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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440047/mental-illness-in-bariatric-surgery-a-cohort-study-from-the-portal-network
#1
David Fisher, Karen J Coleman, David E Arterburn, Heidi Fischer, Ayae Yamamoto, Deborah R Young, Nancy E Sherwood, Connie Mah Trinacty, Kristina H Lewis
OBJECTIVE: To compare bariatric surgery outcomes according to preoperative mental illness category. METHODS: Electronic health record data from several US healthcare systems were used to compare outcomes of four groups of patients who underwent bariatric surgery in 2012 and 2013. These included the following: people with (1) no mental illness, (2) mild-to-moderate depression or anxiety, (3) severe depression or anxiety, and (4) bipolar, psychosis, or schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
May 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433500/psychometric-characteristics-of-the-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-in-a-large-pooled-cohort-of-stable-schizophrenia-patients
#2
Anastasia Georgiades, Vicki G Davis, Alexandra S Atkins, Anzalee Khan, Trina W Walker, Antony Loebel, George Haig, Dana C Hilt, Eduardo Dunayevich, Daniel Umbricht, Michael Sand, Richard S E Keefe
The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was developed to assess cognitive treatment effects in schizophrenia clinical trials, and is considered the FDA gold standard outcome measure for that purpose. The aim of the present study was to establish pre-treatment psychometric characteristics of the MCCB in a large pooled sample. The dataset included 2616 stable schizophrenia patients enrolled in 15 different clinical trials between 2007 and 2016 within the United States (94%) and Canada (6%). The MCCB was administered twice prior to the initiation of treatment in 1908 patients...
April 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433088/parental-age-and-offspring-psychopathology-in-the-philadelphia-neurodevelopmental-cohort
#3
Alison K Merikangas, Monica E Calkins, Warren B Bilker, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence implicates advanced paternal age at offspring birth in neuropsychiatric disorders. Advanced maternal age has also been associated with schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders, whereas younger maternal age has been linked with behavioral disorders. Few studies have considered the specificity of the associations with respect to comorbidity. In addition, most prior studies have been conducted in clinical samples or registries that may reflect more severe forms of psychopathology...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427946/is-an-early-age-at-illness-onset-in-schizophrenia-associated-with-increased-genetic-susceptibility-analysis-of-data-from-the-nationwide-danish-twin-register
#4
Rikke Hilker, Dorte Helenius, Birgitte Fagerlund, Axel Skytthe, Kaare Christensen, Thomas M Werge, Merete Nordentoft, Birte Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Early age at illness onset has been viewed as an important liability marker for schizophrenia, which may be associated with an increased genetic vulnerability. A twin approach can be valuable, because it allows for the investigation of specific illness markers in individuals with a shared genetic background. METHODS: We linked nationwide registers to identify a cohort of twin pairs born in Denmark from 1951 to 2000 (N=31,524 pairs), where one or both twins had a diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum...
April 6, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407747/antipsychotic-prescribing-for-vulnerable-populations-a-clinical-audit-at-an-acute-australian-mental-health-unit-at-two-time-points
#5
Sara S McMillan, Sara Jacobs, Louise Wilson, Theo Theodoros, Gail Robinson, Claire Anderson, Gabor Mihala, Amanda J Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are recognised as a critical intervention for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Guidelines globally endorse the routine practice of antipsychotic monotherapy, at the minimum effective dose. Even in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine use is endorsed before combining antipsychotics. This aim of this study was to review antipsychotic polytherapy alone, high-dose therapy alone, polytherapy and high-dose prescribing patterns in adults discharged from an inpatient mental health unit at two time-points, and the alignment of this prescribing with clinical guideline recommendations...
April 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405888/effects-of-common-grm5-genetic-variants-on-cognition-hippocampal-volume-and-mglur5-protein-levels-in-schizophrenia
#6
Natalie Matosin, Kelly Anne Newell, Yann Quidé, Jessica Lee Andrews, Nina Teroganova, Melissa Jayne Green, Francesca Fernandez
GRM5 (coding for metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, mGluR5) is a promising target for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, but there has been little investigation of its association with cognitive and brain phenotypes within this disorder. We examined the effects of common genetic variation in GRM5 with cognitive function, hippocampal volume, and hippocampal mGluR5 protein levels in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. Two independent GRM5 variants rs60954128 [C>T] and rs3824927 [G>T] were genotyped in a schizophrenia case/control cohort (n=249/261)...
April 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395674/antipsychotic-treatment-resistance-in-first-episode-psychosis-prevalence-subtypes-and-predictors
#7
A Demjaha, J M Lappin, D Stahl, M X Patel, J H MacCabe, O D Howes, M Heslin, U A Reininghaus, K Donoghue, B Lomas, M Charalambides, A Onyejiaka, P Fearon, P Jones, G Doody, C Morgan, P Dazzan, R M Murray
BACKGROUND: We examined longitudinally the course and predictors of treatment resistance in a large cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients from initiation of antipsychotic treatment. We hypothesized that antipsychotic treatment resistance is: (a) present at illness onset; and (b) differentially associated with clinical and demographic factors. METHOD: The study sample comprised 323 FEP patients who were studied at first contact and at 10-year follow-up...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391108/mitochondrial-genetic-haplogroups-and-depressive-symptoms-a-large-study-among-people-in-north-america
#8
Nicola Veronese, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Alberto Vaona, Jacopo Demurtas, Andre F Carvalho, Ai Koyanagi, Trevor Thompson, Mario Zoratti, Stefania Maggi
BACKGROUND: A possible relationship between mitochondrial haplogroups and psychiatric diseases (e.g. schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) has been postulated, but data regarding depression is still limited. We investigated whether any mitochondrial haplogroup carried a significant higher risk of depressive symptoms in a large prospective cohort of North American people included in the Osteoarthritis Initiative. METHODS: Cross sectional data was derived from the Osteoarthritis Initiative...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387438/the-cognitive-footprint-of-psychiatric-and-neurological-conditions-cross-sectional-study-in-the-uk-biobank-cohort
#9
B Cullen, D J Smith, I J Deary, J J Evans, J P Pell
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the prevalence of cognitive impairment in adults with a history of mood disorder, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease, within a large general population cohort. METHOD: Cross-sectional study using UK Biobank data (n = 502 642). Psychiatric and neurological exposure status was ascertained via self-reported diagnoses, hospital records and questionnaires. Impairment on reasoning, reaction time and memory tests was defined with reference to a single unexposed comparison group...
April 7, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387222/presynaptic-dopamine-synthesis-capacity-in-schizophrenia-and-striatal-blood-flow-change-during-antipsychotic-treatment-and-medication-free-conditions
#10
Daniel Paul Eisenberg, Lisa Yankowitz, Angela M Ianni, Dani Y Rubinstein, Philip D Kohn, Catherine E Hegarty, Michael D Gregory, José A Apud, Karen F Berman
Standard-of-care biological treatment of schizophrenia remains dependent upon antipsychotic medications, which demonstrate D2 receptor affinity and elicit variable, partial clinical responses via neural mechanisms that are not entirely understood. In the striatum, where D2 receptors are abundant, antipsychotic medications may affect neural function in studies of animals, healthy volunteers and patients, yet the relevance of this to pharmacotherapeutic actions remain unresolved. In this same brain region, some individuals with schizophrenia may demonstrate phenotypes consistent with exaggerated dopaminergic signaling, including alterations in dopamine synthesis capacity; however, the hypothesis that dopamine system characteristics underlie variance in medication-induced regional blood flow changes has not been directly tested...
April 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384650/association-of-arhgap18-polymorphisms-with-schizophrenia-in-the-chinese-han-population
#11
Weiyun Guo, Yaqi Cai, Hongxing Zhang, Yongfeng Yang, Ge Yang, Xiujuan Wang, Jingyuan Zhao, Juntang Lin, Jinfu Zhu, Wenqiang Li, Luxian Lv
Numerous developmental genes have been linked to schizophrenia (SZ) by case-control and genome-wide association studies, suggesting that neurodevelopmental disturbances are major pathogenic mechanisms. However, no neurodevelopmental deficit has been definitively linked to SZ occurrence, likely due to disease heterogeneity and the differential effects of various gene variants across ethnicities. Hence, it is critical to examine linkages in specific ethnic populations, such as Han Chinese. The newly identified RhoGAP ARHGAP18 is likely involved in neurodevelopment through regulation of RhoA/C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378559/mortality-in-schizophrenia-and-other-psychoses-data-from-the-south-korea-national-health-insurance-cohort-2002-2013
#12
Woorim Kim, Suk Yong Jang, Sung Youn Chun, Tae Hoon Lee, Kyu Tae Han, Eun Cheol Park
Individuals with psychoses show excess mortality, which is a major public health concern. This study examined all-cause and suicide mortality rates in Korean patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, mood disorder, or mental and behavioral disorder due to psychoactive substance use and to compare this with that of the general population. Data were from the National Health Insurance cohort, 2002 to 2013. A total of 107,190 cases aged 15 years or over were included. Mortality rates per 100,000 person years (PY) were obtained...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376926/cancer-and-central-nervous-system-disorders-protocol-for-an-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-updated-meta-analyses-of-observational-studies
#13
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Jane A Driver, Matthew J Page, Manuel Ridao, José M Valderas, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Jaume Forés-Martos, Salvador Martínez, Ricard Gènova-Maleras, Diego Macías-Saint-Gerons, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study will be to synthesize the epidemiological evidence and evaluate the validity of the associations between central nervous system disorders and the risk of developing or dying from cancer. METHODS/DESIGN: We will perform an umbrella review of systematic reviews and conduct updated meta-analyses of observational studies (cohort and case-control) investigating the association between central nervous system disorders and the risk of developing or dying from any cancer or specific types of cancer...
April 4, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371744/chronic-physical-illnesses-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-are-independently-associated-with-higher-rates-of-psychiatric-rehospitalization-a-cross-sectional-study-in-croatia
#14
I Filipcic, I Simunovic Filipcic, E Ivezic, K Matic, N Tunjic Vukadinovic, S Vuk Pisk, D Bodor, Z Bajic, M Jakovljevic, N Sartorius
BACKGROUND: Increased physical morbidity in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) is well documented. However, much less is known about the association between somatic comorbidities and psychosis treatment outcomes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study, nested within the larger frame of a prospective cohort study, was done in 2016 at Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan, Zagreb, Croatia. Data were collected on a consecutive sample of 301 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who achieved a stable therapeutic dosage...
March 10, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371232/investigation-of-shank3-in-schizophrenia
#15
Ana de Sena Cortabitarte, Franziska Degenhardt, Jana Strohmaier, Maren Lang, Birgit Weiss, Ralph Roeth, Ina Giegling, Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach, Andrea Hofmann, Dan Rujescu, Christine Fischer, Marcella Rietschel, Markus M Nöthen, Gudrun A Rappold, Simone Berkel
The postsynaptic scaffolding protein SHANK3 is essential for the normal function of glutamatergic synapses in the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that impaired plasticity of glutamatergic synapses contributes to the pathology of schizophrenia (SCZ). To investigate whether variants in the SHANK3 gene contribute to the etiology of SCZ, we sequenced SHANK3 in 500 affected individuals (cohort C1). In total, we identified 48 variants and compared them to European controls from the 1000 Genomes Project and the Exome Variant Server...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370311/diagnostic-clusters-associated-with-an-early-onset-schizophrenia-diagnosis-among-children-and-adolescents
#16
Jeanette M Jerrell, Roger S McIntyre, Chelsea B Deroche
OBJECTIVE: Given the greater severity and chronicity of psychiatric disorders that first declare in individuals under the age of 18, early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and its association with co-occurring psychiatric conditions deserve further investigation. METHODS: Cluster and discriminant analyses were used to examine the heterogeneity of children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia in 1 statewide system of care. A retrospective cohort design was employed, using South Carolina's (USA) Medicaid claims dataset covering outpatient and inpatient medical services between January, 1999 and December, 2013 to identify patients ≤17 years of age...
March 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370310/pharmacotherapy-effectiveness-for-clinical-subgroups-among-children-and-adolescents-with-early-onset-schizophrenia
#17
Jeanette M Jerrell, Roger S McIntyre, Chelsea B Deroche
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies among children and adolescents diagnosed with early onset schizophrenia subgrouped according to their co-occurring psychiatric disorders. METHODS: A retrospective cohort design was employed, using South Carolina's (USA) Medicaid claims dataset covering outpatient and inpatient medical services, between January, 1999 and December, 2013 to identify patients ≤17 years of age. Random effects regression analyses assessed differential changes in acute psychiatric service utilization over time across the 3 subgroups associated with antipsychotic, mood stabilizer, psychostimulant, or antidepressant pharmacotherapy...
March 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360420/lifespan-gyrification-trajectories-of-human-brain-in-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-major-psychiatric-disorders
#18
Bo Cao, Benson Mwangi, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Mon-Ju Wu, Zafer Keser, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Dianping Xu, Khader M Hasan, Jair C Soares
Cortical gyrification of the brain represents the folding characteristic of the cerebral cortex. How the brain cortical gyrification changes from childhood to old age in healthy human subjects is still unclear. Additionally, studies have shown regional gyrification alterations in patients with major psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, whether the lifespan trajectory of gyrification over the brain is altered in patients diagnosed with major psychiatric disorders is still unknown...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359200/selective-loss-of-smaller-spines-in-schizophrenia
#19
Matthew L MacDonald, Jamil Alhassan, Jason T Newman, Michelle Richard, Hong Gu, Ryan M Kelly, Alan R Sampson, Kenneth N Fish, Peter Penzes, Zachary P Wills, David A Lewis, Robert A Sweet
OBJECTIVE: Decreased density of dendritic spines in adult schizophrenia subjects has been hypothesized to result from increased pruning of excess synapses in adolescence. In vivo imaging studies have confirmed that synaptic pruning is largely driven by the loss of large or mature synapses. Thus, increased pruning throughout adolescence would likely result in a deficit of large spines in adulthood. Here, the authors examined the density and volume of dendritic spines in deep layer 3 of the auditory cortex of 20 schizophrenia and 20 matched comparison subjects as well as aberrant voltage-gated calcium channel subunit protein expression linked to spine loss...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356723/treatment-patterns-in-medicaid-patients-with-schizophrenia-initiated-on-a-first-or-second-generation-long-acting-injectable-versus-oral-antipsychotic
#20
Dominic Pilon, Kruti Joshi, Neeta Tandon, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Rhiannon L Kamstra, Bruno Emond, Patrick Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Poor antipsychotic (AP) adherence is a key issue in patients with schizophrenia. First-generation antipsychotic (FGA) and second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) long-acting injectable therapies (LAI) may improve adherence compared to oral antipsychotics (OAP). The objective of the study was to compare treatment adherence and persistence in Medicaid patients with schizophrenia initiated on first-generation long-acting injectable therapies (FGA-LAI) or second-generation long-acting injectable therapies (SGA-LAI) versus OAP...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
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