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arcuate nucleus

Lisa L Morselli, Kristin E Claflin, Huxing Cui, Justin L Grobe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review the current understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of neurons expressing Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and the angiotensin 1A receptor (AT1A ) within the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in the control of energy balance. RECENT FINDINGS: The development and maintenance of obesity involves suppression of resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR control is integrated via AgRP and proopiomelanocortin neurons within the ARC. Their projections to other hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic nuclei contribute to RMR control, though relatively little is known about the contributions of individual projections and the neurotransmitters involved...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Sina Faton, Jean-Pol Tassin, Flore Duranton, Didier Bagnol, Anne-Dominique Lajoix
Central serotonin systems have long been associated with the control of feeding behavior and the modulation of behavioral effects of psychostimulants. 5-HT2C receptors are present in hypothalamic centers such as the arcuate nucleus (ARC), controlling homeostatic regulation of food intake, as well as in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region involved in motivation aspects in multiple behaviors, including feeding. In the present study, we investigated whether the 5-HT2C receptors control amphetamine-evoked locomotor activity and regulate food consumption...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Marilena Marraudino, Mariangela Martini, Sara Trova, Alice Farinetti, Giovanna Ponti, Stefano Gotti, GianCarlo Panzica
The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies (the periventricular region, RP3V and the arcuate nucleus, ARC) that send fibers mainly to the GnRH neurons and in a few other locations, including the paraventricular nucleus, PVN. In physiological conditions, gonadal hormones modulate the kisspeptin system with expression changes according to different phases of the estrous cycle: the highest being in estrus phase in RP3V and PVN (positive feedback), and in ARC during the diestrus phase (negative feedback)...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
Caroline André, Caterina Catania, Julie Remus-Borel, Elodie Ladeveze, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Wilfrid Mazier, Elke Binder, Delphine Gonzales, Samantha Clark, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sophie Layé, Daniela Cota
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) potently decreases food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese mice by acting through neuronal circuits and pathways located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. CNTF also exerts pro-inflammatory actions within the brain. Here we tested whether CNTF modifies energy balance by inducing inflammatory responses in the ARC and whether these effects depend upon the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which regulates both energy metabolism and inflammation...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Peyton W Weems, Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert L Goodman
Work over the last 15 years on the control of pulsatile LH secretion has focused largely on a set of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that contains two stimulatory neuropeptides, critical for fertility in humans (kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB)) and the inhibitory endogenous opioid peptide (EOP), dynorphin, and are now known as KNDy (kisspeptin-NKB-dynorphin) neurons. In this review, we consider the role of each of the KNDy peptides in the generation of GnRH pulses and the negative feedback actions of ovarian steroids, with an emphasis on NKB and dynorphin...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Laurence Dufourny, Oona Delmas, Ana-Paula Teixeira-Gomes, Caroline Decourt, Joanna H Sliwowska
Somatostatin (SST) a neuropeptide involved in the central modulation of several physiological functions, is co-distributed in the same hypothalamic areas as kisspeptin (KP), the most potent secretagogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion known to date. As SST infused intracerebroventricularly (icv) evoked a potent inhibition of GnRH release, we explored neuroanatomical relationships between KP and SST populations in male and female rats. For that, intact males and ovariectomised oestradiol-replaced females were killed and their brains processed in order to simultaneously detect KP, SST and synapsin, a marker for synapses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
A Ando, D Gantulga, M Nakata, F Maekawa, K Dezaki, S Ishibashi, T Yada
Hyperphagia triggers and accelerates diabetes, and prevents proper dietary control of glycemia. Inversely, the impact of hyperglycemia on hyperphagia and possible mechanistic cause common for these two metabolic disorders in type 2 diabetes are less defined. The present study examined the precise developmental process of hyperglycemia and hyperphagia and explored the alterations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the primary feeding and metabolic center, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and nearly normal body weight...
February 6, 2018: Neuropeptides
Maryam Safahani, Hadi Aligholi, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Mahmoud Djalali, Hamideh Pishva, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Fatemeh Alipour, Ali Gorji, Fariba Koohdani
OBJECTIVE: Adult hypothalamic neurogenesis has been considered a central regulator of energy balance. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, influences the body fat mass and reduces the amount of adipose tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of RSV on dynamic of hypothalamic neurons in a diet-induced obesity model of mice. METHODS: Apoptosis, neurogenesis, the expression of the main trophic factors, and the fate of newborn cells were evaluated in the hypothalamus of adult male C57 BL/6 J mice fed a normal diet, a high-fat (HF) diet, or an HF diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg RSV (HF + RSV) for 6 wk...
December 2, 2017: Nutrition
Warren Pan, Jessica M Adams, Margaret B Allison, Christa Patterson, Jonathan N Flak, Justin Jones, Garth Strohbehn, James Trevaskis, Christopher J Rhodes, David P Olson, Martin G Myers
The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, acts via its receptor (LepRb) on central nervous system neurons to communicate the repletion of long-term energy stores, to decrease food intake and promote energy expenditure. We generated mice that express cre recombinase from the calcitonin receptor (Calcr) locus (Calcrcre mice) to study Calcr-expressing LepRb (LepRbCalcr) neurons, which reside predominantly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Calcrcre-mediated ablation of LepRb in LepRbCalcrKO mice caused hyperphagic obesity...
March 7, 2018: Endocrinology
Justin N Siemian, Shushan Jia, Jian-Feng Liu, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
Chronic pain is a significant public health problem with a lack of safe and effective analgesics. The imidazoline I2 receptor (I2 R) is a promising analgesic target, but the neuroanatomical structures involved in mediating I2 R-associated behaviors are unknown. I2 Rs are enriched in the arcuate nucleus, dorsal raphe (DR), interpeduncular nucleus, lateral mammillary body, medial habenula, nucleus accumbens (NAc), and paraventricular nucleus, thus this study investigated the antinociceptive and hypothermic effects of microinjections of the I2 R agonist 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride (2-BFI)...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Toshiya Matsuzaki, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Takeshi Iwasa, Kiyohito Yano, Yiliyasi Mayila, Takako Tokui, Rie Yanagihara, Sumika Matsui, Takeshi Kato, Akira Kuwahara, Minoru Irahara
Kisspeptin/neurokinin B (NKB)/dynorphin (Dyn) (KNDy) neuron in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus plays a key role in GnRH/LH pulsatile secretion. We aimed to determine whether stimulation of NKB/neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling and inhibition of Dyn/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling recover LH secretion that is suppressed by acute fasting in male rats. Furthermore, we determined dose dependent effect of NKB/NK3R signaling on serum LH level under acute fasting condition in male mice. Mature male rats were injected saline (0...
February 23, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Mina Desai, Monica G Ferrini, Guang Han, Juanita K Jellyman, Michael G Ross
In utero exposure to the ubiquitous plasticizer, bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with offspring obesity. As food intake/appetite is one of the critical elements contributing to obesity, we determined the effects of in vivo maternal BPA and in vitro BPA exposure on newborn hypothalamic stem cells which form the arcuate nucleus appetite center. For in vivo studies, female rats received BPA prior to and during pregnancy via drinking water, and newborn offspring primary hypothalamic neuroprogenitor (NPCs) were obtained and cultured...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Research
Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, D Ashley Monks, Iva B Zovkic, Melissa M Holmes
The social environment can alter pubertal timing through neuroendocrine mechanisms that are not fully understood; it is thought that stress hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids or corticotropin-releasing hormone) influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to inhibit puberty. Here, we use the eusocial naked mole-rat, a unique species in which social interactions in a colony (i.e. dominance of a breeding female) suppress puberty in subordinate animals. Removing subordinate naked mole-rats from this social context initiates puberty, allowing for experimental control of pubertal timing...
2018: PloS One
Thomas A Lutz, Bernd Coester, Lynda Whiting, Ambrose A Dunn-Meynell, Christina N Boyle, Sebastien G Bouret, Barry E Levin, Christelle Le Foll
Amylin phosphorylates ERK (p-ERK) in the area postrema (AP) to reduce eating and synergizes with leptin to phosphorylate STAT3 in the arcuate (ARC) and ventromedial (VMN) hypothalamic nuclei, to reduce food intake and body weight. The current studies assessed potential amylin and amylin-leptin ARC/VMN interactions on ERK signaling and their roles in postnatal hypothalamic pathway development. In amylin knockout (KO) mice, the density of agouti-related protein (AgRP) immunoreactive (IR) fibers in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was increased, while the density of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) fibers was decreased...
February 21, 2018: Diabetes
Lyvianne Decourtye, Maud Clemessy, Erik Mire, Tatiana Ledent, Laurence Périn, Iain C Robinson, Yves Le Bouc, Laurent Kappeler
Nutrition plays a critical role in programming and shaping linear growth during early postnatal life through direct action on the development of the neuroendocrine somatotropic (GH/IGF-1) axis. IGF-1 is a key factor in modulating the programming of linear growth during this period. Notably, IGF-1 preferentially stimulates axonal growth of GHRH neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc), which is crucial for the proliferation of somatotroph progenitors in the pituitary, thus influencing later GH secretory capacity...
2018: PloS One
M Szlis, J Polkowska, E Skrzeczyńska, B J Przybył, A Wójcik-Gładysz
The participation of peripheral peptides in the processes regulating the food intake (energy homeostasis) at the central nervous system level remains unclear. This study focuses on the role of obestatin in neuronal activity within the hypothalamic appetite-regulating network in ruminants. The animals (n = 28) were randomly divided into two groups. The sheep in the control group received intracerebroventricular infusions of the Ringer-Locke solution, and the sheep in obestatin group were infused with obestatin (diluted in the Ringer-Locke solution) at 25 μg per 120 μl/hr...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Natalie Ambrose, Karen A Waters, Michael L Rodriguez, Kendall Bailey, Rita Machaalani
The purpose of this study was to examine the neuronal expression of apoptotic markers in the rostral medulla of a newly characterized dataset of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and to determine the impact of diagnostic groupings on these findings and whether they pertain to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Immunohistochemical staining was quantified to determine the percentage of neurons positive for active caspase-9 (specific to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway), active caspase-3 (common to the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) (labels DNA fragmentation) in nine nuclei of the rostral medulla...
February 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Giuseppe Bruschetta, Sungho Jin, Jung Dae Kim, Sabrina Diano
OBJECTIVE: Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism by inactivating hypothalamic α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) levels. Although detected in the arcuate nucleus, limited PRCP expression has been observed in the arcuate POMC neurons, and its site of action in regulating metabolism is still ill-defined. METHODS: We performed immunostaining to assess the localization of PRCP in arcuate Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related Peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Iain J Clarke, Alexandra Rao, Belinda A Henry
Caloric restriction causes a homeostatic reduction in thermogenesis. We aimed to determine whether exercise could counteract this. We studied four groups of normal-weight ewes ( n = 5), including control sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise fed ad libitum (30 min/d, 5 d/wk), diet-restricted (70% of ad libitum food intake), and combined diet and exercise. Temperature probes implanted in sternal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue and skeletal muscle measured thermogenesis. After the 4-wk intervention, hypothalami were collected for in situ hybridization, and fat and muscle biopsies were collected for real-time PCR and Western blotting...
February 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Aygul Subkhangulova, Anna R Malik, Guido Hermey, Oliver Popp, Gunnar Dittmar, Thomas Rathjen, Matthew N Poy, Alexander Stumpf, Prateep Sanker Beed, Dietmar Schmitz, Tilman Breiderhoff, Thomas E Willnow
SORCS1 and SORCS3 are two related sorting receptors expressed in neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Using mouse models with individual or dual receptor deficiencies, we document a previously unknown function of these receptors in central control of metabolism. Specifically, SORCS1 and SORCS3 act as intracellular trafficking receptors for tropomyosin-related kinase B to attenuate signaling by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a potent regulator of energy homeostasis. Loss of the joint action of SORCS1 and SORCS3 in mutant mice results in excessive production of the orexigenic neuropeptide agouti-related peptide and in a state of chronic energy excess characterized by enhanced food intake, decreased locomotor activity, diminished usage of lipids as metabolic fuel, and increased adiposity, albeit at overall reduced body weight...
February 12, 2018: EMBO Reports
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