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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632422/risk-of-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-during-clozapine-and-other-antipsychotic-drug-treatment-of-schizophrenia-in-iceland
#1
Oddur Ingimarsson, James H MacCabe, Magnús Haraldsson, Halldóra Jónsdóttir, Engilbert Sigurdsson
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and raised blood lipids are associated with the use of antipsychotics, not least clozapine. AIMS: To describe the prevalence of high blood glucose levels, T2D, and dyslipidemia, in association with the use of clozapine or other antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia in Iceland. METHOD: This study identified 188 patients treated with clozapine and 395 patients never treated with clozapine by searching the electronic health records of Landspitali, the National University Hospital...
June 20, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625185/deterioration-of-visuospatial-associative-memory-following-a-first-psychotic-episode-a-long-term-follow-up-study
#2
C M J Wannan, C F Bartholomeusz, V L Cropley, T E Van Rheenen, A Panayiotou, W J Brewer, T M Proffitt, L Henry, M G Harris, D Velakoulis, P McGorry, C Pantelis, S J Wood
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, and impairments in most domains are thought to be stable over the course of the illness. However, cross-sectional evidence indicates that some areas of cognition, such as visuospatial associative memory, may be preserved in the early stages of psychosis, but become impaired in later established illness stages. This longitudinal study investigated change in visuospatial and verbal associative memory following psychosis onset...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622820/diabetes-quality-of-care-and-outcomes-comparison-of-individuals-with-and-without-schizophrenia
#3
Paul Kurdyak, Simone Vigod, Raquel Duchen, Binu Jacob, Thérèse Stukel, Tara Kiran
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to develop diabetes than individuals without schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of diabetes care and diabetes-related health outcomes among individuals with and without schizophrenia. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. As of April 1, 2011, we identified all individuals with diabetes in Ontario with and without a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The main outcomes were quality of diabetes care (guideline-concordant testing for HbA1c, lipid testing, eye exams) and diabetes-related Emergency Department (ED) visits and hospitalizations between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2013...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618327/long-term-antipsychotic-and-benzodiazepine-use-and-brain-volume-changes-in-schizophrenia-the-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1966-study
#4
Sanna Huhtaniska, Erika Jääskeläinen, Tuomas Heikka, Jani S Moilanen, Heli Lehtiniemi, Jussi Tohka, José V Manjón, Pierrick Coupé, Lassi Björnholm, Hannu Koponen, Juha Veijola, Matti Isohanni, Vesa Kiviniemi, Graham K Murray, Jouko Miettunen
High doses of antipsychotics have been associated with loss in cortical and total gray matter in schizophrenia. However, previous imaging studies have not taken benzodiazepine use into account, in spite of evidence suggesting adverse effects such as cognitive impairment and increased mortality. In this Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study, 69 controls and 38 individuals with schizophrenia underwent brain MRI at the ages of 34 and 43 years. At baseline, the average illness duration was over 10 years. Brain structures were delineated using an automated volumetry system, volBrain, and medication data on cumulative antipsychotic and benzodiazepine doses were collected using medical records and interviews...
May 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617822/intronic-snp-in-esr1-encoding-human-estrogen-receptor-alpha-is-associated-with-brain-esr1-mrna-isoform-expression-and-behavioral-traits
#5
Julia K Pinsonneault, John T Frater, Benjamin Kompa, Roshan Mascarenhas, Danxin Wang, Wolfgang Sadee
Genetic variants of ESR1 have been implicated in multiple diseases, including behavioral disorders, but causative variants remain uncertain. We have searched for regulatory variants affecting ESR1 expression in human brain, measuring allelic ESR1 mRNA expression in human brain tissues with marker SNPs in exon4 representing ESR1-008 (or ESRα-36), and in the 3'UTR of ESR1-203, two main ESR1 isoforms in brain. In prefrontal cortex from subjects with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and controls (n = 35 each; Stanley Foundation brain bank), allelic ESR1 mRNA ratios deviated from unity up to tenfold at the exon4 marker SNP, with large allelic ratios observed primarily in bipolar and schizophrenic subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614417/antipsychotic-medications-and-stroke-in-schizophrenia-a-case-crossover-study
#6
Wen-Yin Chen, Lian-Yu Chen, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Chi-Shin Wu, Shu-Yu Yang, Chun-Hung Pan, Shang-Ying Tsai, Chiao-Chicy Chen, Chian-Jue Kuo
BACKGROUND: The association between antipsychotic use and the risk of stroke in schizophrenic patients is controversial. We sought to study the association in a nationwide cohort with schizophrenia. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia (N = 31,976) derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 802 new-onset cases of stroke were identified within 10 years of follow-up (from 2000 through 2010). We designed a case-crossover study using 14-day windows to explore the risk factors of stroke and the association between antipsychotic drugs and the risk of stroke...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613100/myocardial-infarction-risk-and-antipsychotics-use-revisited-a-meta-analysis-of-10-observational-studies
#7
Kai-Lin Huang, Ching-Ju Fang, Chien-Chi Hsu, Shu-I Wu, Jimmy Jm Juang, Robert Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Associations between antipsychotic agent (AP) use and myocardial infarction (MI) risk have been inconsistent and remain controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to address this knowledge gap. METHOD: Detailed electronic database searches were performed to identify reports of observational studies that evaluated the association between AP use and the risk of MI. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using random or fixed-effects models...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601943/examining-the-impact-of-migrant-status-on-ethnic-differences-in-mental-health-service-use-preceding-a-first-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia
#8
Kelly K Anderson, Kwame J McKenzie, Paul Kurdyak
PURPOSE: Some ethnic groups have more negative contacts with health services for first-episode psychosis, likely arising from a complex interaction between ethnicity, socio-economic factors, and immigration status. Using population-based health administrative data, we sought to examine the effects of ethnic group and migrant status on patterns of health service use preceding a first diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder among people aged 14-35 over a 10-year period. METHODS: We compared access to care and intensity of service use for first-generation ethnic minority groups to the general population of Ontario...
June 10, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601497/comparison-of-long-acting-and-oral-antipsychotic-treatment-effects-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-comorbid-substance-abuse-and-a-history-of-recent-incarceration-an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-pride-study
#9
H Lynn Starr, Jason Bermak, Lian Mao, Steve Rodriguez, Larry Alphs
INTRODUCTION: Comorbid substance abuse is known to blunt response to treatment for underlying psychiatric disorders, but it has not been investigated in schizophrenia when comparing the effects of long-acting injectable antipsychotics with those of oral antipsychotics. METHODS: This exploratory analysis compared once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) with daily oral antipsychotics on time to treatment failure in patients with schizophrenia and a history of incarceration...
June 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599749/statin-prescribing-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-amongst-people-with-severe-mental-illness-cohort-study-in-uk-primary-care
#10
R Blackburn, D Osborn, K Walters, I Nazareth, I Petersen
BACKGROUND: Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity, but little is known on provision of preventative interventions. We investigated statin initiation for primary CVD prevention in individuals with and without SMI. METHODS: We used primary care data from The Health Improvement Network from 2006 to 2015 for UK patients aged 30-99years with no pre-existing CVD conditions and selected individuals with schizophrenia (n=13,252) or bipolar disorder (n=11,994)...
June 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594483/effect-of-an-institutional-medication-adherence-program-for-long-acting-injectable-risperidone-on-adherence-and-psychiatric-hospitalizations-evidence-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Jessica J Jalbert, Michel Rossignol, Bernard Astruc, Franck Baylé, Clementine Nordon, Bernard Avouac, Frédéric Rouillon, Lucien Abenhaim, Lamiae Grimaldi-Bensouda
BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable (LAI) atypical antipsychotics are associated with improved adherence and reduced relapse rates in schizophrenia but reminder-based interventions may further improve outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess an institutional medication adherence program's (IMAP) effectiveness on adherence and psychiatric hospitalizations among schizophrenia patients taking risperidone LAI (RLAI). METHODS: Between 2009 and 2010, we recruited patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia treated with RLAI receiving outpatient care from psychiatric centres in France...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594264/treatment-response-and-tolerability-with-once-monthly-paliperidone-palmitate-initiated-shortly-after-hospital-admission-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Ludger Hargarter, Marjolein Lahaye, Pierre Cherubin, Martin Lambert, Marnina Swarz, Gali Joldygulov, Flavio Vischia, Veronica Chomskaya, Vasilis P Bozikas, Eva-Maria Tsapakis, Andreas Schreiner
OBJECTIVES: Partial or non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia is common and increases the risk of relapse. This study explored safety, tolerability and treatment outcomes in patients hospitalised for an exacerbation of schizophrenia initiated on maintenance treatment of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M). METHODS: A 6-week, observational cohort study of patients initiated on PP1M within 3 weeks after hospital admission. RESULTS: Overall, 367 patients were documented, 85...
June 8, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593216/real-world-effectiveness-of-antipsychotic-treatments-in-a-nationwide-cohort-of-29%C3%A2-823-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Jari Tiihonen, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz, Maila Majak, Juha Mehtälä, Fabian Hoti, Erik Jedenius, Dana Enkusson, Amy Leval, Jan Sermon, Antti Tanskanen, Heidi Taipale
Importance: It has remained unclear whether there are clinically meaningful differences between antipsychotic treatments with regard to preventing relapse of schizophrenia, owing to the impossibility of including large unselected patient populations in randomized clinical trials, as well as residual confounding from selection biases in observational studies. Objective: To study the comparative real-world effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments for patients with schizophrenia...
June 7, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587688/hot-and-cold-executive-functions-in-youth-with-psychotic-symptoms
#14
L E MacKenzie, V C Patterson, A Zwicker, V Drobinin, H L Fisher, S Abidi, A N Greve, A Bagnell, L Propper, M Alda, B Pavlova, R Uher
BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are common in children and adolescents and may be early manifestations of liability to severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia. SMI and psychotic symptoms are associated with impairment in executive functions. However, previous studies have not differentiated between 'cold' and 'hot' executive functions. We hypothesized that the propensity for psychotic symptoms is specifically associated with impairment in 'hot' executive functions, such as decision-making in the context of uncertain rewards and losses...
June 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583708/prefrontal-fatty-acid-composition-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-association-with-reelin-expression
#15
Clare L Beasley, William G Honer, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Alasdair M Barr
OBJECTIVE: The extracellular matrix protein reelin regulates early brain development and synaptic plasticity in adulthood. Reelin is decreased in the postmortem brain in schizophrenia patients. Reelin's two receptors, ApoER2 and VLDLR, are also substrates for ApoE - a key lipoprotein that regulates phospholipid homeostasis in the brain. The goal of the present study was therefore to examine phospholipids and their constituent fatty acids, and determine whether there is an association between reelin, its receptors and phospholipids in the brain...
June 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580230/the-use-of-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-in-schizophrenia
#16
REVIEW
Seiya Miyamoto, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
Schizophrenia is a mostly chronic mental disorder, and symptomatic relapse is frequently observed. It is often associated with social and/or occupational decline that can be difficult to reverse. Most patients with the illness need long-term pharmacological treatment, and antipsychotic drugs represent the mainstay of clinical care. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are an important alternative to oral medication, particularly advantageous in the context of compliance management. Several new-generation antipsychotics (NGAs), including risperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, and aripiprazole, have become available as long-acting formulations, and new evidence has been accumulating...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578901/pharmacological-treatments-and-risk-of-readmission-to-hospital-for-unipolar-depression-in-finland-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#17
Jari Tiihonen, Antti Tanskanen, Fabian Hoti, Pia Vattulainen, Heidi Taipale, Juha Mehtälä, Markku Lähteenvuo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of long-term pharmacological treatments for severe unipolar depression. We aimed to study the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments in relapse prevention in a nationwide cohort of patients who had been admitted to hospital at least once as a result of unipolar depression. METHODS: Our nationwide cohort study investigated the risk of readmission to hospital in 1996-2012 in all patients in Finland who had been admitted to hospital at least once for unipolar depression (without a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) in Finland between Jan 1, 1987, and Dec 31, 2012...
June 1, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578432/effects-of-childhood-and-adolescence-physical-activity-patterns-on-psychosis-risk-a-general-population-cohort-study
#18
Elina Sormunen, Maiju M Saarinen, Raimo K R Salokangas, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Tuija Tammelin, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Jarmo Hietala
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality in somatic diseases. The risk factors of this excess mortality include, e.g., obesity, dietary factors, and physical inactivity, especially after the onset of psychosis, but there are limited early developmental data on these factors in individuals who later develop psychosis. A population-based cohort study "Cardiovascular Risk of Young Finns" started in 1980 with 3596 children and adolescents from six different age groups (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years)...
January 13, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578419/altered-sulcogyral-patterns-of-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-a-large-cohort-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#19
Shuichi Isomura, Ryota Hashimoto, Motoaki Nakamura, Yoji Hirano, Fumio Yamashita, Shin Jimbo, Hidenaga Yamamori, Michiko Fujimoto, Yuka Yasuda, Ryan P Mears, Toshiaki Onitsuka
Abnormalities in prenatal brain development contribute to schizophrenia vulnerability. Orbitofrontal cortex sulcogyral patterns are largely determined during prenatal development, and four types of orbitofrontal cortex sulcogyral patterns have been classified in humans. Altered orbitofrontal cortex patterns have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia using magnetic resonance imaging; however, sample sizes of previous studies were small-medium effects for detection, and gender manifestation for orbitofrontal cortex sulcogyral patterns is unclear...
January 12, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576133/adherence-healthcare-resource-utilization-and-medicaid-spending-associated-with-once-monthly-paliperidone-palmitate-versus-oral-atypical-antipsychotic-treatment-among-adults-recently-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia
#20
Dominic Pilon, Erik Muser, Patrick Lefebvre, Rhiannon Kamstra, Bruno Emond, Kruti Joshi
BACKGROUND: Once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) is a long-acting injectable antipsychotic that may increase adherence rates, reduce hospitalizations, and lower medical costs compared to oral atypical antipsychotics (OAAs) among schizophrenia patients. However, the impact of PP1M in recently diagnosed patients remains unknown. The present study compared adherence, healthcare resource utilization and Medicaid spending between schizophrenia patients initiating PP1M versus OAA, among patients recently diagnosed (defined using ages 18-25 years as a proxy) and among the overall population...
June 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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