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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547758/ghrelin-receptors-mediate-ghrelin-induced-excitation-of-agrp-npy-but-not-pomc-neurons
#1
Shao-Rui Chen, Hong Chen, Jing-Jing Zhou, Geetali Pradhan, Yuxiang Sun, Hui-Lin Pan, De-Pei Li
Ghrelin increases food intake and body weight by stimulating orexigenic AgRP/NPY neurons and inhibiting anoexic POMC neurons in the hypothalamus. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghsr) mediates the effect of ghrelin on feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. However, the role of Ghsr in the ghrelin effect on these two populations of neurons is unclear. We hypothesized that Ghsr mediates the effect of ghrelin on AgRP and POMC neurons. In this study, we determined whether Ghsr similarly mediates the effects of ghrelin on AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons using cell type-specific Ghsr-knockout mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531318/agrp-expressing-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-are-involved-in-the-sympathetic-response-to-fasting
#2
Rajesh Gupta, Yunbing Ma, Manqi Wang, Matthew D Whim
Fasting evokes a homeostatic response that maintains circulating levels of energy-rich metabolites and increases the drive to eat. Centrally this reflex activates a small population of hypothalamic neurons that are characterized by the expression of AgRP, a neuropeptide with an extremely restricted distribution. Apart from the hypothalamus the only other site with significant expression is the adrenal gland but there is disagreement about which cells synthesize AgRP. Using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and RT-PCR we show AgRP is present in the mouse adrenal medulla and is expressed by neuroendocrine chromaffin cells that also synthesize the catecholamines and neuropeptide Y...
May 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522409/neonatal-exposure-to-17%C3%AE-ethynyl-estradiol-ee-disrupts-follicle-development-and-reproductive-hormone-profiles-in-female-rats
#3
Haolin Zhang, Kazuyoshi Taya, Kentaro Nagaoka, Midori Yoshida, Gen Watanabe
Toxic effects induced by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during fetal and neonatal periods can be irreversible and exert effects throughout an animal's entire life. Our previous study showed that neonatal exposure to 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE) induced irregular estrous cycle in adults. To uncover the reason for the delayed effect after neonatal exposure to EE, reproductive parameters including ovarian weight, ovarian steroidogenesis, and hormonal profiles were investigated in developing female rats...
May 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486037/role-of-arcuate-nucleus-in-the-regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-the-process-of-altitude-acclimatization-in-rats
#4
Xiang-Wen Liu, Jie Yin, Qi-Sheng Ma, Chu-Chu Qi, Ji-Ying Mu, Lang Zhang, Li-Ping Gao, Yu-Hong Jing
Liu, Xiang-Wen, Jie Yin, Qi-Sheng Ma, Chu-Chu Qi, Ji-Ying Mu, Lang Zhang, Li-Ping Gao, and Yu-Hong Jing. Role of arcuate nucleus in the regulation of feeding behavior in the process of altitude acclimatization in rats. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2017.-Highly efficient energy utilization and metabolic homeostasis maintenance rely on neuromodulation. Altitude exposure is known to stimulate neuroendocrine systems to respond to acute hypoxia and adaptive acclimatization. However, limited data on how the adaptive regulation of the arcuate nucleus performs in the process of altitude acclimatization are available...
May 9, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479374/cafeteria-diet-differentially-alters-the-expression-of-feeding-related-genes-through-dna-methylation-mechanisms-in-individual-hypothalamic-nuclei
#5
Gisela Paola Lazzarino, María Florencia Andreoli, María Florencia Rossetti, Cora Stoker, María Virgina Tschopp, Enrique Hugo Luque, Jorge Guillermo Ramos
We evaluated the effect of cafeteria diet (CAF) on the mRNA levels and DNA methylation state of feeding-related neuropeptides, and neurosteroidogenic enzymes in discrete hypothalamic nuclei. Besides, the expression of steroid hormone receptors was analyzed. Female rats fed with CAF from weaning increased their energy intake, body weight, and fat depots, but did not develop metabolic syndrome. The increase in energy intake was related to an orexigenic signal of paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial (VMN) nuclei, given principally by upregulation of AgRP and NPY...
May 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477438/temporal-and-regional-onset-of-leptin-resistance-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#6
Mohammed Z Rizwan, Sven Mehlitz, David R Grattan, Alexander Tups
In common forms of obesity, leptin fails to convey its regulatory effect. This so called "leptin resistance", is not well understood, and solving this puzzle is a key to understanding how obesity develops. Here, we investigated the temporal and regional onset of leptin resistance in response to a diet enriched with long-chain saturated fatty acids (HFD) in mice. Mice were exposed to either low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 4hr, 24hr, 10d and 28d. Mice in each group received an i.p injection of either PBS or leptin and the number of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) immunoreactive (ir) cells in the ARC, VMH and DMH were analysed 30- or 120 min after treatment...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475285/involvement-of-neurone-glia-neurone-neurone-communications-via-gap-junctions-in-synchronised-activity-of-kndy-neurones
#7
K Ikegami, S Minabe, N Ieda, T Goto, A Sugimoto, S Nakamura, N Inoue, S Oishi, A D Maturana, M Sanbo, M Hirabayashi, K-I Maeda, H Tsukamura, Y Uenoyama
Pulsatile secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone is indispensable for puberty onset and reproductive activities at adulthood in mammalian species. A cohort of neurones expressing three neuropeptides, kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1 gene, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A, localised in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), so-called KNDy neurones, are a putative intrinsic source of the GnRH pulse generator. Synchronous activity among KNDy neurones is thought to be required for pulsatile GnRH secretion...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473259/the-central-effects-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh-in-chicks-involve-changes-in-gene-expression-of-neuropeptide-y-and-other-factors-in-distinct-hypothalamic-nuclei
#8
Meghan S Delp, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a satiety-inducing factor in birds and mammals although central mechanisms mediating its effects on appetite in birds are poorly understood. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine effects of centrally-injected α-MSH on c-Fos and gene expression in chick appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei. At 4days post-hatch, 3h-fasted chicks were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 0 (vehicle) or 0.12nmol α-MSH and 1h later, hypothalamus samples were collected for measuring c-Fos immunoreactivity and mRNA abundance of appetite-associated factors in hypothalamic nuclei...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462077/pdk1-foxo1-pathway-in-agrp-neurons-of-arcuate-nucleus-promotes-bone-formation-via-ghrh-gh-igf1-axis
#9
Hideyuki Sasanuma, Masanori Nakata, Kumari Parmila, Jun Nakae, Toshihiko Yada
OBJECTIVE: In the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, functions connected to bone metabolism. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) serves as a major signaling molecule particularly for leptin and insulin in AgRP neurons. We asked whether PDK1 in AGRP neurons also contributes to bone metabolism. METHODS: We generated AgRP neuron-specific PDK1 knockout (Agrp Pdk1(-/-) ) mice and those with additional AgRP neuron-specific expression of transactivation-defective FoxO1 (Agrp Pdk1(-/-)Δ256Foxo1)...
May 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456145/autophagy-plays-beneficial-effect-on-diabetic-encephalopathy-in-type-2-diabetes-studies-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Yu-Hong Jing, Lang Zhang, Li-Ping Gao, Chu-Chu Qi, Dan-Dan Lv, Yan-Feng Song, Jie Yin, De-Gui Wang
OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamus regulates metabolism and feeding behavior by perceiving the levels of peripheral insulin. However, little is known about the hypothalamic changes after aberrant metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes of insulin and autophagy relevant signals of hypothalamus under diabetes mellitus. METHODS: C57B/L mice were injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and fed with high-fat diet to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus. In vitro, PC12 cells were treated with oleic acid to mimic lipotoxicity...
February 15, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455431/hypothalamic-effects-of-neonatal-diet-reversible-and-only-partially-leptin-dependent
#11
Luba Sominsky, Ilvana Ziko, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Julie Quach, Sarah J Spencer
Early life diet influences metabolic programming, increasing the risk for long-lasting metabolic ill-health. Neonatally overfed rats have an early increase in leptin that is maintained long-term and is associated with a corresponding elevation in body weight. However, the immediate and long-term effects of neonatal overfeeding on hypothalamic anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) / neuropeptide Y (NPY) circuitry, and if these are directly mediated by leptin, have not yet been examined...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450851/regulation-of-agouti-related-protein-and-pro-opiomelanocortin-gene-expression-in-the-avian-arcuate-nucleus
#12
REVIEW
Timothy Boswell, Ian C Dunn
The arcuate nucleus is generally conserved across vertebrate taxa in its neuroanatomy and neuropeptide expression. Gene expression of agouti-related protein (AGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been established in the arcuate nucleus of several bird species and co-localization demonstrated for AGRP and NPY. The proteins encoded by these genes exert comparable effects on food intake in birds after central administration to those seen in other vertebrates, with AGRP and NPY being orexigenic and CART and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone anorexigenic...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446774/liver-er%C3%AE-regulates-agrp-neuronal-activity-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-female-mice
#13
Valeria Benedusi, Sara Della Torre, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Alessandra Oberto, Claire Tronel, Clara Meda, Adriana Maggi
Recent work revealed the major role played by liver Estrogen Receptor α (ERα) in the regulation of metabolic and reproductive functions. By using mutant mice with liver-specific ablation of Erα, we here demonstrate that the hepatic ERα is essential for the modulation of the activity of Agouti Related Protein (AgRP) neurons in relation to the reproductive cycle and diet. Our results suggest that the alterations of hepatic lipid metabolism due to the lack of liver ERα activity are responsible for a neuroinflammatory status that induces refractoriness of AgRP neurons to reproductive and dietary stimuli...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429261/localization-of-the-dopamine-receptors-of-types-1-and-2-on-the-bodies-of-pomc-expressing-neurons-of-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-mice-and-rats
#14
I V Romanova, A L Mikhrina, A O Shpakov
Using immunofluorescent techniques, we have demonstrated the presence of two main types of dopamine receptors, D1 and D2, on the bodies of neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus expressing the precursor of peptides of the melanocortin family proopiomelanocortin in C57Bl/6J mice and Wistar rats. These data show close functional relationship between the dopamine and melanocortin systems of the brain and involvement of dopamine in the control of synthesis and secretion of peptides of the melanocortin family...
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#15
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425495/the-biglen-gpr171-peptide-receptor-system-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-contextual-fear-conditioning
#16
Erin N Bobeck, Ivone Gomes, Darlene Pena, Kirstie A Cummings, Roger L Clem, Mihaly Mezei, Lakshmi A Devi
Studies show that neuropeptide-receptor systems in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. Since GPR171, a recently deorphanized receptor for the abundant neuropeptide BigLEN, is expressed in the BLA, we investigated its role in fear and anxiety-like behaviors. To carry out these studies we identified small molecule ligands using a homology model of GPR171 to virtually screen a library of compounds. One of the hits, MS0021570_1, was identified as a GPR171 antagonist based on its ability to block (i) BigLEN-mediated activation of GPR171 in heterologous cells, (ii) BigLEN-mediated hyperpolarization of BLA pyramidal neurons, and (iii) feeding induced by DREADD-mediated activation of BigLEN containing AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423013/mapping-the-co-localization-of-the-circadian-proteins-per2-and-bmal1-with-enkephalin-and-substance-p-throughout-the-rodent-forebrain
#17
Ariana Frederick, Jory Goldsmith, Nuria de Zavalia, Shimon Amir
Despite rhythmic expression of clock genes being found throughout the central nervous system, very little is known about their function outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Determining the pattern of clock gene expression across neuronal subpopulations is a key step in understanding their regulation and how they may influence the functions of various brain structures. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we quantified the co-expression of the clock proteins BMAL1 and PER2 with two neuropeptides, Substance P (SubP) and Enkephalin (Enk), expressed in distinct neuronal populations throughout the forebrain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404581/maternal-and-postnatal-high-fat-diet-consumption-programs-energy-balance-and-hypothalamic-melanocortin-signaling-in-nonhuman-primate-offspring
#18
Elinor L Sullivan, Heidi M Rivera, Cadence A True, Juliana G Franco, Karalee Baquero, Tyler A Dean, Jeanette C Valleau, Diana L Takahashi, Tim Frazee, Genevieve Hanna, Melissa A Kirigiti, Leigh Ann A Bauman, Kevin L Grove, Paul Kievit
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption during pregnancy decreased fetal body weight and impacted development of hypothalamic melanocortin neural circuitry in nonhuman primate offspring. We investigated whether these impairments during gestation persisted in juvenile offspring and examined the interaction between maternal and early postnatal HFD consumption. Adult dams consumed either a control diet (CTR, 15% calories from fat) or a high saturated-fat diet (HFD, 37% calories from fat) during pregnancy. Offspring were weaned onto a CTR or HFD at approximately 8 months of age...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395339/nutritional-programming-of-accelerated-puberty-in-heifers-alterations-in-dna-methylation-in-the-arcuate-nucleus%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#19
Bruna R C Alves, Rodolfo C Cardoso, Ryan Doan, Youwen Zhang, Scott V Dindot, Gary L Williams, Marcel Amstalden
High rates of body weight gain during the juvenile period appear to program molecular events within the hypothalamus, leading to advancement of puberty. Methylation of DNA, an epigenetic mechanism that controls gene expression, is associated with metabolic programming events and is proposed to play a role in the pubertal process. In this study, DNA methylation was assessed in genomic DNA obtained from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of juvenile heifers fed to gain body weight at low (0.5 kg/d; low-gain, LG, n = 4) or high (1 kg/d; high-gain, HG, n = 4) rates from 4...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392470/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-and-its-receptor-1-pac1-in-the-human-infant-brain-and-changes-in-the-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#20
J Huang, K A Waters, R Machaalani
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its complementary receptor, PAC1, are crucial in central respiratory control. PACAP Knockout (KO) mice exhibit a SIDS-like phenotype, with an inability to overcome noxious insults, compression of baseline ventilation, and death in the early post-neonatal period. PAC1 KO demonstrate similar attributes to PACAP-null mice, but with the addition of increased pulmonary artery pressure, consequently leading to heart failure and death. This study establishes a detailed interpretation of the neuroanatomical distribution and localization of both PACAP and PAC1 in the human infant brainstem and hippocampus, to determine whether any changes in expression are evident in infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and any relationships to risk factors of SIDS including smoke exposure and sleep related parameters...
April 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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