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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345030/reproductive-status-dependent-kisspeptin-and-rfamide-related-peptide-rfrp-gene-expression-in-female-damaraland-mole-rats
#1
Cornelia Voigt, Nigel C Bennett
Damaraland mole rats (Fukomys damarensis) are cooperatively breeding, subterranean mammals, which exhibit high reproductive skew. Reproduction is monopolized by the dominant female of the group while subordinates are physiologically suppressed to the extent that they are anovulatory. It is thought that in these latter animals normal GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus is disrupted. The RFamide peptides kisspeptin (Kiss1) and RFamid-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) are considered potent regulators of gonadotropin release...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329911/mrna-expression-and-metabolic-regulation-of-npy-and-agrp1-2-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#2
Inyoung Jeong, Eunmi Kim, Suhyun Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Jae Young Seong, Hae-Chul Park
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in vertebrates. In mammals, NPY neurons coexpress Agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and NPY/AgRP neurons activate orexigenic signaling to increase food intake. Zebrafish express npy and two agrp genes, agrp1 and agrp2, in the brain. Similar to mammals, NPY and AgRP1 act as orexigenic factors in zebrafish, but the exact distribution of NPY and AgRP neurons in the zebrafish brain and the regulation of these genes by metabolic states remain unclear...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328403/arcuate-nucleus-neurons-are-not-essential-for-the-preprandial-peak-in-plasma-ghrelin-after-neonatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#3
Qing-Chun Li, Qing-Feng Li, Yan-Lin Wang, Hong-Liang Sun, Zheng-Yao Jiang
The aim of the present study was to determine whether arcuate nucleus (ARC) lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and the stomach in monosodium glutamate (MSG)‑treated mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the ARC was destroyed in mice treated neonatally with MSG, and whether the ARC lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and lipid mobilization in MSG‑treated mice. The results revealed that MSG led to a marked reduction in ARC cresyl violet staining, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (IR) neurons and neuropeptide Y‑IR fibers, compared with saline controls...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321171/sgk1-foxo3-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-mediates-glucocorticoid-increased-adiposity
#4
Yalan Deng, Yuzhong Xiao, Feixiang Yuan, Yaping Liu, Xiaoxue Jiang, Jiali Deng, Geza Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray-Fejes-Toth, Shanghai Chen, Yan Chen, Hao Ying, Qiwei Zhai, Yousheng Shu, Feifan Guo
Although central nervous system has been implicated in glucocorticoid-induced fat mass gain, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of our current study was to investigate the possible involvement of hypothalamic serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) in glucocorticoid-increased adiposity. It is well-known that SGK1 expression is induced by acute glucocorticoid treatment, interestingly, we found its expression was decreased in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, including POMC neurons, following chronic dexamethasone (Dex) treatment...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302059/trithorax-dependent-changes-in-chromatin-landscape-at-enhancer-and-promoter-regions-drive-female-puberty
#5
Carlos A Toro, Hollis Wright, Carlos F Aylwin, Sergio R Ojeda, Alejandro Lomniczi
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control the timing of puberty by repressing the Kiss1 gene in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons. Here we identify two members of the Trithorax group (TrxG) of modifiers, mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1), and 3 (MLL3), as central components of an activating epigenetic machinery that dynamically counteracts PcG repression. Preceding puberty, MLL1 changes the chromatin configuration at the promoters of Kiss1 and Tac3, two genes required for puberty to occur, from repressive to permissive...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300858/evidence-supporting-a-role-for-constitutive-ghrelin-receptor-signaling-in-fasting-induced-hyperphagia-in-male-mice
#6
Gimena Fernandez, Agustina Cabral, María F Andreoli, Alexandra Labarthe, Céline M'Kadmi, Jorge G Ramos, Jacky Marie, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jacques Epelbaum, Virginie Tolle, Mario Perello
Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic peptide hormone that acts through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In vitro studies have shown GHSR displays a high constitutive activity, whose physiological relevance is uncertain. Since GHSR gene expression in the hypothalamus is known to increase in fasting conditions, we tested the hypothesis that constitutive GHSR activity at hypothalamic level drives the fasting-induced hyperphagia. We found refed wild-type (WT) mice displayed a robust hyperphagia that continued for 5 days after refeeding and changed their food intake daily pattern...
December 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284375/one-week-exposure-to-a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-does-not-disrupt-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-fed-or-overnight-fasted-rats
#7
M Rijnsburger, U A Unmehopa, L Eggels, M J Serlie, S E la Fleur
OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamus lies adjacent to the third ventricle and is in close proximity with the median eminence (ME), a circumventricular organ with an incomplete blood-brain barrier (BBB) which controls direct entry of nutrients into the brain. The blood-CSF barrier of the hypothalamus shows dynamic changes upon neuroendocrine events and adjusts permeability with the tight junction (TJ) complex. It has been shown that chronic exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) affects BBB permeability...
December 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224968/adjunctive-treatment-with-brexpiprazole-and-escitalopram-reduces-behavioral-stress-responses-and-increase-hypothalamic-npy-immunoreactivity-in-a-rat-model-of-ptsd-like-symptoms
#8
Hagit Cohen, Joseph Zohar, Zeev Kaplan, Jørn Arnt
The study explored effects of brexpiprazole (partial D2/5-HT1A agonist, 5-HT2A and α1B/2C-adrenoceptor antagonist) in rats exposed to predator scent stress (PSS), a proposed model of PTSD-like phenotype. Brexpiprazole (3.0mg/kg, PO), escitalopram (5.0mg/kg, IP) and their combination were administered twice daily for 14 days, starting 14 days after exposure to PSS or sham-PSS, shortly after a situational stress reminder. One day after last treatment behavioral responsivity was assessed. Brexpiprazole+escitalopram-treated rats spent more time in open arms, entered open arms more often and exhibited a lower anxiety index in the elevated plus maze than vehicle-treated, PSS-exposed rats...
January 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217488/incomplete-concordance-of-dopamine-transporter-cre-datirescre-mediated-recombination-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactivity-in-the-mouse-forebrain
#9
Siew Hoong Yip, Jade York, Brian Hyland, Stephen J Bunn, David R Grattan
Co-localization of the expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT) with the catecholamine synthesising enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) has been investigated using transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase (Cre) dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the DAT promoter (DATIREScre/GFP). Brain sections from adult female mice were stained for Cre-induced GFP and TH using immunohistochemistry, revealing a high degree of co-expression in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons (A8-10) with the exception of the periaqueductal and dorsal raphe nuclei where dual-labelling was notably lower...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214635/kv4-2-channel-activity-controls-intrinsic-firing-dynamics-of-arcuate-kisspeptin-neurons
#10
Philipe R F Mendonça, Victoria Kyle, Shel-Hwa Yeo, William H Colledge, Hugh P C Robinson
Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus are critically involved in reproductive function, via their effect on GnRH neuron activity and consequent gonadotropin release. Kisspeptin neurons show an intrinsic irregularity of firing, but the mechanism of this remains unclear. To address this, we carried out targeted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Kiss1Arc ), in brain slices isolated from adult male Kiss-Cre:tdTomato mice. Cells fired irregularly in response to constant current stimuli, with a wide range of spike time variability, and prominent subthreshold voltage fluctuations...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203230/maternal-consumption-of-high-fat-diet-in-mice-alters-hypothalamic-notch-pathway-npy-cell-population-and-food-intake-in-offspring
#11
Simone Ferreira Lemes, Anelise Cristina Parras de Souza, Tanyara Baliani Payolla, Milena Diorio Versutti, Albina de Fátima da Silva Ramalho, Cristiano Mendes-da-Silva, Camilla Mendes Souza, Marciane Milanski, Adriana Souza Torsoni, Marcio Alberto Torsoni
Studies show that maternal consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) can impair the formation of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in mouse offspring. This damage can be mediated by Notch1/Hes5 signalling activation, leading to repression of proneural factors such as Mash1 and Ngn2/3, which are essential for neuronal differentiation and neurogenesis. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of maternal HFD consumption during gestation and lactation on the Notch1/Mash1 pathway in the hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus (ARC) of mouse offspring (neonates and 28 days old)...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203206/expression-of-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-neurokinin-b-and-dynorphin-a-neurons-attenuates-in-female-zucker-fatty-rats
#12
Kimihiko Nakao, Kinuyo Iwata, Toshiyuki Takeshita, Hitoshi Ozawa
Zucker fatty (ZF) rats are considered to be an obese model due to leptin receptor abnormality and such rats show infertility. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, which is important for follicular development in females, is considered to be controlled by KNDy neurons coexpressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin A (DynA), encoded by Kiss1, Tac3, and Pdyn, respectively, in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of KNDy neurons in female ZF rats by histochemical approach because pulsatile LH secretion is suppressed...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184506/recent-advances-in-the-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-hypothalamic-neuronal-glucose-detection
#13
Xavier Fioramonti, Chloé Chrétien, Corinne Leloup, Luc Pénicaud
The hypothalamus have been recognized for decades as one of the major brain centers for the control of energy homeostasis. This area contains specialized neurons able to detect changes in nutrients level. Among them, glucose-sensing neurons use glucose as a signaling molecule in addition to its fueling role. In this review we will describe the different sub-populations of glucose-sensing neurons present in the hypothalamus and highlight their nature in terms of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide expression. This review will particularly discuss whether pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons from the arcuate nucleus are directly glucose-sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178496/kisspeptin-gnrh-and-er%C3%AE-colocalise-with-nnos-neurones-in-prepubertal-female-sheep
#14
Michelle N Bedenbaugh, Ryan C O'Connell, Justin A Lopez, Richard B McCosh, Robert L Goodman, Stanley M Hileman
Puberty is a process which integrates multiple inputs that ultimately cause an increase in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. While kisspeptin neurones play an integral role in GnRH secretion and puberty onset, other systems are also likely important. One potential component is nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous neurotransmitter synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In this study, we sought to neuroanatomically characterise neuronal NOS (nNOS) in prepubertal female sheep and determine if oestradiol would exert effects on this system...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174921/embryonic-development-of-gabaergic-terminals-in-the-mouse-hypothalamic-nuclei-involved-in-feeding-behavior
#15
Masato Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Masayuki Matsushita, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Chitoshi Takayama
The inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) plays important roles in energy balance and feeding behavior in the hypothalamus. To reveal the time course of GABAergic network formation, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a GABAergic neuron marker, vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), a marker of inhibitory terminals, and K+-Cl--cotransporter2 (KCC2), which shifts GABA action from excitation to inhibition, in the developing mouse hypothalamus...
November 21, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174000/deficiency-of-leptin-receptor-in-myeloid-cells-disrupts-hypothalamic-metabolic-circuits-and-causes-body-weight-increase
#16
Yuanqing Gao, Andrés Vidal-Itriago, Irina Milanova, Nikita L Korpel, Martin J Kalsbeek, Robby Zachariah Tom, Andries Kalsbeek, Susanna M Hofmann, Chun-Xia Yi
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is a cytokine produced by adipose tissue that acts mainly on the hypothalamus to regulate appetite and energy homeostasis. Previous studies revealed that the leptin receptor is expressed not only in neurons, but also in glial cells. Microglia are resident immune cells in the brain that play an essential role in immune defense and neural network development. Previously we reported that microglial morphology and cytokine production are changed in the leptin receptor deficient db/db mouse, suggesting that leptin's central effects on metabolic control might involve signaling through microglia...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168299/17%C3%AE-estradiol-acts-through-hypothalamic-pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing-neurons-to-reduce-feeding-behavior
#17
Frederik J Steyn, Shyuan T Ngo, Vicky Ping Chen, Lora C Bailey-Downs, Teresa Y Xie, Martin Ghadami, Stephen Brimijoin, Willard M Freeman, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Michael B Stout
Weight loss is an effective intervention for diminishing disease burden in obese older adults. Pharmacological interventions that reduce food intake and thereby promote weight loss may offer effective strategies to reduce age-related disease. We previously reported that 17α-estradiol (17α-E2) administration elicits beneficial effects on metabolism and inflammation in old male mice. These observations were associated with reduced calorie intake. Here, we demonstrate that 17α-E2 acts through pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) to reduce food intake and body mass in mouse models of obesity...
November 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165691/estradiol-protects-proopiomelanocortin-neurons-against-insulin-resistance
#18
Jian Qiu, Martha A Bosch, Cecilia Meza, Uyen-Vy Navarro, Casey C Nestor, Edward J Wagner, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
Insulin resistance is at the core of the metabolic syndrome, and men exhibit a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in early adult life, but this sex advantage diminishes sharply when women reach the postmenopausal state. Since 17β-estradiol (E2) augments the excitability of the anorexigenic POMC neurons, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of E2 against insulin resistance in POMC neurons from diet-induced obese (DIO) female and male mice. The efficacy of insulin to activate canonical transient receptor potential 5 (TRPC5) channels and depolarize POMC neurons was significantly reduced in DIO male but not in DIO female mice...
November 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163355/regulation-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-1-5-signaling-genes-by-estradiol-is-age-dependent
#19
Bradly M Bauman, Weiling Yin, Andrea C Gore, T John Wu
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulatory molecule of the hypothalamus-pituitary (PIT)-gonadal (HPG) axis that ultimately leads to the downstream release of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). These gonadal steroids feed back to the hypothalamus and PIT to regulate reproductive function and behavior. While GnRH is thought to be the master regulator of reproduction, its metabolic product GnRH-(1-5) is also biologically active. Thimet oligopeptidase 1 (also known as EP24.15) cleaves GnRH to form GnRH-(1-5)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146410/cart-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-and-lateral-hypothalamic-area-exert-differential-controls-on-energy-homeostasis
#20
Jackie Lau, Aitak Farzi, Yue Qi, Regine Heilbronn, Mario Mietzsch, Yan-Chuan Shi, Herbert Herzog
OBJECTIVE: The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) codes for a pivotal neuropeptide important in the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. However, limited understanding exists for the defined effector sites underlying CART function, as discrepant effects of central CART administration have been reported. METHODS: By combining Cart-cre knock-in mice with a Cart adeno-associated viral vector designed using the flip-excision switch (AAV-FLEX) technology, specific reintroduction or overexpression of CART selectively in CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), respectively, was achieved...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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