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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132814/incidence-of-child-and-adolescent-mental-disorders-in-children-aged-0-17-with-familial-high-risk-for-severe-mental-illness-a-danish-register-study
#1
Anne A E Thorup, Thomas Munk Laursen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Anne Ranning, Preben Bo Mortensen, Kerstin J Plessen, Merete Nordentoft
BACKGROUND: Offspring of parents with severe mental illness (SMI: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) have an increased risk of developing mental disorder themselves. In childhood they may have neurodevelopmental delays, cognitive deficits and social adversities. We aimed to investigate if these individuals are more at risk of being diagnosed with a mental disorder during childhood/adolescence in a national sample. METHODS: By linking Danish registers we established a cohort consisting of all persons born to parents with SMI with those born to parents without SMI serving as a reference group...
November 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130372/-motility-psychoses-by-erik-str%C3%A3-mgren-1940
#2
German E Berrios, Johan Schioldann
The motility psychoses are a group of acute psychiatric conditions characterized by salient disorders of movement (increased, decreased and disorganized), psychotic experiences, confusion and good prognosis. The debate on whether they are just atypical forms of schizophrenia or manic-depressive insanity or constitute an independent group of psychoses has not yet been settled. Erik Strömgren's classical chapter deals with the history and clinical aspects of the motility psychoses. Based on a historical analysis and an empirical study of a patient cohort, the author draws conclusions on the nature of this clinical group that has stood the test of time well...
December 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129510/increase-in-serum-hdl-level-is-associated-with-less-negative-symptoms-after-one-year-of-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#3
Priyanthi B Gjerde, Ingrid Dieset, Carmen Simonsen, Eva Z Hoseth, Trude Iversen, Trine V Lagerberg, Siv Hege Lyngstad, Ragni H Mørch, Silje Skrede, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Vidar M Steen
BACKGROUND: A potential link between increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides and clinical improvement has been observed during antipsychotic drug treatment in chronic schizophrenia patients, possibly due to drug related effects on lipid biosynthesis. We examined whether changes in serum lipids are associated with alleviation of psychosis symptoms after one year of antipsychotic drug treatment in a cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: A total of 132 non-affective antipsychotic-treated FEP patients were included through the Norwegian Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) project...
November 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128620/patients-with-schizophrenia-have-a-higher-risk-of-psoriasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Patompong Ungprasert, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of psoriasis among patients with schizophrenia although the results are still inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies that compared the risk psoriasis among patients with schizophrenia versus subjects without schizophrenia was conducted to better characterize the risk. Pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals from the included studies were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127503/relationships-between-low-grade-peripheral-inflammation-and-psychotropic-drugs-in-schizophrenia-results-from-the-national-face-sz-cohort
#5
G Fond, N Resseguier, F Schürhoff, O Godin, M Andrianarisoa, L Brunel, E Bulzacka, B Aouizerate, F Berna, D Capdevielle, I Chereau, T D'Amato, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, F Gabayet, C Lançon, P M Llorca, J Mallet, D Misdrahi, C Passerieux, R Rey, A Schandrin, M Urbach, P Vidailhet, L Boyer, M Leboyer
Low-grade inflammation has repeatedly been associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and in particular with cognitive impairment. Female gender, overweight and tobacco smoking have been suggested as risk factors to increase inflammation while preclinical inconsistent findings have been found regarding the association with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to explore if psychotropic drugs were associated with inflammation in SZ and to determine which psychotropic drug was associated with inflammation in stable SZ subjects while considering clinical confounding factors...
November 10, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125908/transgender-medicare-beneficiaries-and-chronic-conditions-exploring-fee-for-service-claims-data
#6
Christina N Dragon, Paul Guerino, Erin Ewald, Alison M Laffan
PURPOSE: Data on the health and well-being of the transgender population are limited. However, using claims data we can identify transgender Medicare beneficiaries (TMBs) with high confidence. We seek to describe the TMB population and provide comparisons of chronic disease burden between TMBs and cisgender Medicare beneficiaries (CMBs), thus laying a foundation for national level TMB health disparity research. METHODS: Using a previously validated claims algorithm based on ICD-9-CM codes relating to transsexualism and gender identity disorder, we identified a cohort of TMBs using Medicare Fee-for-Service (FFS) claims data...
November 10, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120948/parvalbumin-containing-gaba-cells-and-schizophrenia-experimental-model-based-on-targeted-gene-delivery-through-adeno-associated-viruses
#7
Marta U Woloszynowska-Fraser, Peer Wulff, Gernot Riedel
Understanding the contribution of transmitter systems in behavioural pharmacology has a long tradition. Multiple techniques such as transmitter-specific lesions, and also localized administration of pharmacological toxins including agonists and antagonists of selected receptors have been applied. More recently, modern genetic tools have permitted cell-type selective interferences, for example by expression of light-sensitive channels followed by optogenetic stimulation in behaviourally meaningful settings or by engineered channels termed DREADDS that respond to peripherally administered drugs...
December 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120845/markers-of-dna-rna-damage-from-oxidation-as-predictors-of-a-registry-based-diagnosis-of-psychiatric-illness-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#8
Anders Jorgensen, Volkert Siersma, Annette S Davidsen, Allan Weimann, Trine Henriksen, Henrik E Poulsen, Niels de Fine Olivarius
Oxidative stress is a potential biological mediator of the higher rates of psychiatric illness (PI) observed after the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We investigated validated urinary markers of systemic DNA/RNA damage from oxidation (8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo respectively) as predictors of incident PI in a cohort of 1381 newly diagnosed T2DM patients, who were followed prospectively for a total of 19 years after diagnosis. Psychiatric diagnoses were from Danish national registries. Patients were examined at the time of diagnosis and at a 6-year follow-up...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116126/development-of-multivariable-models-to-predict-change-in-body-mass-index-within-a-clinical-trial-population-of-psychotic-individuals
#9
Rebecca N S Harrison, Fiona Gaughran, Robin M Murray, Sang Hyuck Lee, Jose Paya Cano, David Dempster, Charles J Curtis, Danai Dima, Hamel Patel, Simone de Jong, Gerome Breen
Many antipsychotics promote weight gain, which can lead to non-compliance and relapse of psychosis. By developing models that accurately identify individuals at greater risk of weight gain, clinicians can make informed treatment decisions and target intervention measures. We examined clinical, genetic and expression data for 284 individuals with psychosis derived from a previously published randomised controlled trial (IMPACT). These data were used to develop regression and classification models predicting change in Body Mass Index (BMI) over one year...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115928/the-japanese-version-of-the-questionnaire-about-the-process-of-recovery-development-and-validity-and-reliability-testing
#10
Akiko Kanehara, Risa Kotake, Yuki Miyamoto, Yousuke Kumakura, Kentaro Morita, Tomoko Ishiura, Kimiko Shimizu, Yumiko Fujieda, Shuntaro Ando, Shinsuke Kondo, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Personal recovery is increasingly recognised as an important outcome measure in mental health services. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR-J) and test its validity and reliability. METHODS: The study comprised two stages that employed the cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs, respectively. We translated the questionnaire using a standard translation/back-translation method...
November 7, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112193/transcriptome-alterations-of-prefrontal-cortical-parvalbumin-neurons-in-schizophrenia
#11
J F Enwright Iii, Z Huo, D Arion, J P Corradi, G Tseng, D A Lewis
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This dysfunction is manifest as cognitive deficits that appear to arise from disturbances in gamma frequency oscillations. These oscillations are generated in DLPFC layer 3 (L3) via reciprocal connections between pyramidal cells (PCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons. The density of cortical PV neurons is not altered in SZ, but expression levels of several transcripts involved in PV cell function, including PV, are lower in the disease...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108011/evidence-of-increased-exposure-to-toxoplasma-gondii-in-individuals-with-recent-onset-psychosis-but-not-with-established-schizophrenia
#12
Robert Yolken, E Fuller Torrey, Faith Dickerson
A possible role for Toxoplasma gondii in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is supported by epidemiological studies and animal models of infection. However, recent studies attempting to link Toxoplasma to schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. We performed a nested case-control study measured serological evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in a cohort of 2052 individuals. Within this cohort, a total of 1481 individuals had a psychiatric disorder and 571 of were controls without a psychiatric disorder...
November 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107702/intra-nasal-dopamine-alleviates-cognitive-deficits-in-tgdisc1-rats-which-overexpress-the-human-disc1-gene
#13
An-Li Wang, Benedetta Fazari, Owen Y Chao, Susanne Nikolaus, Svenja V Trossbach, Carsten Korth, Fernando J Sialana, Gert Lubec, Joseph P Huston, Claudia Mattern, Maria Angelica de Souza Silva
The Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene has been associated with mental illnesses such as major depression and schizophrenia. The transgenic DISC1 (tgDISC1) rat, which overexpresses the human DISC1 gene, is known to exhibit deficient dopamine (DA) homeostasis. To ascertain whether the DISC1 gene also impacts cognitive functions, 14-15 months old male tgDISC1 rats and wild-type controls were subjected to the novel object preference (NOP) test and the object-based attention test (OBAT) in order to assess short-term memory (1 h), long-term memory (24 h), and attention...
October 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107567/prevalence-correlates-of-areca-use-among-rural-south-indian-schizophrenia-patients-a-comparative-study-with-general-population
#14
Shashank Arunachal Udapi, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Kudumallige K Suresh, Udupi Arunachala, Jagadisha Thirthalli
Aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of areca use among schizophrenia patients and general population of a south Indian rural community and to study the correlates of areca use among patients. A cohort of 300 schizophrenia patients, who are being followed up as a part of a community intervention program, formed the study group. The control group (n=382) was selected randomly from the general population of this region. Both were interviewed regarding the sociodemographic details, use of areca nut, alcohol and tobacco...
October 24, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107449/risk-of-gastrointestinal-hypomotility-in-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder-treated-with-antipsychotics-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Hsing-Kang Chen, Chia-Jung Hsieh
OBJECTIVE: The risk of gastrointestinal hypomotility (GIHM) with the use of antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia remains inadequately recognized. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of GIHM and its risks in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified adult (≥ 20years of age) patients with a first-time diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in the Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients during the period from 2001 to 2011...
October 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106788/early-onset-inguinal-hernia-as-risk-factor-for-schizophrenia-or-related-psychosis-a-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#16
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: In an earlier interview study, we found that more men with familial schizophrenia had undergone inguinal hernia operation, than men with sporadic schizophrenia. However, there are no other studies published specifically on inguinal hernia and schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to carry out a Swedish register-based cohort study on the association between inguinal hernia and schizophrenia or related psychosis. METHODS: Data from the Total Population- and Medical Birth-Registers were used to create a cohort of all individuals born in Sweden 1987-1999 (n=1 406 168)...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104802/a-rasch-analysis-between-schizophrenic-patients-and-the-general-population
#17
Frederic Denis, Pablo Bizien, Stéphanie Tubert-Jeannin, Mohamad Hamad, Benoit Trojak, Nathalie Rude, Jean-Benoit Hardouin
Background: The aim of this study was to test the General Oral Health Assessment Index Questionnaire (GOHAI) items for differential item functioning (DIF) according to demographic characteristics (gender, age) and mental health status (schizophrenic disorders versus general population) using Rasch analysis. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using aggregated baseline data from a validation study of the GOHAI in the French general population (GP) and similar validation study in persons with schizophrenia (PWS)...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102659/regulation-of-inflammatory-pathways-in-schizophrenia-a-comparative-study-with-bipolar-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#18
L García-Álvarez, J R Caso, M P García-Portilla, L de la Fuente-Tomás, L González-Blanco, P Sáiz Martínez, J C Leza, J Bobes
BACKGROUND: Immune-inflammatory processes have been implicated in schizophrenia (SCH), but their specificity is not clear. MAIN AIM: To identify potential differential intra-/intercellular biochemical pathways controlling immune-inflammatory response and their oxidative-nitrosative impact on SCH patients, compared with bipolar disorder (BD) patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Cross-sectional, naturalistic study of a cohort of SCH patients (n=123) and their controls [BD (n=102) and HC (n=80)]...
October 18, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100628/developmental-changes-within-the-genetic-architecture-of-social-communication-behavior-a-multivariate-study-of-genetic-variance-in-unrelated-individuals
#19
Beate St Pourcain, Lindon J Eaves, Susan M Ring, Simon E Fisher, Sarah Medland, David M Evans, George Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: Recent analyses of trait-disorder overlap suggest that psychiatric dimensions may relate to distinct sets of genes that exert maximum influence during different periods of development. This includes analyses of social communication difficulties that share, depending on their developmental stage, stronger genetic links with either autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. We developed a multivariate analysis framework in unrelated individuals to model directly the developmental profile of genetic influences contributing to complex traits, such as social communication difficulties, during an approximately 10-year period spanning childhood and adolescence...
September 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098977/rising-incidence-of-psychiatric-disorders-before-diagnosis-of-immune-mediated-inflammatory-disease
#20
R A Marrie, R Walld, J M Bolton, J Sareen, J R Walker, S B Patten, A Singer, L M Lix, C A Hitchon, R El-Gabalawy, A Katz, J D Fisk, C N Bernstein
AIMS: After the diagnosis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity is increased relative to the general population. We aimed to determine whether the incidence of psychiatric disorders is increased in the 5 years before the diagnosis of IMID as compared with the general population. METHODS: Using population-based administrative health data from the Canadian province of Manitoba, we identified all persons with incident IBD, MS and RA between 1989 and 2012, and cohorts from the general population matched 5 : 1 on year of birth, sex and region to each disease cohort...
November 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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