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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917264/expression-of-kisspeptin-protein-in-hypothalamus-and-lh-profile-of-growing-female-lambs
#1
Jolanta Polkowska, Anna Wójcik-Gładysz, Natalia Chmielewska, Marta Wańkowska
Kisspeptin (kp) is considered to be one of the major regulators of the induction of pubertal events via the activation of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-LH system. The aim of the present study was to analyse expression of immunoreactive (ir) kp in the hypothalamic neurons of female lambs from the neonatal to the peripubertal period (5 days to 32 weeks) in relation to the plasma LH pattern using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hypothalami were collected from female lambs (n=33) from the infantile, juvenile, prepubertal and peripubertal periods...
September 18, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917185/ghrelin-and-hypothalamic-npy-agrp-expression-in-mice-are-affected-by-chronic-early-life-stress-exposure-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#2
K Y Yam, S R Ruigrok, I Ziko, S N De Luca, P J Lucassen, S J Spencer, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) is a risk factor for metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity) with a notoriously higher prevalence in women compared to men. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. The development of the hypothalamic feeding and metabolic regulatory circuits occurs mostly in the early sensitive postnatal phase in rodents and is tightly regulated by the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin. We have previously demonstrated that chronic ES reduces circulating leptin and alters adipose tissue metabolism early and later in life similarly in both sexes...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914170/the-investigation-of-the-effects-of-topiramate-on-the-hypothalamic-levels-of-fat-mass-obesity-associated-protein-and-neuropeptide-y-in-obese-female-rats
#3
Işınsu Alkan, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Gamze Altun, Erkan Erener
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of topiramate on the fat mass/obesity-associated protein (FTO) and on the neuropeptide Y (NPY) level in the hypothalamus depending on the recently increased prevalence of obesity. METHOD: In this study, twenty-four female rats were divided into four equal groups: Non-obese control, obese control, non-obese topiramate, and obese topiramate. Obese groups were fed with a 40% high-fat diet. At the end of the 9th week, the drug treatment started and the subjects were treated with topiramate once a day for 6 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911868/central-and-peripheral-expression-sites-of-phoenixin-14-immunoreactivity-in-rats
#4
Philip Prinz, Sophie Scharner, Tiemo Friedrich, Martha Schalla, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
Phoenixin is a pleiotropic peptide involved in reproduction, anxiety and recently also implicated in the control of food intake. Besides the 20-amino acid phoenixin, the 14-amino acid phoenixin-14 also shows bioactive properties. However, the expression sites of phoenixin-14 in the brain and peripheral tissues are not yet described in detail. Therefore, a mapping of the brain and peripheral tissues from male and female Sprague-Dawley rats with a specific phoenixin-14 antibody was performed using western blot and immunohistochemistry...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910603/apolipoprotein-a-iv-constrains-hpa-and-behavioral-stress-responsivity-in-a-strain-dependent-manner
#5
Amy E B Packard, Jintao Zhang, Brent Myers, Chih-Wei Ko, Fei Wang, Patrick Tso, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
There is a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern interactions between daily life experiences (e.g., stress) and metabolic diseases, despite evidence that stress can have profound effects on cardiometabolic health. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a protein found in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport lipids throughout the body) where it participates in lipid handling and the regulation of peripheral metabolism. Moreover, apoA-IV is expressed in brain regions that regulate energy balance including the arcuate nucleus...
September 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903474/nitric-oxide-heat-shock-protein-axis-in-menopausal-hot-flushes-neglected-metabolic-issues-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-associated-with-deranged-heat-shock-response
#6
Antônio Azambuja Miragem, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt
BACKGROUND: Although some unequivocal underlying mechanisms of menopausal hot flushes have been demonstrated in animal models, the paucity of similar approaches in humans impedes further mechanistic outcomes. Human studies might show some as yet unexpected physiological mechanisms of metabolic adaptation that permeate the phase of decreased oestrogen levels in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. This is particularly relevant because both the severity and time span of hot flushes are associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory disease...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902709/effect-of-food-deprivation-on-the-hypothalamic-gene-expression-of-the-secretogranin-ii-derived-peptide-em66-in-rat
#7
Fatima Trebak, Isabelle Dubuc, Marie Picot, Abdelilah Alaoui, Jérôme Leprince, Gaëtan Prévost, Youssef Anouar, Rabia Magoul, Nicolas Chartrel
EM66 is a peptide derived from the chromogranin, secretogranin II (SG-II). Recent findings in mice indicate that EM66 is a novel anorexigenic neuropeptide that regulates hypothalamic feeding behavior, at least in part, by activating the POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of EM66 in the control of feeding behavior and, more specifically, its potential interactions with the NPY and POMC systems in rat. We analyzed by Q-PCR the gene expression of the EM66 precursor, SG-II, in hypothalamic extracts following 2, 3, or 4 days of food deprivation and compared it with the expression levels of the two major neuropeptidergic systems, that is, POMC and NPY, modulating feeding behavior...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891045/a-critical-period-for-the-trophic-actions-of-leptin-on-agrp-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#8
Anna Kamitakahara, Karine Bouyer, Chien-Hua Wang, Richard Simerly
In the developing hypothalamus, the fat-derived hormone leptin stimulates the growth of axons from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) to other regions that control energy balance. These projections are significantly reduced in leptin deficient (Lep(ob/ob) ) mice and this phenotype is largely rescued by neonatal leptin treatments. However, treatment of mature Lep(ob/ob) mice is ineffective, suggesting that the trophic action of leptin is limited to a developmental critical period. To temporally delineate closure of this critical period for leptin-stimulated growth, we treated Lep(ob/ob) mice with exogenous leptin during a variety of discrete time periods, and measured the density of Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP) containing projections from the ARH to the ventral part of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMHv), and to the medial parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus (PVHmp)...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890156/the-microbiota-influences-cell-death-and-microglial-colonization-in-the-perinatal-mouse-brain
#9
Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Morgan Mosley, Arlene J George, Lamiyah F Mussaji, Evan F Fullerton, Elara M Ruszkowski, Andrew J Jacobs, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing, Nancy G Forger
The mammalian fetus develops in a largely sterile environment, and direct exposure to a complex microbiota does not occur until birth. We took advantage of this to examine the effect of the microbiota on brain development during the first few days of life. The expression of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, developmental cell death, and microglial colonization in the brain were compared between newborn conventionally colonized mice and mice born in sterile, germ-free (GF) conditions. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α was markedly suppressed in GF newborns...
September 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886461/time-dependent-effects-of-olanzapine-treatment-on-the-expression-of-histidine-decarboxylase-h1-and-h3-receptor-in-the-rat-brain-the-roles-in-olanzapine-induced-obesity
#10
Meng He, Qingsheng Zhang, Chao Deng, Tiantian Jin, Xueqin Song, Hongqing Wang, Xu-Feng Huang
Antipsychotic treatment, particularly olanzapine and clozapine, induces severe obesity. The Histamine H1 receptor is considered to be an important contributor to olanzapine-induced obesity, however how olanzapine modulates the histaminergic system is not sufficiently understood. This study examined the effect of olanzapine on key molecules of the histaminergic system, including histidine decarboxylase (HDC), H1 receptor (H1R) and H3 receptor (H3R), in the brain at different stages of olanzapine-induced obesity...
August 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882466/a-low-degree-of-high-ambient-temperature-decreased-food-intake-and-activated-median-preoptic-and-arcuate-nuclei
#11
Pornsiri Suwanapaporn, Narongsak Chaiyabutr, Sumpun Thammacharoen
High ambient temperature (HTa) activates both behavioral and autonomic responses. Decreased food intake (FI) is a well-known behavioral response under HTa. In general, this behavioral response seems to be mediated under the activation of the stress axis. The present study, however, revealed that decreased FI after a low degree of HTa appeared to be activated earlier than stress axis activation. By comparing low and high levels of HTa exposure in rats, the present experiment demonstrated that the HTa-induced decrease in FI was clear in both conditions...
September 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881823/hypertriglyceridemia-in-female-rats-during-pregnancy-induces-obesity-in-male-offspring-via-altering-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#12
Tanzil Ur Rahman, Kamran Ullah, Zhang-Hong Ke, Meng-Xi Guo, Lu-Yang Jin, Jun Ren, Yu-Zhong Zhou, Yi Cheng, Xin-Yan Dong, Hai-Yan Pang, Ting-Ting Wang, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
Maternal obesity influence the child's long-term development and health. Though, the mechanism concerned in this process is still uncertain. In the present study, we explored whether overfeeding of a high-fat diet during pregnancy in female rats altered metabolic phenotypes in an F1 generation and authenticated the contribution of hypothalamic leptin signaling. Leptin responsiveness and the number of immunopositive neurons for phosphorylated signal transducer and activator transcription 3 (pSTAT3) were analyzed...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875319/kisspeptin-expression-features-in-the-arcuate-and-anteroventral-periventricular-nuclei-of-hypothalamus-of-letrozole-induced-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-in-rats
#13
Elham Aliabadi, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Keywan Mortezaee, Heidar Toolee, Sara Keshtgar, Hossein Mirkhani, Mohammad Akbari, Tayebeh Rastegar, Somayeh Solhjoo
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of the reproductive system characterized by polycystic ovaries and androgen excess. Letrozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that is used in experimental research to induce PCOS. Kisspeptin is an essential protein in regulation of cyclicity. Kisspeptin receptor is expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands, and kisspeptin containing neurons are affected from sex steroid hormones. We aimed to investigate the number of kisspeptin-positive cells in the arcuate (Arc) and anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV) of hypothalamus in the letrozole-induced PCOS...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871463/specific-effects-of-prenatal-dehp-exposure-on-neuroendocrine-gene-expression-in-the-developing-hypothalamus-of-male-rats
#14
Na Gao, Ruixia Hu, Yujing Huang, Long Dao, Caifeng Zhang, Yongzhe Liu, Lina Wu, Xutong Wang, Weiling Yin, Andrea C Gore, Zengrong Sun
Endocrine disrupting chemicals may disrupt developing neuroendocrine systems, especially when the exposure occurs during a critical period. This study aimed to investigate whether prenatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a major component of plasticizers used worldwide, disrupted the development of a network of genes important for neuroendocrine function in male rats. Pregnant rats were treated with corn oil (vehicle control), 2, 10 or 50 mg/kg DEHP by gavage from gestational day 14 to 19. The neuroendocrine gene expressions were quantified using a 48-gene Taqman qPCR array in the whole hypothalamus of neonatal rats (postnatal day 1) and in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) of adult rats (postnatal day 70)...
September 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859282/a-neurokinin-3-receptor-selective-agonist-accelerates-pulsatile-luteinizing-hormone-secretion-in-lactating-cattle
#15
Sho Nakamura, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi, Takashi Yamamura, Satoshi Ohkura, Shuichi Matsuyama
Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which is indispensable for follicular development, is suppressed in lactating dairy and beef cattle. Neurokinin B (NKB) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are considered to play an essential role in generating the pulsatile mode of GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The present study aimed to clarify the role of NKB-neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling in the pulsatile pattern of GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in postpartum lactating cattle...
July 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859076/developmental-programming-of-somatic-growth-behavior-and-endocannabinoid-metabolism-by-variation-of-early-postnatal-nutrition-in-a-cross-fostering-mouse-model
#16
Felix Schreiner, Merle Ackermann, Michael Michalik, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Ildiko Racz, Laura Bindila, Beat Lutz, Jörg Dötsch, Andreas Zimmer, Joachim Woelfle
BACKGROUND: Nutrient deprivation during early development has been associated with the predisposition to metabolic disorders in adulthood. Considering its interaction with metabolism, appetite and behavior, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system represents a promising target of developmental programming. METHODS: By cross-fostering and variation of litter size, early postnatal nutrition of CB6F1-hybrid mice was controlled during the lactation period (3, 6, or 10 pups/mother)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857123/evaluation-of-a-role-for-npy-and-npy2r-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity-by-mutation-and-copy-number-variation-analysis-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#17
Evi Aerts, Ellen Geets, Laure Sorber, Sigri Beckers, An Verrijken, Guy Massa, Kim Van Hoorenbeeck, Stijn L Verhulst, Luc F Van Gaal, Wim Van Hul
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its G protein-coupled NPY Y2 Receptor (NPY2R) are highly expressed in orexigenic NPY/Agouti-related peptide neurons within the arcuate nucleus, a major integrator of appetite control in the hypothalamus. As NPY and NPY2R are interesting candidate genes for obesity, we hypothesized that a genetic variation in these genes might be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the first part of this study, we performed a mutation analysis of the coding region of NPY and NPY2R with high-resolution melting curve analysis...
August 31, 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855710/gpr88-is-a-critical-regulator-of-feeding-and-body-composition-in-mice
#18
Jackie Lau, Aitak Farzi, Ronaldo F Enriquez, Yan-Chuan Shi, Herbert Herzog
GPR88 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor with predominant expression in reward-related areas in the brain. While the lack of GPR88 has been demonstrated to induce behavioral deficits, the potential function of the receptor in the control of food intake and energy balance remains unexplored. In this work, the role of GPR88 in energy homeostasis was investigated in Gpr88 (-/-) mice fed either standard chow or high fat diet (HFD). Gpr88 (-/-) mice showed significantly reduced adiposity accompanied with suppressed spontaneous food intake, particularly pronounced under HFD treatment...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852859/neuronal-connections-of-the-central-amygdalar-nucleus-with-refeeding-activated-brain-areas-in-rats
#19
Györgyi Zséli, Barbara Vida, Anett Szilvásy-Szabó, Mónika Tóth, Ronald M Lechan, Csaba Fekete
Following fasting, satiety is accompanied by neuronal activation in brain areas including the central amygdalar nucleus (CEA). Since CEA is known to inhibit food intake, we hypothesized that CEA contributes to the termination of meal during refeeding. To better understand the organization of this satiety-related circuit, the interconnections of the CEA with refeeding-activated neuronal groups were elucidated using retrograde (cholera toxin-β subunit, CTB) and anterograde (phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) tracers in male rats...
August 29, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845307/a-hypothalamic-leptin-glutamate-interaction-in-the-regulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#20
Hong Zheng, Xuefei Liu, Yulong Li, Kaushik P Patel
Accumulated evidence indicates that obesity-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with enhanced sympathetic activation. The present study was conducted to investigate the role for leptin-glutamate signaling within the hypothalamus in regulating sympathetic nerve activity. In anesthetized rats, microinjections of leptin (5 ng ~ 100 ng) into the arcuate nucleus (ARCN) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) induced increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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