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arcuate nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324006/effects-of-season-and-estradiol-on-kndy-neuron-peptides-colocalization-with-d2-dopamine-receptors-and-dopaminergic-inputs-in-the-ewe
#1
Peyton Weems, Jeremy Smith, Iain J Clarke, Lique M Coolen, Robert L Goodman, Michael N Lehman
Seasonal reproduction in sheep is primarily due to a dramatic increase in the ability of estradiol (E2) to inhibit the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during the non-breeding season (anestrus). Recent findings suggest that KNDy (kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) play a key role in conveying this negative feedback influence, with dopaminergic projections from the retrochiasmatic area acting upon KNDy cells to decrease kisspeptin release and thus inhibit GnRH pulses...
January 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323972/neurosecretory-protein-gl-a-hypothalamic-small-secretory-protein-participates-in-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#2
Daichi Matsuura, Kenshiro Shikano, Takaya Saito, Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Megumi Furumitsu, Yuta Ochi, Manami Sato, George E Bentley, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Kazuyoshi Ukena
We have recently identified a novel cDNA encoding a small secretory protein termed neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL) from the avian hypothalamus. In chicks, NPGL increases body weight gain without affecting food intake. A database search reveals that NPGL is conserved throughout vertebrates. However, the central distribution and functional role of NPGL remains to be elucidated in mammals. In this study, we identified the precursor cDNA encoding NPGL from the mouse hypothalamus. Quantitative RT-PCR and morphological analyses revealed that NPGL precursor mRNA is robustly expressed in the mediobasal hypothalamus with NPGL neurons specifically localized to the lateroposterior part of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus...
March 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323108/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-significantly-decreases-microglia-activation-in-the-arcuate-nucleus
#3
Steven A Lloyd, Beau Corkill, Matthew C Bruster, Rick L Roberts, Ryan A Shanks
Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323039/pomc-and-npy-mrna-expression-during-development-is-increased-in-rat-offspring-brain-from-mothers-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#4
Marianne Orlandini Klein, Harry MacKay, Alexander Edwards, Su-Bin Park, Ana Carolina Inhasz Kiss, Luciano Freitas Felicio, Alfonso Abizaid
Developmental programming is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317906/novel-hypophysiotropic-agrp2-neurons-and-pineal-cells-revealed-by-bac-transgenesis-in-zebrafish
#5
Inbal Shainer, Adi Buchshtab, Thomas A Hawkins, Stephen W Wilson, Roger D Cone, Yoav Gothilf
The neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP) is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulating food consumption and energy homeostasis. Fish express two agrp genes in the brain: agrp1, considered functionally homologous with the mammalian AgRP, and agrp2. The role of agrp2 and its relationship to agrp1 are not fully understood. Utilizing BAC transgenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which agrp1- and agrp2-expressing cells can be visualized and manipulated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314964/increased-intake-of-energy-dense-diet-and-negative-energy-balance-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-psychosocial-defeat
#6
Roberto Coccurello, Adele Romano, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Bianca Tempesta, Marco Fiore, Anna Maria Giudetti, Ilaria Marrocco, Fabio Altieri, Anna Moles, Silvana Gaetani
PURPOSE: Chronic exposure to stress may represent a risk factor for developing metabolic and eating disorders, mostly driven by the overconsumption of easily accessible energy-dense palatable food, although the mechanisms involved remain still unclear. In this study, we used an ethologically oriented murine model of chronic stress caused by chronic psychosocial defeat (CPD) to investigate the effects of unrestricted access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) on food intake, body weight, energy homeostasis, and expression of different brain neuropeptides...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295274/kisspeptin-innervation-of-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-sexual-dimorphism-and-effect-of-estrous-cycle-in-female-mice
#7
Marilena Marraudino, Dèsirèe Miceli, Alice Farinetti, Giovanna Ponti, GianCarlo Panzica, Stefano Gotti
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the major autonomic output area of the hypothalamus and a critical regulatory center for energy homeostasis. The organism's energetic balance is very important for both the regular onset of puberty and regulation of fertility. Several studies have suggested a relationship among neural circuits controlling food intake, energy homeostasis and the kisspeptin peptide. The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies [the anterior ventral periventricular region (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC)] projecting mainly to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and to a few other locations, including the PVN...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286321/synaptic-proteome-changes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-mother-rats
#8
Edina Brigitta Udvari, Katalin Völgyi, Péter Gulyássy, Diána Dimén, Viktor Kis, János Barna, Éva Rebeka Szabó, Gert Lubec, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Árpád Dobolyi
To establish synaptic proteome changes associated with motherhood, we isolated synaptosome fractions from the hypothalamus of mother rats and non-maternal control females at the 11th postpartum day. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometric protein identification established 26 significant proteins, 7 increasing and 19 decreasing protein levels in the dams. The altered proteins are mainly involved in energy homeostasis, protein folding, and metabolic processes suggesting the involvement of these cellular processes in maternal adaptations...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279674/effect-of-photoperiod-and-6-methoxybenzoxazolinone-6-mboa-on-the-reproduction-of-male-brandt-s-voles-lasiopodomys-brandtii
#9
Xin Dai, Jia Shi, Mei Han, Ai Qin Wang, Wan Hong Wei, Sheng Mei Yang
Plant secondary metabolite 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) has been suggested to stimulate animal reproduction. 6-MBOA is detected in Leymus chinensis, a main diet of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). We have previously reported a stimulatory effect of 6-MBOA on reproduction of male Brandt's voles under a short-day photoperiod. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of 6-MBOA on reproductive physiology of male Brandt's voles under a long-day photoperiod and examine if 6-MBOA under this photoperiodic regime altered the reproductive status of male Brandt's voles differently than the short-day photoperiod...
March 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279562/neural-circuit-mechanisms-underlying-emotional-regulation-of-homeostatic-feeding
#10
REVIEW
Patrick Sweeney, Yunlei Yang
The neural circuits controlling feeding and emotional behaviors are intricately and reciprocally connected. Recent technological developments, including cell type-specific optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches, allow functional characterization of genetically defined cell populations and neural circuits in feeding and emotional processes. Here we review recent studies that have utilized circuit-based manipulations to decipher the functional interactions between neural circuits controlling feeding and those controlling emotional processes...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275717/the-arcuate-nucleus-a-site-of-fast-negative-feedback-for-corticosterone-secretion-in-male-rats
#11
Luis Leon-Mercado, Daniela Herrera Moro Chao, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs
Variations in circulating corticosterone (Cort) are driven by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), mainly via the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) directly stimulating Cort release from the adrenal gland and via corticotropin-releasing hormone targeting the adenohypophysis to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cort feeds back through glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Here we show in male Wistar rats that PVN neurons projecting to the adrenal gland do not express GRs, leaving the question of how the ANS in the PVN gets information about circulating Cort levels to control the adrenal...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275162/leptin-signalling-in-agrp-neurons-modulates-puberty-onset-and-adult-fertility-in-mice
#12
Olivia K Egan, Megan A Inglis, Greg M Anderson
The hormone leptin indirectly communicates metabolic information to brain neurons that control reproduction, using GABAergic circuitry. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus are GABAergic, express leptin receptors (LepR) and are known to influence reproduction. This study tested whether leptin actions on AgRP neurons are required and sufficient for puberty onset and subsequent fertility. Firstly, Agrp-Cre and Lepr-flox mice were used to target deletion of LepR to AgRP neurons. AgRP-LepR knockout female mice exhibited mild obesity and adiposity as previously described, as well as a significant delay in the pubertal onset of estrous cycles compared to control animals...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271037/cholinergic-neurons-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-regulate-food-intake
#13
Jae Hoon Jeong, Dong Kun Lee, Young-Hwan Jo
OBJECTIVE: Central cholinergic neural circuits play a role in the regulation of feeding behavior. The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is considered the appetite-stimulating center and contains cholinergic neurons. Here, we study the role of DMH cholinergic neurons in the control of food intake. METHODS: To selectively stimulate DMH cholinergic neurons, we expressed stimulatory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) and channelrhodopsins in DMH cholinergic neurons by injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors into the DMH of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IRES-Cre mice...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263184/angiotensin-at1a-receptors-on-leptin-receptor-expressing-cells-control-resting-metabolism
#14
Kristin E Claflin, Jeremy A Sandgren, Allyn M Lambertz, Benjamin J Weidemann, Nicole K Littlejohn, Colin M L Burnett, Nicole A Pearson, Donald A Morgan, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Kamal Rahmouni, Justin L Grobe
Leptin contributes to the control of resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood pressure (BP) through its actions in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin AT1 receptors within the brain are also involved in the control of RMR and BP, but whether this regulation overlaps with leptin's actions is unclear. Here, we have demonstrated the selective requirement of the AT1A receptor in leptin-mediated control of RMR. We observed that AT1A receptors colocalized with leptin receptors (LEPRs) in the ARC...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229972/early-life-stress-experience-may-blunt-hypothalamic-leptin-signalling
#15
J H Lee, S B Yoo, J Y Kim, J Y Lee, B T Kim, K Park, J W Jahng
The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225852/tryptophan-overloading-activates-brain-regions-involved-with-cognition-mood-and-anxiety
#16
Luana C A Silva, Milena B Viana, José S Andrade, Melyssa A Souza, Isabel C Céspedes, Vânia D'Almeida
Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days...
February 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224417/neuroanatomical-circuitry-between-kidney-and-rostral-elements-of-brain-a-virally-mediated-transsynaptic-tracing-study-in-mice
#17
Ye-Ting Zhou, Zhi-Gang He, Tao-Tao Liu, Mao-Hui Feng, Ding-Yu Zhang, Hong-Bing Xiang
The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control renal function is not well understood. We identified specific neural populations of rostral elements of brain regions that project multisynaptically to the kidneys in 3-6 days after injecting a retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 into kidney of 13 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice. PRV-614 infected neurons were detected in a number of mesencephalic (e.g. central amygdala nucleus), telencephalic regions and motor cortex...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191524/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Undurti N Das
Obesity and its consequent complications such as hypertension and metabolic syndrome are increasing in incidence in almost all countries. Insulin resistance is common in obesity. Renin- angiotensin system (RAS) is an important target in the treatment of hypertension and drugs that act on RAS improve insulin resistance and decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, explaining the close association between hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RAS influences food intake by modulating the hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y and orexins via AMPK dephosphorylation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185482/suckling-induced-activation-pattern-in-the-brain-of-rat-pups
#19
János Barna, Eva Renner, Antónia Arszovszki, Melinda Cservenák, Zsolt Kovács, Miklós Palkovits, Arpád Dobolyi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand the effects of suckling on the brain of the pups by mapping their brain activation pattern in response to suckling. METHODS: The c-fos method was applied to identify activated neurons. Fasted rat pups were returned to their mothers for suckling and sacrificed 2 hours later for Fos immunohistochemistry. Double labeling was also performed to characterize some of the activated neurons. For comparison, another group of fasted pups were given dry food before Fos mapping...
February 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168997/icv-galanin-like-peptide-stimulates-non-contact-erections-but-not-touch-based-erections-in-adult-sexually-experienced-male-rats
#20
Gregory S Fraley
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide transcribed only within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is thought to be a mediator between energetics and reproductive function. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of GALP is known to have effects on feeding, and to significantly increase gonadotropin releasing hormone- (GnRH-) mediated luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Furthermore, ICV GALP is known to stimulate fos production in the medial pre-optic area (mPOA) and to a lesser extent, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
January 23, 2017: Neuropeptides
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