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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087336/oleate-induces-katp-channel-dependent-hyperpolarisation-in-mouse-hypothalamic-glucose-excited-neurones-without-altering-cellular-energy-charge
#1
Selma Dadak, Craig Beall, Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Marc Pm Soutar, Rory J McCrimmon, Michael L J Ashford
The unsaturated fatty acid, oleate exhibits anorexigenic properties reducing food intake and hepatic glucose output. However, its mechanism of action in the hypothalamus has not been fully determined. This study investigated the effects of oleate and glucose on GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic cells (a model of glucose-excited (GE) neurones) and mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones. Whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings, immunoblotting and cell energy status measures were used to investigate oleate and glucose sensing properties of mouse hypothalamic neurones...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076448/igf-1-induces-ghrh-neuronal-axon-elongation-during-early-postnatal-life-in-mice
#2
Lyvianne Decourtye, Erik Mire, Maud Clemessy, Victor Heurtier, Tatiana Ledent, Iain C Robinson, Patrice Mollard, Jacques Epelbaum, Michael J Meaney, Sonia Garel, Yves Le Bouc, Laurent Kappeler
Nutrition during the perinatal period programs body growth. Growth hormone (GH) secretion from the pituitary regulates body growth and is controlled by Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. We observed that dietary restriction during the early postnatal period (i.e. lactation) in mice influences postnatal growth by permanently altering the development of the somatotropic axis in the pituitary gland. This alteration may be due to a lack of GHRH signaling during this critical developmental period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071834/molecular-profiling-of-human-ips-derived-hypothalamic-neurons-provides-developmental-insights-to-genetic-loci-for-body-weight-regulation
#3
Li Yao, Yuanhang Liu, Zhifang Qiu, Satish Kumar, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Yidong Chen, Donna M Lehman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent data suggests that common genetic risk for metabolic disorders such as obesity may be human-specific and exert effects through the central nervous system. To overcome the limitation of human tissue access for study, we have generated induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronal cultures which recapture many features of hypothalamic neurons within the arcuate nucleus. Here we have comprehensively characterized this model across development, benchmarked these neurons to in vivo events, and demonstrate a link between obesity risk variants and hypothalamic development...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068373/stress-dependent-changes-in-the-cacybp-sip-interacting-protein-s100a6-in-the-mouse-brain
#4
Katarzyna Bartkowska, Izabela Swiatek, Agata Aniszewska, Ewelina Jurewicz, Kris Turlejski, Anna Filipek, Rouzanna L Djavadian
The CacyBP/SIP target S100A6 is widely present in the nervous system, and its up-regulation is associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we examined the involvement of S100A6 protein in stress responses in mice. Using Western blotting, we observed a marked change in brainstem structures, whereby stressed mice showed approximately one-third the protein level produced in the control group. A decreased level of S100A6 protein in stressed animals was also detected in the olfactory bulb and the cerebellum and stress-related structures such as the hippocampus and the hypothalamus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063803/tamoxifen-and-ici-182-780-activate-hypothalamic-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-1-to-rapidly-facilitate-lordosis-in-female-rats
#5
Nathan Long, Bertha Long, Asma Mana, Dream Le, Lam Nguyen, Sima Chokr, Kevin Sinchak
In the female rat, sexual receptivity (lordosis) can be facilitated by sequential activation of estrogen receptor (ER) α and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) by estradiol. In the estradiol benzoate (EB) primed ovariectomized (OVX) rat, EB initially binds to ERα in the plasma membrane that complexes with and transactivates metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a to activate β-endorphin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN). This activates MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOP), inhibiting lordosis...
January 4, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054308/inhibition-of-ghrelin-induced-feeding-in-rats-by-pretreatment-with-a-novel-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist
#6
Mariko So, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Reiko Saito, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Yasuhito Motojima, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Koichi Kusuhara, Yoichi Ueta
Orexin-A and -B, and ghrelin are potent orexigenic peptides. The effects of ACT462206, a novel dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA), on ghrelin-induced feeding were examined in adult male Wistar rats. Hyperphagia induced by the intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of ghrelin was significantly suppressed for at least 2 h by pretreatment with icv administration of DORA. A marked increase was observed in the number of neurons showing Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), 90 min after icv administration of ghrelin...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024880/embryonic-ablation-of-neuronal-vgf-increases-energy-expenditure-and-reduces-body-weight
#7
Cheng Jiang, Wei-Jye Lin, Masato Sadahiro, Andrew C Shin, Christoph Buettner, Stephen R Salton
Germline ablation of VGF, a secreted neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine peptide precursor, results in lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile adult mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes (Hahm et al., 1999, 2002). To assess whether this phenotype is predominantly driven by reduced VGF expression in developing and/or adult neurons, or in peripheral endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, we generated and analyzed conditional VGF knockout mice, obtained by mating loxP-flanked (floxed) Vgf mice with either pan-neuronal Synapsin-Cre- or forebrain alpha-CaMKII-Cre-recombinase-expressing transgenic mice...
December 20, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011880/roles-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-in-mediating-lifespan-the-hypothalamic-deregulation-hypothesis
#8
Arvin M Gouw, Gizem Efe, Rita Barakat, Andrew Preecha, Movarid Mehdizadeh, Steven A Garan, George A Brooks
In several species caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan. In this paper we integrate data from studies on CR and other sources to articulate the Hypothalamic Deregulation Hypothesis by which Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ER-α) signaling in the hypothalamus and limbic system affects lifespan under the stress of CR in mammals. ER-α is one of two principal estrogen-binding receptors differentially expressed in the amygdala, hippocampus, and several key hypothalamic nuclei: the Arcuate nucleus (ARN), Preoptic Area (POA), Ventromedial nucleus (VMN), Antero Ventral Periventricular Nucleus (AVPV), Paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Supraoptic nucleus (SON), and Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
December 23, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009489/effects-of-orchidectomy-and-testosterone-replacement-on-numbers-of-kisspeptin-neurokinin-b-and-dynorphin-a-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-obese-and-diabetic-rats
#9
M Dudek, P A Kołodziejski, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, K Ziarniak, J H Sliwowska
Neurons expressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin A, located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), are important regulators of reproduction. Their functions depend on metabolic and hormonal status. We hypothesized that male rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and/or streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) will have: 1) alterations in numbers of immunoreactive (ir) cells: kisspeptin-ir and/or neurokinin B-ir, and dynorphin A-ir neurons in the ARC in the sham condition; 2) orchidectomy alone (ORX) and with testosterone treatment (ORX+T) will unmask possible deficits in the response of these neurons in DIO, and/or DM1 and DM2 rats...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006821/src-1-regulates-blood-pressure-and-aortic-stiffness-in-female-mice
#10
Antentor Othrell Hinton, Yongjie Yang, Ann P Quick, Pingwen Xu, Chitra L Reddy, Xiaofeng Yan, Corey L Reynolds, Qingchun Tong, Liangru Zhu, Jianming Xu, Xander H T Wehrens, Yong Xu, Anilkumar K Reddy
Framingham Heart Study suggests that dysfunction of steroid receptor coactivator-1 may be involved in the development of hypertension. However, there is no functional evidence linking steroid receptor coactivator-1 to the regulation of blood pressure. We used immunohistochemistry to map the expression of steroid receptor coactivator-1 protein in mouse brain, especially in regions implicated in the regulation of blood pressure. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 protein was found in central amygdala, medial amygdala, supraoptic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, ventromedial, dorsomedial, paraventricular hypothalamus, and nucleus of the solitary tract...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003802/restricted-feeding-schedules-modulate-in-a-different-manner-the-expression-of-clock-genes-in-rat-hypothalamic-nuclei
#11
Leonardo D De Araujo, Silvia L Roa, Ana C Bueno, Fernanda B Coeli-Lacchini, Clarissa S Martins, Ernane T Uchoa, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Lucila L Elias, Paula C Elias, Ayrton C Moreira, Margaret De Castro
Food access restriction is associated to changes in gene expression of the circadian clock system. However, there are only a few studies investigating the effects of non-photic synchronizers, such as food entrainment, on the expression of clock genes in the central oscillators. We hypothesized that different feeding restriction patterns could modulate the expression of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) "master" clock and in extra-SCN oscillators such as the paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate (ARC) hypothalamic nuclei...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997334/ontogeny-of-clock-and-kiss-1-metastasis-suppressor-kiss1-gene-expression-in-the-prepubertal-mouse-hypothalamus
#12
Cassandra C Yap, Peter J Mark, Brendan J Waddell, Jeremy T Smith
Kisspeptin is crucial for the generation of the circadian-gated preovulatory gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-LH surge in female rodents, with expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) peaking in the late afternoon of pro-oestrus. Given kisspeptin expression is established before puberty, the aim of the present study was to investigate kisspeptin and clock gene rhythms during the neonatal period. Anterior and posterior hypothalami were collected from C57BL/6J mice on Postnatal Days (P) 5, 15 and 25, at six time points across 24h, for analysis of gene expression by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
December 21, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994573/sudden-infant-death-syndrome-role-of-trigeminocardiac-reflex-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Gyaninder Pal Singh, Tumul Chowdhury, Barkha Bindu, Bernhard Schaller
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is an unexplained death in infants, which usually occurs during sleep. The cause of SIDS remains unknown and multifactorial. In this regard, the diving reflex (DR), a peripheral subtype of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), is also hypothesized as one of the possible mechanisms for this condition. The TCR is a well-established neurogenic reflex that manifests as bradycardia, hypotension, apnea, and gastric hypermotility. The TCR shares many similarities with the DR, which is a significant physiological adaptation to withstand hypoxia during apnea in many animal species including humans in clinical manifestation and mechanism of action...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994501/blockade-of-central-glp-1-receptors-deteriorates-the-improvement-of-diabetes-after-ileal-transposition
#14
Weijie Chen, Qianqian Xu, Yiding Xiao, Jiaolin Zhou, Weimin Zhang, Guole Lin, Fengying Gong
Background: The mechanism of improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus induced by ileal transposition (IT) is undefined. Our aim was to investigate the possible role of central glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) after IT. Methods: Ninety male diabetic rats were randomly divided into the IT, sham IT (S-IT) and control group. The food intake, glucose metabolism and GLP-1 level were measured. Subsequently, we administered GLP-1 antagonist via lateral brain ventricle cannula to block central GLP-1 receptor, and verified whether the food intake, glucose metabolism changed...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988176/anxiogenic-like-effects-of-fluoxetine-render-adult-male-rats-vulnerable-to-the-effects-of-a-novel-stress
#15
Francisca Gomez, Luis García-García
Fluoxetine (FLX) has paradoxical anxiogenic-like effects during the acute phase of treatment. In adolescent (35d-old) male rats, the stress-like effects induced by short-term (3d-4d) FLX treatment appear to involve up-regulation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA. However, studies on FLX-induced anxiety-like effects in adult rodents are inconclusive. Herein, we sought to study the response of adult male rats (60-65d-old) to a similar FLX treatment, also investigating how the stressful component, inherent to our experimental conditions, contributed to the responses...
December 14, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983870/kisspeptin-in-the-hypothalamus-of-two-rat-models-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
Satoko Osuka, Akira Iwase, Tatsuo Nakahara, Mika Kondo, Ai Saito, Bayasula, Tomoko Nakamura, Sachiko Takikawa, Maki Goto, Tomomi Kotani, Fumitaka Kikkawa
Hyperandrogenism, disturbance of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis followed by elevated serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, and insulin resistance are involved in the complicated pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Kisspeptin is co-expressed with neurokinin B (NKB) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the center of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-pulse generator that is responsible for pulsatile LH secretion. We compared two androgenized rat models of PCOS to evaluate the estrous cycle, hormonal profiles, and expression of kisspeptin and NKB in the ARC...
December 16, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981646/characterization-of-kiss1r-gpr54-expressing-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-female-rat-hypothalamus
#17
Shimpei Higo, Norio Iijima, Hitoshi Ozawa
Kisspeptin is essential in reproduction, and acts by stimulating neurons expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recent studies suggest that kisspeptin has multiple roles in the modulation of neuronal circuits in systems outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our recent research using in situ hybridization (ISH) clarified the histological distribution of Kiss1r (Gpr54)-expressing neurons in the rat brain which were presumed to be putative targets of kisspeptin. The arcuate nucleus (ARN) of the hypothalamus is one of the brain regions in which Kiss1r expression in non-GnRH neurons is prominent...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939689/aav-mediated-il-10-gene-transfer-counteracts-inflammation-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-and-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#18
Masanori Nakata, Sawako Yamamoto, Takashi Okada, Toshihiko Yada
Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces energy imbalance and consequently obesity. In the pathogenesis of obesity, HFD triggers inflammation in the hypothalamus including arcuate nucleus (ARC). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a representative anti-inflammatory cytokine, known to ameliorate the adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the effect of IL-10 on the hypothalamic inflammation remains less defined. We here report the effect of over-expression of murine IL-10 using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector on the inflammation in ARC and feeding behavior in HFD-induced obese (DIO) mice...
December 6, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931246/increased-alternate-splicing-of-htr2c-in-a-mouse-model-for-prader-willi-syndrome-leads-disruption-of-5ht2c-receptor-mediated-appetite
#19
Alastair S Garfield, Jennifer R Davies, Luke K Burke, Hannah V Furby, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Lora K Heisler, Anthony R Isles
Alternate splicing of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) pre-RNA is negatively regulated by the small nucleolar RNA, Snord115, loss of which is observed in nearly all individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a multigenic disorder characterised by hyperphagia and obesity. Given the role of the 5-HT2CR in the regulation of ingestive behaviour we investigated the pathophysiological implications of Snord115 deficiency on 5-HT2CR regulated appetite in a genotypically relevant PWS mouse model (PWS-IC)...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923637/hypothalamic-neuronal-origin-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-or-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-fibers-projecting-to-the-tuberomammillary-nucleus-of-the-rat
#20
Eun Y Lee, Young G Hwang, Hyun S Lee
Based on the importance of tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) as a target for feeding/arousal-related functions, we aimed in the present study to investigate hypothalamic neuronal origin of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) fibers projecting to the histaminergic nucleus. In the first series of experiments, we examined NPY (or CART) fiber distribution within the boundary of adenosine deaminase (ADA)-immunoreactive (ir) TMN regions; extensive NPY (or CART)-ir axon terminals were observed in E4 (TMMd), E3 (TMMv), and E2 (TMVr) subdivisions...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
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