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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773580/resistin-inhibits-neuronal-autophagy-through-toll-like-receptor-4
#1
Jie Miao, Yacir Benomar, Sarah Al-Rifai, Ghislaine Poizat, Laure Riffault, Delphine Crepin, Mohammed Taouis
Autophagy is as a non-selective degradation pathway induced in energy-deprived cells and in non-starved cells by participating in cellular inflammatory responses mainly through the elimination of injured and aged mitochondria that constitute an important source of reactive oxygen species. We have previously reported that resistin/TLR4 signaling pathway induces inflammation and insulin resistance in neuronal cell. However, the impact of resistin-induced inflammation on neuronal autophagy is unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that resistin-induced neuroinflammation could be attributed, at least partially, to the impairment of autophagy pathways in neuronal cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772234/effects-of-n-3pufas-on-autophagy-and-inflammation-of-hypothalamus-and-body-weight-in-mice
#2
Xin Fang, Keli Ge, Chao Song, Yin Lin-Ge, Jin Yu-Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Fat-1 transgenic mice were used as a model to study the effect of endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) on the body weight, inflammatory factors and autophagy proteins in hypothalamus to explore the mechanism of n-3PUFAs inhibiting obesity. METHOD: The mice were divided into two groups after genotype identification: fat-1 transgenic mice and wild-type mice. The body weight and body length of mice were measured at 14th week, and calculated the Lee 's index...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751050/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-gene-expression-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-related-neuropeptides-in-mice-via-vestibular-inputs
#3
Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi Ueta
The effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g environment compared with a 1 g environment. Significant decreases in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and significant increases in neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein in the arcuate nucleus and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in both Sham and VL mice...
May 8, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748994/hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-glucokinase-regulates-insulin-secretion-and-glucose-homeostasis
#4
Yue Ma, Risheka Ratnasabapathy, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Marie-Sophie Nguyen-Tu, Errol Richardson, Sufyan Hussain, Ivan De Backer, Christopher Holton, Mariana Norton, Gaelle Carrat, Blanche Schwappach, Guy A Rutter, Waljit S Dhillo, James Gardiner
AIMS: Glucokinase (GK) serves as a glucose sensor in several tissues including glucose-sensitive neurons of the arcuate nucleus within the hypothalamus. We have previously demonstrated a role for arcuate GK in the regulation of food and glucose intake. However, its role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis is less clear. We therefore sought to investigate the role of arcuate GK in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing either GK or an antisense GK construct was used to alter GK activity specifically in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus...
May 11, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713310/kisspeptin-and-metabolism-the-brain-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Monika Dudek, Kamil Ziarniak, Joanna H Sliwowska
Apart from the well-established role of kisspeptin (Kp) in the regulation of reproductive functions, recent data described its action in the control of metabolism. Of particular interest for the review is the population of Kp neurons localized in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus, the site of the brain where reproductive and metabolic cross talk occurs. However, within the hypothalamus Kp does not work alone, but rather interacts with other neuropeptides, e.g., neurokinin B, dynorphin A, proopiomelanocortin, the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, agouti-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705701/protective-role-of-agrp-neuron-s-pdk1-against-salt-induced-hypertension
#6
Boyang Zhang, Masanori Nakata, Ming Lu, Jun Nakae, Takashi Okada, Wataru Ogawa, Toshihiko Yada
In the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) in AgRP neurons serves as a major signaling molecule for leptin and insulin, the hormones regulating feeding behavior, energy homeostasis and circulation. However, it is unclear whether PDK1 in AGRP neurons is also involved in regulation of blood pressure. This study explored it by generating and analyzing AgRP neuron-specific PDK1 knockout (Agrp-Pdk1flox/flox ) mice and effect of high salt diet on blood pressure in KO and WT mice was analyzed...
April 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692674/co-expression-of-the-calcitonin-receptor-gene-in-the-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-neurons-in-female-rats
#7
Assadullah, Nahoko Ieda, Narumi Kawai, Hirotaka Ishii, Kunio Ihara, Naoko Inoue, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Hiroko Tsukamura
Purpose: Hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons are considered to play a critical role in regulating mammalian reproduction and integrating humoral and neuronal inputs that control gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/gonadotropin release. The present study aimed to investigate the upstream regulator candidates for kisspeptin neurons. Methods: Visualized kisspeptin neurons that were taken from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of Kiss1 -tdTomato rats were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis...
April 2018: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689050/activation-of-temperature-sensitive-trpv1-like-receptors-in-arc-pomc-neurons-reduces-food-intake
#8
Jae Hoon Jeong, Dong Kun Lee, Shun-Mei Liu, Streamson C Chua, Gary J Schwartz, Young-Hwan Jo
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) respond to numerous hormonal and neural signals, resulting in changes in food intake. Here, we demonstrate that ARC POMC neurons express capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1)-like receptors. To show expression of TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons, we use single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, TRPV1 knock-out (KO), and TRPV1-Cre knock-in mice...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678290/orexin-a-and-endocannabinoid-signaling-regulate-glucose-responsive-arcuate-nucleus-neurons-and-feeding-behavior-in-obese-rats
#9
Dandan Yang, Luo Xu, Feifei Guo, Xiangrong Sun, Di Zhang, Mi Wang
Obesity is a global public health problem. Orexin and endocannabinoid signaling in the hypothalamus have been shown to regulate feeding and are promising molecular targets for obesity treatment. In this study, we attempted to analyze effects of orexin-A and endocannabinoid signaling modulation in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) on feeding and glucose-responsive (GR) neurons physiology in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) and diet-induced obesity resistant (DR) rat model. Administration of orexin-A or cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1 R) antagonist AM251 altered the firing of GR neurons in the Arc...
April 6, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670083/tap63-contributes-to-sexual-dimorphism-in-pomc-neuron-functions-and-energy-homeostasis
#10
Chunmei Wang, Yanlin He, Pingwen Xu, Yongjie Yang, Kenji Saito, Yan Xia, Xiaofeng Yan, Antentor Hinton, Chunling Yan, Hongfang Ding, Likai Yu, Gang Shu, Rajat Gupta, Qi Wu, Qingchun Tong, William R Lagor, Elsa R Flores, Yong Xu
Sexual dimorphism exists in energy balance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the female mice have more pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus than males, and female POMC neurons display higher neural activities, compared to male counterparts. Strikingly, deletion of the transcription factor, TAp63, in POMC neurons confers "male-like" diet-induced obesity (DIO) in female mice associated with decreased POMC neural activities; but the same deletion does not affect male mice...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663284/fluoxetine-modulates-the-activity-of-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-via-mtor-signaling
#11
Ilaria Barone, Riccardo Melani, Marco Mainardi, Gaia Scabia, Manuela Scali, Alessia Dattilo, Giovanni Ceccarini, Paolo Vitti, Ferruccio Santini, Lamberto Maffei, Tommaso Pizzorusso, Margherita Maffei
Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are important players in the regulation of energy homeostasis; we previously demonstrated that environmental stimulation excites arcuate nucleus circuits to undergo plastic remodeling, leading to altered ratio between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic contacts on these neurons. The widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is known to affect body weight. On the other hand, FLX administration mimics the effects of environmental stimulation on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cortex...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660735/the-anorexigenic-neural-pathways-of-oxytocin-and-its-clinical-implication
#12
Yuko Maejima, Shoko Yokota, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Kenju Shimomura
<br>Oxytocin was discovered in 1906 as a peptide that promotes delivery and milk ejection; however, its additional physiological functions were determined 100 years later. Many recent articles have reported newly discovered effects of oxytocin on social communication, bonding, reward-related behavior, adipose tissue, and muscle and food intake regulation. Because oxytocin neurons project to various regions in the brain that contribute to both feeding reward (hedonic feeding) and the regulation of energy balance (homeostatic feeding), the mechanisms of oxytocin on food intake regulation are complicated and largely unknown...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660453/tgf-%C3%AE-1-down-regulation-in-the-mediobasal-hypothalamus-attenuates-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity
#13
Natália F Mendes, Joana M Gaspar, José C Lima-Júnior, Jose Donato, Lício A Velloso, Eliana P Araújo
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats induces hypothalamic inflammation and impairs the function of the melanocortin system, leading to a defective regulation of caloric intake and whole-body energy expenditure. In mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), TGF-β1 expression was increased and NF-κB signaling was activated in proopiomelanocortin neurons, which plays an important role in the obesity-associated hypothalamic inflammation scenario. However, whether excessive hypothalamic TGF-β1 impairs energy homeostasis remains unclear...
April 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643838/identification-of-transmembrane-protease-serine-2-and-forkhead-box-a1-as-the-potential-bisphenol-a-responsive-genes-in-the-neonatal-male-rat-brain
#14
Takayoshi Ubuka, Shogo Moriya, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar Parhar
Perinatal exposure of Bisphenol A (BPA) to rodents modifies their behavior in later life. To understand how BPA modifies their neurodevelopmental process, we first searched for BPA responsive genes from androgen and estrogen receptor signaling target genes by polymerase chain reaction array in the neonatal male rat brain. We used a transgenic strain of Wistar rats carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein tagged to gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) promoter to investigate the possible interaction of BPA responsive genes and GnIH neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643769/the-role-of-physical-exercise-to-improve-the-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-via-pomc-neurons
#15
REVIEW
Kellen C da Cruz Rodrigues, Rodrigo M Pereira, Thaís D P de Campos, Rodrigo F de Moura, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, José R Pauli, Michel B de Araújo, Leandro P de Moura
Obesity is a public health issue that affects more than 600 million adults worldwide. The disease is characterized by fat accumulation, mainly in the abdominal area. The human body is mainly composed of two types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT); however, the browning process generates a different type of brown fat-like adipocyte in WAT, which similar to BAT has thermogenic capacity by activating UCP-1. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus plays an important role in WAT browning via POMC neurons, which are influenced by synergistic insulin and leptin signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643765/mirna-long-term-response-to-early-metabolic-environmental-challenge-in-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#16
Charlotte Benoit, Soraya Doubi-Kadmiri, Xavier Benigni, Delphine Crepin, Laure Riffault, Ghislaine Poizat, Claire-Marie Vacher, Mohammed Taouis, Anne Baroin-Tourancheau, Laurence Amar
Epidemiological reports and studies using rodent models indicate that early exposure to nutrient and/or hormonal challenges can reprogram metabolism at adulthood. Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) integrates peripheral and central signals to adequately regulate energy homeostasis. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the control of gene expression of large regulatory networks including many signaling pathways involved in epigenetics regulations. Here, we have characterized and compared the miRNA population of ARC of adult male rats continuously exposed to a balanced metabolic environment to the one of adult male rats exposed to an unbalanced high-fat/high-carbohydrate/moderate-protein metabolic environment during the perinatal period and/or at adulthood that consequently displayed hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperleptinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625208/development-of-the-human-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-a-morphometric-and-computerized-3d-reconstruction-study
#17
Katsuyuki Yamaguchi
INTRODUCTION: The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is the major relay center of the visual pathway in humans. There are few quantitative data on the morphology of LGN in prenatal infants. In this study, using serial brain sections, the author investigated the morphology of this nucleus during the second half of fetal period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven human brains were obtained at routine autopsy from preterm infants aged 20-39 postmenstrual weeks. After fixation, the brain was embedded en bloc in celloidin and cut serially at 30 μm in the horizontal plane...
April 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623545/glial-fatty-acid-binding-protein-7-fabp7-regulates-neuronal-leptin-sensitivity-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#18
Yuki Yasumoto, Hirofumi Miyazaki, Masaki Ogata, Yoshiteru Kagawa, Yui Yamamoto, Ariful Islam, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri, Yuji Owada
The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence (ME) are the primary hypothalamic sites that sense leptin and nutrients in the blood, thereby mediating food intake. Recently, studies demonstrating a role for non-neuronal cell types, including astrocytes and tanycytes, in these regulatory processes have begun to emerge. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined in detail the localization of fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) in the hypothalamic ARC and sought to determine its role in the hypothalamus...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604138/glucocorticoid-withdrawal-affects-stress-induced-changes-of-urocortin-2-gene-expression-in-rat-adrenal-medulla-and-brain
#19
Andrej Tillinger, Ľubica Horváthová, Regina Nostramo, Lidia I Serova, Richard Kvetňanský, Esther L Sabban, Boris Mravec
Corticotropin-releasing factor is well known activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, that represents crucial system participating on stress response of the organism. Urocortins are members of the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides with proposed effects on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress response mechanisms. Urocortin 2, one of three known urocortins, is present in central and peripheral stress response system and its expression can be augmented by glucocorticoids. In the present study we have examined how glucocorticoid withdrawal affects urocortin 2 gene expression after acute immobilization in the adrenal medulla and selected brain areas in rats...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596063/neuronal-hypothalamic-regulation-of-body-metabolism-and-bone-density-is-galanin-dependent
#20
Anna Idelevich, Kazusa Sato, Kenichi Nagano, Glenn Rowe, Francesca Gori, Roland Baron
In the brain, the ventral hypothalamus (VHT) regulates energy and bone metabolism. Whether this regulation uses the same or different neuronal circuits is unknown. Alteration of AP1 signaling in the VHT increases energy expenditure, glucose utilization, and bone density, yet the specific neurons responsible for each or all of these phenotypes are not identified. Using neuron-specific genetically targeted AP1 alterations as a tool in adult mice, we found that AgRP- or POMC- expressing neurons, predominantly present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) within the VHT, stimulate whole body energy expenditure, glucose utilization and bone formation and density, although their effects on bone resorption differed...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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