews, Veronica Kim, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Jill E Schneider
We tested the hypothesis that the effects of food restriction on behavioral motivation are mediated by one or both of the RFamides, RFamide-related Peptide-3 (RFRP-3) and kisspeptin (Kp) in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Female hamsters fed ad libitum and given a choice between food and adult male hamsters are highly motivated to visit males instead of food on all four days of the estrous cycle, but after 8days of mild food restriction (75% of ad libitum intake) they shift their preference toward food every day of the estrous cycle until the day of estrus, when they shift their preference back toward the males...
June 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623340/adenovirus-mediated-suppression-of-hypothalamic-glucokinase-affects-feeding-behavior
#7
Romina María Uranga, Carola Millán, María José Barahona, Antonia Recabal, Magdiel Salgado, Fernando Martinez, Patricio Ordenes, Roberto Elizondo-Vega, Fernando Sepúlveda, Elena Uribe, María de Los Ángeles García-Robles
Glucokinase (GK), the hexokinase involved in glucosensing in pancreatic β-cells, is also expressed in arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons and hypothalamic tanycytes, the cells that surround the basal third ventricle (3V). Several lines of evidence suggest that tanycytes may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Tanycytes have extended cell processes that contact the feeding-regulating neurons in the AN, particularly, agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623168/access-to-nicotine-in-drinking-water-reduces-weight-gain-without-changing-caloric-intake-on-high-fat-diet-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#8
Cali A Calarco, Somin Lee, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine and tobacco use is associated with lower body weight, and many smokers report concerns about weight. In animal studies, nicotine reduces weight gain, reduces food consumption, and alters energy expenditure, but these effects vary with duration and route of nicotine administration. Previous studies have used standardized nicotine doses, however, in this study, male and female mice had free access to nicotine drinking water for 30 days while fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or chow, allowing animals to titrate their nicotine intake...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616754/sexually-dimorphic-distribution-of-prokr2-neurons-revealed-by-the-prokr2-cre-mouse-model
#9
Zaid Mohsen, Hosung Sim, David Garcia-Galiano, Xingfa Han, Nicole Bellefontaine, Thomas L Saunders, Carol F Elias
Prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) is predominantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of PROKR2 in humans are associated with Kallmann syndrome due to the disruption of gonadotropin releasing hormone neuronal migration and deficient olfactory bulb morphogenesis. PROKR2 has been also implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH neurons post-migration and other physiological systems. However, the brain circuitry and mechanisms associated with these actions have been difficult to investigate mainly due to the widespread distribution of Prokr2-expressing cells, and the lack of animal models and molecular tools...
June 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615280/age-associated-gene-expression-changes-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-male-rhesus-macaques
#10
Dominique Eghlidi, Vasilios Garyfallou, Steven Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) represents a major component of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis, and plays an important role in controlling the onset of puberty as well as age-associated reproductive senescence. Although significant gene expression changes have been observed in the ARC during sexual maturation it is unclear what changes occur during aging, especially in males. Therefore, in the present study we profiled the expression of reproduction-related genes in the ARC of young and old male rhesus macaques, as well as old males that had received 6 months of hormone supplementation (HS) in the form of daily testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone; we also compared morning versus night ARC gene expression in the old males...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611581/glial-endozepines-inhibit-feeding-related-autonomic-functions-by-acting-at-the-brainstem-level
#11
Florent Guillebaud, Clémence Girardet, Anne Abysique, Stéphanie Gaigé, Rym Barbouche, Jérémy Verneuil, André Jean, Jérôme Leprince, Marie-Christine Tonon, Michel Dallaporta, Bruno Lebrun, Jean-Denis Troadec
Endozepines are endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine receptors and also target a still unidentified GPCR. The endozepine octadecaneuropeptide (ODN), an endoproteolytic processing product of the diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) was recently shown to be involved in food intake control as an anorexigenic factor through ODN-GPCR signaling and mobilization of the melanocortinergic signaling pathway. Within the hypothalamus, the DBI gene is mainly expressed by non-neuronal cells such as ependymocytes, tanycytes, and protoplasmic astrocytes, at levels depending on the nutritional status...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611445/insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-its-binding-protein-3-are-regulators-of-lactation-and-maternal-responsiveness
#12
András H Lékó, Melinda Cservenák, Éva Rebeka Szabó, János Hanics, Alán Alpár, Árpád Dobolyi
Adaptation to motherhood includes maternal behaviour and lactation during the postpartum period. The major organizing centres of maternal behaviour and lactation are located in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the arcuate nucleus, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an effector of the growth hormone axis; however, its function in the brain is largely unexplored. We identified increased maternal IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression in preoptic rat microarray data and confirmed it by RT-PCR...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610922/central-administration-of-glp-1-and-gip-decreases-feeding-in-mice
#13
Cherl NamKoong, Min Sun Kim, Byeong-Tak Jang, Young Hee Lee, Young-Min Cho, Hyung Jin Choi
Glucagon-like peptide-1 amide (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones regulating energy metabolism. GLP-1 and GIP combination is suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, the neuronal mechanisms are not yet investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of central GLP-1 and GIP in regulation of body weight homeostasis. The effect of GLP-1 with GIP on food intake, body weight, locomotor activity were determined following intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of GLP-1 and/or GIP in mice...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606559/adiponectin-at-physiological-level-glucose-independently-enhances-inhibitory-postsynaptic-current-onto-npy-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#14
Shigetomo Suyama, Wang Lei, Naoto Kubota, Takashi Kadowaki, Toshihiko Yada
Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Accumulating evidences suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARC). The ARC contains orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti related peptide (AgRP) neurons and anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, the first order neurons for feeding regulation. We recently reported that intracerebroventricular injection of adiponectin at low glucose level suppressed food intake, while at elevated glucose level it promoted food intake, exhibiting glucose-dependent reciprocal effects...
March 22, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604137/effects-of-dihydrotestosterone-administration-on-the-expression-of-reproductive-and-body-weight-regulatory-factors-in-ovariectomized-and-estradiol-treated-female-rats
#15
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Yiliyasi Mayila, Minoru Irahara
To clarify the direct effects of androgens, the changes in the hypothalamic levels of reproductive and appetite regulatory factors induced by chronic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) administration were evaluated in female rats. DHT treatment increased the BW and food intake of the ovariectomized rats, but not the estradiol (E2)-treated rats. DHT administration suppressed the expression of a hypothalamic anorexigenic factor. Although the kisspeptin (Kiss1) mRNA levels of the anterior hypothalamic block (the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, AVPV) were increased in the E2-treated rats, DHT administration did not affect the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the AVPV in the ovariectomized or E2-treated rats...
June 11, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592656/hypothalamic-circuits-regulating-appetite-and-energy-homeostasis-pathways-to-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Katharina Timper, Jens C Brüning
The 'obesity epidemic' represents a major global socioeconomic burden that urgently calls for a better understanding of the underlying causes of increased weight gain and its associated metabolic comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Improving our understanding of the cellular basis of obesity could set the stage for the development of new therapeutic strategies. The CNS plays a pivotal role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. Distinct neuronal cell populations, particularly within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, sense the nutrient status of the organism and integrate signals from peripheral hormones including pancreas-derived insulin and adipocyte-derived leptin to regulate calorie intake, glucose metabolism and energy expenditure...
June 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585195/eat-and-death-chronic-over-eating
#17
Atilla Engin
Obesity-related co-morbidities decrease life quality, reduce working ability and lead to early death. The total amount of dietary fat consumption may be the most potent food-related risk factor for weight gain. In this respect, dietary intake of high-caloric, high-fat diets due to chronic over-eating and sedentary lifestyle lead to increased storage of triglycerides not only in adipose tissue but also ectopically in other tissues . Increased plasma concentrations of non-esterified free fatty acids and lipid-overloaded hypertrophic adipocytes may cause insulin resistance in an inflammation-independent manner...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583614/effects-of-active-immunization-against-gnrh-versus-surgical-castration-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-function-in-boars
#18
Xingfa Han, Yuqin Zhou, Yu Zeng, Fenfen Sui, Yacheng Liu, Yao Tan, Xiaohan Cao, Xiaogang Du, Fengyan Meng, Xianyin Zeng
The objective was to compare effects of anti-GnRH immunization (immunocastration) versus surgical castration on hypothalamic-pituitary function in boars. Thirty-six boars were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12/group): control, surgically castrated, or immunized against GnRH at 10 wk of age (boostered 8 wk later). Compared to intact boars, immunocastration reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of LH, FSH, testosterone and inhibin B and caused severe testicular atrophy, whereas surgical castration increased (P < 0...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577305/phenotyping-of-nnos-neurons-in-the-postnatal-and-adult-female-mouse-hypothalamus
#19
Konstantina Chachlaki, Samuel A Malone, Emily Qualls-Creekmore, Erik Hrabovszky, Heike Münzberg, Paolo Giacobini, Fabrice Ango, Vincent Prevot
Neurons expressing nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) and thus capable of synthesizing NO play major roles in many aspects of brain function. While the heterogeneity of nNOS-expressing neurons has been studied in various brain regions, their phenotype in the hypothalamus remains largely unknown. Here we examined the distribution of cells expressing nNOS in the postnatal and adult female mouse hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. In both adults and neonates, nNOS was largely restricted to regions of the hypothalamus involved in the control of bodily functions, such as energy balance and reproduction...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575455/adolescent-alcohol-exposure-induced-changes-in-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-and-neuropeptide-y-pathways-via-histone-acetylation-in-the-brain-during-adulthood
#20
Dadasaheb M Kokare, Evan J Kyzar, Huaibo Zhang, Amul J Sakharkar, Subhash C Pandey
Background: Adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure causes long-lasting alterations in brain epigenetic mechanisms. Melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling interact and are affected by ethanol exposure in the brain. Here, the persistent effects of AIE on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and NPY expression and their regulation by histone acetylation mechanisms were investigated in adulthood. Methods: Male rats were exposed to AIE (2 g/kg, i...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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