Read by QxMD icon Read

TGFbeta reviews

Detlef Schuppan, Muhammad Ashfaq-Khan, Ai Ting Yang, Yong Ook Kim
Liver fibrosis and in particular cirrhosis are the major causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic liver disease. Their prevention or reversal have become major endpoints in clinical trials with novel liver specific drugs. Remarkable progress has been made with therapies that efficiently address the cause of the underlying liver disease, as in chronic hepatitis B and C. Highly effective antiviral therapy can prevent progression or even induce reversal in the majority of patients, but such treatment remains elusive for the majority of liver patients with advanced alcoholic or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, genetic or autoimmune liver diseases...
April 12, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Rosalinda Madonna, Christian Cadeddu, Martino Deidda, Zoltán Giricz, Clelia Madeddu, Donato Mele, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Pasquale Pagliaro, Alessia Pepe, Paolo Spallarossa, Carlo Gabriele Tocchetti, Zoltán V Varga, Concetta Zito, Yong-Jian Geng, Giuseppe Mercuro, Peter Ferdinandy
Ischemic heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Ischemic pre-, post-, and remote conditionings trigger endogenous cardioprotection that renders the heart resistant to ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). Mimicking endogenous cardioprotection by modulating genes involved in cardioprotective signal transduction provides an opportunity to reproduce endogenous cardioprotection with better possibilities of translation into the clinical setting. Genes and signaling pathways by which conditioning maneuvers exert their effects on the heart are partially understood...
July 15, 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
Kota Matsuki, Catherine K Hathaway, Albert S Chang, Oliver Smithies, Masao Kakoki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is well established that blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is effective for the treatment of cardiovascular and renal complications in hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Although the induction of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) by components of the RAAS mediates the hypertrophic and fibrogenic changes in cardiovascular-renal complications, it is still controversial as to whether TGFbeta1 can be a target to prevent such complications...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem, Germain Gillet, Ruth Rimokh
A key question for urologic practitioners is whether an apparently organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa) is actually aggressive or not. The dilemma is to specifically identify among all prostate tumors the very aggressive high-grade cancers that will become life-threatening by developing extra-prostatic invasion and metastatic potential and the indolent cancers that will never modify a patient's life expectancy. A choice must be made between several therapeutic options to achieve the optimal personalized management of the disease that causes as little harm as possible to patients...
2014: Frontiers in Oncology
Daishi Fujita, Norifumi Takeda, Yasushi Imai, Yasunobu Hirata
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by tall stature, long arms and legs, ectopia lentis, and aortic aneurysms and dissections. Recent research has revealed that these phenotypes are caused by mutations in fibrillin-1, the major structural component of elastic microfibrils, and the continuing dysregulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling is principally considered to be contributing to the pathophysiological background of the disease. Blockade of TGFbeta signaling by angiotensin II receptor antagonism is a novel promising therapeutic option, and thus such large clinical randomized controlled trials are underway...
June 2014: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Paulo Zoé Costa, Raquel Soares
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia, which can lead to many complications over time. These complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, impaired wound healing and accelerated atherosclerosis, are implicated with a large number of cellular and subcellular changes on vessels. In agreement, evidence indicates that in retinopathy, nephropathy and atherosclerotic plaque, there is excessive angiogenesis, whereas in wound healing and myocardial perfusion, blood vessel growth is impaired...
June 13, 2013: Life Sciences
Samuel Huber, Christoph Schramm
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. The two best studied types of CD4(+) regulatory T cells are the Foxp3(+) Tregs and the T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells. CD4(+) regulatory T cells play a protective role in autoimmune disease. On the other hand, they also may have pathogenic properties in infectious diseases and carcinogenesis. Because of their potential for the therapy of various human diseases, factors responsible for expanding regulatory T cells are of interest...
2011: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Richard A Flavell, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Stephen H Wrzesinski, Paula Licona-Limón
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) is an immunosuppressive cytokine produced by tumour cells and immune cells that can polarize many components of the immune system. This Review covers the effects of TGFbeta on natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, CD8(+) and CD4(+) effector and regulatory T cells, and NKT cells in animal tumour models and in patients with cancer. Collectively, many recent studies favour the hypothesis that blocking TGFbeta-induced signalling in the tumour microenvironment enhances antitumour immunity and may be beneficial for cancer therapy...
August 2010: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Robert M Greene, M Michele Pisano
In the past, most scientists conducted their inquiries of nature via inductivism, the patient accumulation of "pieces of information" in the pious hope that the sum of the parts would clarify the whole. Increasingly, modern biology employs the tools of bioinformatics and systems biology in attempts to reveal the "big picture." Most successful laboratories engaged in the pursuit of the secrets of embryonic development, particularly those whose research focus is craniofacial development, pursue a middle road where research efforts embrace, rather than abandon, what some have called the "pedestrian" qualities of inductivism, while increasingly employing modern data mining technologies...
June 2010: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Andrew Leask
Fibrosis is one of the largest groups of diseases for which there is no therapy but is believed to occur because of a persistent tissue repair program. During connective tissue repair, "activated" fibroblasts migrate into the wound area, where they synthesize and remodel newly created extracellular matrix. The specialized type of fibroblast responsible for this action is the alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)-expressing myofibroblast. Abnormal persistence of the myofibroblast is a hallmark of fibrotic diseases...
June 11, 2010: Circulation Research
Beata Kieć-Wilk, Kalina Kawecka-Laszcz, Katarzyna Stolarz, Urszula Czech, Aldona Dembińska-Kieć
One of the most frequent types of organ damage developing in the course of hypertension is left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The percentage of hypertensive patients with LVH, assessed with echocardiographic method, amounts to 20-60%, depending on blood pressure level and duration of hypertension. This review includes current opinions on the role of transforming growth factor Beta1 (TGFP31), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF2), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the development of LVH in the course of hypertension...
October 2006: Kardiologia Polska
Eun Sook Hwang
The third lineage of T helper subsets, Th17, has recently been identified as an IL- 17-producing CD4+ Th cell, and its functions and regulatory mechanisms have been extensively characterized in immune responses. Functional studies have provided evidence that Th17 cells are important for the modulation of autoimmune responses, such as chronic asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and multiple sclerosis. Murine Th17 cell differentiation is enhanced by the coordinated functions of distinct cytokines including TGFbeta, IL-6, IL-21, and IL-23, whereas IL-2, IL-4, IFNgamma, and IL-27 inhibit its differentiation...
July 2010: Yonsei Medical Journal
M Bodo, T Baroni, A Tabilio
During human embryogenesis, differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their progeny is regulated spatially and temporally. In the adult, hemopoiesis is restricted to bone marrow (BM) which contains HSCs residing within the so-called 'niches'. These are microenvironments consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules (mainly glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, fibronectin and collagens) and stromal cells that act in concert to keep HSCs in quiescence or to promote their growth and differentiation, since BM stromal cells secrete specific growth factors acting on responsive stem cells...
2009: Journal of Stem Cells
Hiroaki Ikushima, Kohei Miyazono
The distortion of growth factor signalling is the most important prerequisite in tumour progression. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signalling regulates tumour progression by a tumour cell-autonomous mechanism or through tumour-stroma interaction, and has either a tumour-suppressing or tumour-promoting function depending on cellular context. Such inherent complexity of TGFbeta signalling results in arduous, but promising, assignments for developing therapeutic strategies against malignant tumours...
June 2010: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Jennifer L Puetzer, John N Petitte, Elizabeth G Loboa
The ability of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to undergo chondrogenic differentiation has been studied extensively, and it has been suggested that the chondrogenic potential of these stem cells differ from each other. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the various growth factor induction agents for MSC and ASC three-dimensional in vitro chondrogenic differentiation. In general, the most common growth factors for chondrogenic induction come from the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily...
August 2010: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Motoko Yanagita
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are phylogenetically conserved signaling molecules that belong to the TGFbeta superfamily and are involved in the morphogenesis, as well as the pathogenesis, of several disorders. The function of BMPs is regulated by BMP antagonists that bind directly to the proteins, thus inhibiting binding to the relevant receptors. Pharmacological doses of BMP-7 have been demonstrated to repair established renal injury and, thus, BMP antagonists modulating endogenous BMP-7 activities may be possible therapeutic targets for kidney disease...
March 2010: Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs
Seun Ajiboye, Tristan M Sissung, Nima Sharifi, William D Figg
The type III transforming growth factor-beta receptor (TGFbetaR3, betaglycan), a tumour suppressor, is the most frequently lost TGFbeta pathway component. This event appears to be very important in the transition of the TGFbeta pathway from having tumour-suppressor activity in early prostate tumour development, to having tumour-promoting activity in metastatic disease. Moreover, loss of the TGFbetaR3 can also affect the cellular response towards testosterone, inhibin/activin, and dysregulate growth-factor pathways that mediate growth and angiogenesis...
April 2010: BJU International
Youhua Liu
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process by which differentiated epithelial cells undergo a phenotypic conversion that gives rise to the matrix-producing fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, is increasingly recognized as an integral part of tissue fibrogenesis after injury. However, the degree to which this process contributes to kidney fibrosis remains a matter of intense debate and is likely to be context-dependent. EMT is often preceded by and closely associated with chronic interstitial inflammation and could be an adaptive response of epithelial cells to a hostile or changing microenvironment...
February 2010: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Leif Oxburgh
The TGFbeta superfamily growth factor BMP7 performs essential biological functions in embryonic development and regeneration of injured tissue in the adult. BMP7 activity is regulated at numerous levels in the signaling pathway by the expression of extracellular antagonists, decoy receptors and inhibitory cell signaling components. Additionally, expression of the BMP7 gene is tightly controlled both during embryonic development and adult life. In this review, the current status of work on regulation of BMP7 at the genomic level is discussed...
June 2009: Current Genomics
Gabriel Rusanescu, Ralph Weissleder, Elena Aikawa
Recent increase in human lifespan has shifted the spectrum of aging-related disorders to an unprecedented upsurge in cardiovascular diseases, especially calcific aortic valve stenosis, which has an 80% risk of progression to heart failure and death. A current therapeutic option for calcified valves is surgical replacement, which provides only temporary relief. Recent progress in cardiovascular research has suggested that arterial and valve calcification are the result of an active process of osteogenic differentiation, induced by a pro-atherogenic inflammatory response...
August 2008: Current Cardiology Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"