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Anal sphincter repair

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651553/fistulectomy-with-primary-sphincter-reconstruction
#1
Steffen Seyfried, Dieter Bussen, Andreas Joos, Christian Galata, Christel Weiss, Alexander Herold
AIM: Despite modern medical techniques, anatomically proximal (high) anal fistulas are still a challenge in colorectal surgery. In previous years, the standard of care was complete fistulectomy with a high rate of continence disorders. Over the past 20 to 30 years, sphincter-saving procedures have gained wide acceptance. They represent the technique used in these cases. Additionally, many patients received indefinite treatment, namely the placement of a seton to maintain surgical drainage...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575180/sonographic-assessment-of-the-anal-sphincter-after-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury-oasi-using-transperineal-ultrasound-tpus
#2
EDITORIAL
Vered H Eisenberg, Dan V Valsky, Simcha Yagel
Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) is the most common cause of anal incontinence and ano-rectal symptoms in women1 . Reported rates of anal incontinence following primary repair of OASI range between 15-61%, with a mean of 39%2, 3 . Other possible complications of OASI include perineal pain, dyspareunia, and less commonly, abscess formation, wound breakdown, and rectovaginal fistulae. Symptom onset may occur immediately, several years postpartum, or only late in life when aging of tissues adds to the delivery insult...
March 24, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546469/outcomes-of-primary-anal-sphincter-repair-after-obstetric-injury-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-three-choice-assessment
#3
K Kuismanen, K Nieminen, K Karjalainen, K Lehto, J Uotila
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the subjective outcome of primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) at 6 months, the factors associated with the symptoms of anal incontinence (AI), and the role of a simple survey consisting in one question with three answer choices, combined with the Wexner incontinence score for the assessment of this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with third- or fourth-degree OASIS operated on between January 2007 and December 2013 inclusive at Tampere University Hospital, Finland...
March 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519860/effects-of-electroacupuncture-combined-with-stem-cell-transplantation-on-anal-sphincter-injury-induced-faecal-incontinence-in-a-rat-model
#4
Xiaojia Li, Xiutian Guo, Weiqi Jin, Jingen Lu
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and acupuncture are known to mitigate tissue damage. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of combined electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation and BMSC injection in a rat model of anal sphincter injury-induced faecal incontinence (FI). METHODS: 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operated control, FI, FI+EA, FI+BMSC, and FI+BMSC+EA. The anorectal tissues were collected on days 1, 3, 7 and 14...
March 8, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500142/-anal-incontinence-and-obstetrical-anal-sphincter-injuries-epidemiology-and-prevention
#5
X Fritel, B Gachon, D Desseauve, T Thubert
Our main objectives were to identify risk factors, methods for early diagnosis, and prevention of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs), using a literature review. The main risk factors for OASIs are nulliparity, instrumental delivery, posterior presentation, median episiotomy, prolonged second phase of labor and fetal macrosomia. Asian origin, short ano-vulvar distance, ligamentous hyperlaxity, lack of expulsion control, non-visualization of the perineum or maneuvers for shoulder dystocia also appear to be risk factors...
April 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391927/rat-model-of-anal-sphincter-injury-and-two-approaches-for-stem-cell-administration
#6
Jacobo Trébol, Tihomir Georgiev-Hristov, Luz Vega-Clemente, Ignacio García-Gómez, Ana Carabias-Orgaz, Mariano García-Arranz, Damián García-Olmo
AIM: To establish a rat model of anal sphincter injury and test different systems to provide stem cells to injured area. METHODS: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were isolated from BDIX rats and were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) for cell tracking. Biosutures (sutures covered with ASCs) were prepared with 1.5 x 106 GFP-ASCs, and solutions of 106 GFP-ASCs in normal saline were prepared for injection. Anorectal normal anatomy was studied on Wistar and BDIX female rats...
January 26, 2018: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379404/anal-and-perineal-injuries
#7
REVIEW
Arjun N Jeganathan, Jeremy W Cannon, Joshua I S Bleier
With increased use of explosive devices in warfare, anal trauma is often seen coupled with more complex pelviperineal injury. While the associated mortality is high, casualties that survive are often left with disabling fecal incontinence from damage to the anosphincteric complex. After resolution of the acute insult, the initial evaluation mandates a thorough physical exam, including endoscopic evaluation with rigid proctoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy, as well as adjunctive testing, specifically anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound...
January 2018: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368789/techniques-for-repair-of-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries
#8
Melanie R Meister, Joshua I Rosenbloom, Jerry L Lowder, Alison G Cahill
Importance: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASISs) complicate up to 11% of vaginal deliveries; obstetricians must be able to recognize and manage these technically challenging injuries. Objective: The aim of this study was to share our approach for management of these challenging complications of childbirth based on a multidisciplinary collaboration between general obstetrician-gynecologists, maternal fetal medicine specialists, and female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeons established at our institution...
January 2018: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159162/electrophysiological-basis-of-fecal-incontinence-and-its-implications-for-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Elroy Patrick Weledji
The majority of patients with neuropathic incontinence and other pelvic floor conditions associated with straining at stool have damage to the pudendal nerves distal to the ischial spine. Sacral nerve stimulation appears to be a promising innovation and has been widely adopted and currently considered the standard of care for adults with moderate to severe fecal incontinence and following failed sphincter repair. From a decision-to-treat perspective, the short-term efficacy is good (70%-80%), but the long-term efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation is around 50%...
October 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112569/stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-plasmid-regenerates-both-smooth-and-skeletal-muscle-after-anal-sphincter-injury-in-the-long-term
#10
Li Sun, Mei Kuang, Marc Penn, Margot S Damaser, Massarat Zutshi
BACKGROUND: Regenerating muscle at a time remote from injury requires re-expression of cytokines to attract stem cells to start and sustain the process of repair. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the sustainability of muscle regeneration after treatment with a nonviral plasmid expressing stromal cell-derived factor 1. DESIGN: This was a randomized study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted with animals in a single research facility...
December 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046088/perineal-colostomy-prolapse-a-novel-application-of-mesh-sacral-pexy
#11
S Landen, D Ursaru, V Delugeau, C Landen
Full thickness colonic prolapse following pseudocontinent perineal colostomy has not been previously reported. Possible contributing factors include a large skin aperture at the site of the perineal stoma, the absence of anal sphincters and mesorectal attachments and the presence of a perineal hernia. A novel application of sacral pexy combined with perineal hernia repair using two prosthetic meshes is described.
January 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022787/does-a-missed-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury-at-time-of-delivery-affect-short-term-functional-outcome
#12
L Ramage, C Yen, S Qiu, C Simillis, C Kontovounisios, E Tan, P Tekkis
Introduction This study aimed to ascertain whether missed obstetric anal sphincter injury at delivery had worse functional and quality of life outcomes than primary repair immediately following delivery. Materials and methods Two to one propensity matching was undertaken of patients presenting to a tertiary pelvic floor unit with ultrasound evidence of missed obstetric anal sphincter injury within 24 months of delivery with patients who underwent primary repair at the time of delivery by parity, grade of injury and time to assessment...
January 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969732/delayed-reconstruction-of-a-traumatic-cloaca-following-obstetric-anal-sphincter-rupture
#13
Ali Ezer, Alper Parlakgumus
Permanent communication between the rectum and the vagina along with full thickness of anal sphincter faults can be a result of an unsuccessful primary repair of fourth degree obstetric trauma. This results into complete fecal incontinence and impaired quality of life. Anterior overlapping sphincteroplasty can be chosen as a method of treatment for fecal incontinence due to obstetric injuries. However, large perineal body reconstructions are generally pretty challenging tasks for surgeons. What we will describe here for the repair of a traumatic cloaca, occurred 23 years ago during vaginal delivery, is the use of a transpositional flap following overlapping sphincteroplasty...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891851/sphincter-sparing-anal-fistula-repair-are-we-getting-better
#14
Jeremy Sugrue, Nathalie Mantilla, Ariane Abcarian, Kunal Kochar, Slawomir Marecik, Vivek Chaudhry, Anders Mellgren, Johan Nordenstam
BACKGROUND: Sphincter-sparing repairs are commonly used to treat anal fistulas with significant muscle involvement. OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluates the trends and efficacy of sphincter-sparing repairs and determines risk factors for fistula recurrence. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A retrospective review was performed at 3 university-affiliated teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: All 462 patients with cryptoglandular anal fistulas who underwent 573 sphincter-sparing repairs between 2005 and 2015 were included...
October 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888700/surgical-repair-of-rectovaginal-fistula-using-the-modified-martius-procedure-a-step-by-step-guide
#15
Dan Wang, Juan Chen, Lan Zhu, Mingchen Sang, Fan Yu, Qing Zhou
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the surgical repair of a rectovaginal fistula (RVF) using the modified Martius procedure. DESIGN: A step-by-step presentation of the procedure using video (Canadian Task Force classification III). SETTING: RVF is abnormal epithelialized connections between the vagina and rectum. Causes of RVF include obstetric trauma, Crohn disease, pelvic irradiation, and postsurgical complications. Many surgical interventions have been developed, from the laparoscopic technique to muscle transposition and even rectal resection...
May 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838787/surgical-interventions-and-the-use-of-device-aided-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-fecal-incontinence-and-defecatory-disorders
#16
Adil E Bharucha, Satish S C Rao, Andrea S Shin
The purpose of this clinical practice update expert review is to describe the key principles in the use of surgical interventions and device-aided therapy for managing fecal incontinence (FI) and defecatory disorders. The best practices outlined in this review are based on relevant publications, including systematic reviews and expert opinion (when applicable). Best Practice Advice 1: A stepwise approach should be followed for management of FI. Conservative therapies (diet, fluids, techniques to improve evacuation, a bowel training program, management of diarrhea and constipation with diet and medications if necessary) will benefit approximately 25% of patients and should be tried first...
December 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797517/gynecologic-anatomic-abnormalities-following-anorectal-malformations-repair
#17
Alejandra Vilanova-Sanchez, Carlos A Reck, Kate A McCracken, Victoria A Lane, Alessandra C Gasior, Richard J Wood, Marc A Levitt, Geri D Hewitt
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients may present with gynecologic concerns after previous posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for repair of an anorectal malformation (ARM). Common findings include an inadequate or shortened perineal body, as well as introital stenosis, retained vaginal septum, and remnant rectovestibular fistula. An inadequate or shortened perineal body may impact fecal continence, sexual function and recommendations regarding obstetrical mode of delivery. We describe our experience with female patients referred to our center for evaluation of their previously repaired ARM, with a specific focus on perineal body anatomy and concomitant gynecologic abnormalities...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724187/nasogastric-tube-as-abdominal-pressure-sensor-in-urodynamics-proof-of-concept-of-a-novel-approach
#18
Sundaramoorthy VijayGanapathy, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan Karthikeyan, Ashwin Mallya, Ali Poonawala, Ramaiah Keshavamurthy
AIMS: The standard sensor for abdominal pressure (Pabd) measurement in urodynamics (UD) is a rectal sensor. In patients where the rectum is not available due to prior surgery or when external anal sphincter (EAS) tone is poor, rectal sensor may slip, making Pabd recording unreliable. Vaginal Pabd measurement and wireless vaginal sensors have been tried. We present our preliminary series of a novel nasogastric tube (NG) sensor for Pabd measurement. METHODS: We identified patients undergoing UD with a NG Pabd sensor from a prospectively maintained UD database of a tertiary care urological center between July 2013 and December 2016...
July 19, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688109/root-causes-and-social-consequences-of-birth-injuries-in-western-uganda
#19
Jennifer N Angell, Priscilla Busingye, Gabriel Y-K Ganyaglo, Cheryl A Moyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685224/a-retrospective-review-of-1495-patients-with-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries-referred-for-assessment-of-function-and-endoanal-ultrasonography
#20
G P Thomas, L E Gould, F Casunuran, D A Kumar
AIM: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries are a significant risk factor for faecal incontinence. Correct identification and successful primary repair are important. The aim of this study was to review the outcome of all patients, with an obstetric anal sphincter injury, referred to our unit. METHOD: This is a retrospective review of 1495 patients over a 12-year period. All had a third or fourth degree tear and were referred at 4-months postpartum. RESULTS: Endoanal ultrasonography demonstrated residual sphincter defect in 792 (53%) and normal sphincters, with no evidence of repair, in 661 (44%)...
September 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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