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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446774/liver-er%C3%AE-regulates-agrp-neuronal-activity-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-female-mice
#1
Valeria Benedusi, Sara Della Torre, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Alessandra Oberto, Claire Tronel, Clara Meda, Adriana Maggi
Recent work revealed the major role played by liver Estrogen Receptor α (ERα) in the regulation of metabolic and reproductive functions. By using mutant mice with liver-specific ablation of Erα, we here demonstrate that the hepatic ERα is essential for the modulation of the activity of Agouti Related Protein (AgRP) neurons in relation to the reproductive cycle and diet. Our results suggest that the alterations of hepatic lipid metabolism due to the lack of liver ERα activity are responsible for a neuroinflammatory status that induces refractoriness of AgRP neurons to reproductive and dietary stimuli...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429261/localization-of-the-dopamine-receptors-of-types-1-and-2-on-the-bodies-of-pomc-expressing-neurons-of-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-mice-and-rats
#2
I V Romanova, A L Mikhrina, A O Shpakov
Using immunofluorescent techniques, we have demonstrated the presence of two main types of dopamine receptors, D1 and D2, on the bodies of neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus expressing the precursor of peptides of the melanocortin family proopiomelanocortin in C57Bl/6J mice and Wistar rats. These data show close functional relationship between the dopamine and melanocortin systems of the brain and involvement of dopamine in the control of synthesis and secretion of peptides of the melanocortin family...
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#3
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425495/the-biglen-gpr171-peptide-receptor-system-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-contextual-fear-conditioning
#4
Erin N Bobeck, Ivone Gomes, Darlene Pena, Kirstie A Cummings, Roger L Clem, Mihaly Mezei, Lakshmi A Devi
Studies show that neuropeptide-receptor systems in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. Since GPR171, a recently deorphanized receptor for the abundant neuropeptide BigLEN, is expressed in the BLA, we investigated its role in fear and anxiety-like behaviors. To carry out these studies we identified small molecule ligands using a homology model of GPR171 to virtually screen a library of compounds. One of the hits, MS0021570_1, was identified as a GPR171 antagonist based on its ability to block (i) BigLEN-mediated activation of GPR171 in heterologous cells, (ii) BigLEN-mediated hyperpolarization of BLA pyramidal neurons, and (iii) feeding induced by DREADD-mediated activation of BigLEN containing AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423013/mapping-the-co-localization-of-the-circadian-proteins-per2-and-bmal1-with-enkephalin-and-substance-p-throughout-the-rodent-forebrain
#5
Ariana Frederick, Jory Goldsmith, Nuria de Zavalia, Shimon Amir
Despite rhythmic expression of clock genes being found throughout the central nervous system, very little is known about their function outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Determining the pattern of clock gene expression across neuronal subpopulations is a key step in understanding their regulation and how they may influence the functions of various brain structures. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we quantified the co-expression of the clock proteins BMAL1 and PER2 with two neuropeptides, Substance P (SubP) and Enkephalin (Enk), expressed in distinct neuronal populations throughout the forebrain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404581/maternal-and-postnatal-high-fat-diet-consumption-programs-energy-balance-and-hypothalamic-melanocortin-signaling-in-nonhuman-primate-offspring
#6
Elinor L Sullivan, Heidi M Rivera, Cadence A True, Juliana G Franco, Karalee Baquero, Tyler A Dean, Jeanette C Valleau, Diana L Takahashi, Tim Frazee, Genevieve Hanna, Melissa A Kirigiti, Leigh Ann A Bauman, Kevin L Grove, Paul Kievit
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption during pregnancy decreased fetal body weight and impacted development of hypothalamic melanocortin neural circuitry in nonhuman primate offspring. We investigated whether these impairments during gestation persisted in juvenile offspring and examined the interaction between maternal and early postnatal HFD consumption. Adult dams consumed either a control diet (CTR, 15% calories from fat) or a high saturated-fat diet (HFD, 37% calories from fat) during pregnancy. Offspring were weaned onto a CTR or HFD at approximately 8 months of age...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395339/nutritional-programming-of-accelerated-puberty-in-heifers-alterations-in-dna-methylation-in-the-arcuate-nucleus%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#7
Bruna R C Alves, Rodolfo C Cardoso, Ryan Doan, Youwen Zhang, Scott V Dindot, Gary L Williams, Marcel Amstalden
High rates of body weight gain during the juvenile period appear to program molecular events within the hypothalamus, leading to advancement of puberty. Methylation of DNA, an epigenetic mechanism that controls gene expression, is associated with metabolic programming events and is proposed to play a role in the pubertal process. In this study, DNA methylation was assessed in genomic DNA obtained from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of juvenile heifers fed to gain body weight at low (0.5 kg/d; low-gain, LG, n = 4) or high (1 kg/d; high-gain, HG, n = 4) rates from 4...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392470/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-and-its-receptor-1-pac1-in-the-human-infant-brain-and-changes-in-the-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#8
J Huang, K A Waters, R Machaalani
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its complementary receptor, PAC1, are crucial in central respiratory control. PACAP Knockout (KO) mice exhibit a SIDS-like phenotype, with an inability to overcome noxious insults, compression of baseline ventilation, and death in the early post-neonatal period. PAC1 KO demonstrate similar attributes to PACAP-null mice, but with the addition of increased pulmonary artery pressure, consequently leading to heart failure and death. This study establishes a detailed interpretation of the neuroanatomical distribution and localization of both PACAP and PAC1 in the human infant brainstem and hippocampus, to determine whether any changes in expression are evident in infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and any relationships to risk factors of SIDS including smoke exposure and sleep related parameters...
April 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378505/prolactin-receptors-in-rip-cre-cells-but-not-in-agrp-neurons-are-involved-in-energy-homeostasis
#9
S R Ladyman, M A MacLeod, Z Khant Aung, P Knowles, H R Phillipps, R S E Brown, D R Grattan
Among its many functions, prolactin has been implicated in energy homeostasis, particularly during pregnancy and lactation. The arcuate nucleus is a key site in the regulation of energy balance. The aim of this study was to examine whether arcuate nucleus neuronal populations involved in energy homeostasis are prolactin responsive and if they can mediate the effects of prolactin on energy homeostasis. To determine if Agrp neurons or Rip-Cre neurons are prolactin responsive, transgenic mice expressing the reporter td-tomato in Agrp neurons (td-tomato/AgRP-Cre) or Rip-Cre neurons (td-tomato/Rip-Cre) were treated with prolactin and perfused 45 minutes later...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377876/cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-containing-axons-innervate-npy-agrp-neurons-in-the-mouse-arcuate-nucleus
#10
Yury M Morozov, Marco Koch, Pasko Rakic, Tamas L Horvath
OBJECTIVES: Phytocannabinoids, such as THC and endocannabinoids, are well known to promote feeding behavior and to control energy metabolism through cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R). However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Generally, cannabinoid-conducted retrograde dis-inhibition of hunger-promoting neurons has been suggested to promote food intake, but so far it has not been demonstrated due to technical limitations. METHODS: We applied immunohistochemical labeling of CB1R for light microscopy and electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections in CB1R-expressing and CB1R-null mice, which served as a negative control...
April 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377404/effect-of-androgen-on-kiss1-expression-and-luteinizing-hormone-release-in-female-rats
#11
Kinuyo Iwata, Yuyu Kunimura, Keisuke Matsumoto, Hitoshi Ozawa
Hyperandrogenic women have various grades of ovulatory dysfunction, which lead to infertility. The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic exposure to androgen affects expression of kisspeptin (ovulation and follicle development regulator) or release of luteinizing hormone (LH) in female rats. Weaned females were subcutaneously implanted with 90-day continuous-release pellets of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and studied after 10 weeks of age. Number of Kiss1-expressing cells in both the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) was significantly decreased in ovary-intact DHT rats...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374011/suprachiasmatic-nucleus-interaction-with-the-arcuate-nucleus-essential-for-organizing-physiological-rhythms
#12
Frederik N Buijs, Mara Guzmán-Ruiz, Luis León-Mercado, Mari Carmen Basualdo, Carolina Escobar, Andries Kalsbeek, Ruud M Buijs
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively removing SCN-arcuate nucleus (ARC) interconnectivity in Wistar rats result in a loss of rhythmicity in locomotor activity, corticosterone levels, and body temperature in constant dark (DD) conditions. Elimination of these reciprocal connections did not affect SCN clock gene rhythmicity but did cause the ARC to desynchronize...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372260/preliminary-investigation-for-effects-of-hypothalamic-leptin-ghrelin-and-arcuate-nucleus-pro-opiomelanocortin-system-on-regulation-of-high-altitude-acclimatization
#13
Yong-Nian Liu, Qi-Sheng Ma, Qiong Wu
This study aims to investigate the mechanism of hypothalamic Leptin/Ghrelin and arcuate nucleus pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system in the regulation of high-altitude acclimatization. SD rats (male) were divided into two groups and separately fed at the 2260m and 4700m altitude. Tow groups contained 5 small groups separately, including 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 15 d and 30 d, and 8 rats in each group. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid and tissues were taken at setting time. Leptin and Ghrelin were detected by using radioactivity immuno-assay...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368450/long-term-neonatal-estrogen-exposure-causes-irreversible-inhibition-of-lh-pulses-by-suppressing-arcuate-kisspeptin-expression-via-estrogen-receptors-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-in-female-rodents
#14
Shiori Minabe, Nahoko Ieda, Youki Watanabe, Naoko Inoue, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Hiroko Tsukamura
Exposure to estrogen during the developmental period causes reproductive dysfunction in mammals, as the developing brain is highly sensitive to estrogens. Here we report that long-term exposure to supraphysiological doses of estrogen during the neonatal critical period causes an irreversible suppression of Kiss1/kisspeptin expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) via the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and ERβ, resulting in reproductive dysfunction in female rats. Daily estradiol-benzoate (EB) administration from days 0 to 10 postpartum caused persistent vaginal diestrus in female rats...
March 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359086/the-arcuate-estrogen-regulated-transcriptome-estrogen-response-element-dependent-and-independent-signaling-of-er%C3%AE-in-female-mice
#15
Jennifer A Yang, Hillary Stires, William J Belden, Troy A Roepke
To influence energy homeostasis and reproduction, 17β-estradiol (E2) controls the arcuate nucleus (ARC) through multiple receptor-mediated mechanisms, but primarily via estrogen receptor (ER) α, which signals through both estrogen response element (ERE)-dependent and -independent mechanisms. To determine ERα-mediated, ERE-dependent, and ERE-independent E2 signaling in the ARC, we examined the differential regulation of the mouse arcuate transcriptome by E2 using three mice genotypes: (1) wild-type, (2) ERα knock-in/knockout (ERE-independent mechanisms), and (3) total ERα knockout (ERα-independent mechanisms)...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356295/the-role-of-leptin-in-energy-expenditure-the-hypothalamic-perspective
#16
Rahul Pandit, Sanne Beerens, Roger Ah Adan
The adipocyte derived hormone leptin is a peripheral signal that informs the brain about the metabolic status of an organism. Although traditionally viewed as an appetite suppressing hormone, studies in the past decade have highlighted the role of leptin in energy expenditure. Leptin has been shown to increase energy expenditure in particular through its effects on the cardiovascular system and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis via the hypothalamus. The current review summarizes the role of leptin signaling in various hypothalamic nuclei and its effects on the sympathetic nervous system to influence blood pressure, heart rate and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347670/oral-delivery-of-d-leu-4-ob3-and-ma-d-leu-4-ob3-synthetic-peptide-leptin-mimetics-immunofluorescent-localization-in-the-mouse-hypothalamus
#17
Brian M Anderson, Lauren Jacobson, Zachary M Novakovic, Patricia Grasso
This study describes the localization of [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3, synthetic peptide leptin mimetics, in the hypothalamus of Swiss Webster and C57BL/6J wild-type mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, and leptin-resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The mice were given [D-Leu-4]-OB3 or MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 in 0.3% dodecyl maltoside by oral gavage. Once peak serum concentrations were reached, the mice received a lethal dose of pentobarbital and were subjected to intracardiac perfusion fixation. The brains were excised, post-fixed in paraformaldehyde, and cryo-protected in sucrose...
March 24, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#18
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344041/stat5-signaling-in-kisspeptin-cells-regulates-the-timing-of-puberty
#19
Marina Augusto Silveira, Isadora C Furigo, Thais T Zampieri, Tabata M Bohlen, Daniella G de Paula, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Jose Donato, Renata Frazao
Previous studies have shown that kisspeptin neurons are important mediators of prolactin's effects on reproduction. However, the cellular mechanisms recruited by prolactin to affect kisspeptin neurons remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of brain slices from kisspeptin reporter mice, we observed that 20% of kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was indirectly depolarized by prolactin via an unknown population of prolactin responsive neurons. This effect required the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway...
March 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336493/the-central-mechanism-of-risperidone-induced-hyperprolactinemia
#20
Wei-Wei Sun, Lin-Yu Li, Xu-Feng Huang, Yan-Chuan Shi, He-Qin Yang, Zhi-Yuan Song, Shu Lin
Risperidone is known to increase prolactin secretion in treating mental illness patients. This side-effect is thought to be mediated via central signaling pathway. However, the exact pathway involved between risperidone and hyperprolactinemia are still unknown. Therefore, we have treated mice with risperidone and investigated the central mechanisms. The present study showed that in risperidone treated group, the level of the serum prolactin significantly increased, which was consistent with increased positive prolactin staining in pituitary gland...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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