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Clotting factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820035/changes-in-heparin-dose-response-slope-during-cardiac-surgery-possible-result-in-inaccuracy-in-predicting-heparin-bolus-dose-requirement-to-achieve-target-act
#1
Junko Ichikawa, Tetsu Mori, Mitsuharu Kodaka, Keiko Nishiyama, Makoto Ozaki, Makiko Komori
INTRODUCTION: The substantial interpatient variability in heparin requirement has led to the use of a heparin dose response (HDR) technique. The accuracy of Hepcon-based heparin administration in achieving a target activated clotting time (ACT) using an HDR slope remains controversial. METHODS: We prospectively studied 86 adult patients scheduled for cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. The total dose of calculated heparin required for patient and pump priming was administered simultaneously to achieve a target ACT of 450 s for HDR on the Hepcon HMS system...
September 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819614/acute-compartment-syndrome-after-an-olecranon-fracture-in-a-patient-with-mild-hemophilia-b
#2
John M Reynolds, Christy Christophersen, Mary K Mulcahey
INTRODUCTION: Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by compartmental pressures within 20 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure, or clinical signs of pain, paresthesia, pallor, and lack of pulses. Often a surgical intervention is necessary. Increased surveillance for compartment syndrome is important when a patient with a bleeding disorder sustains a traumatic injury. CASE REPORT: We present a case of forearm compartment syndrome in a patient with mild hemophilia B who sustained an olecranon fracture...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816059/atherothrombosis-and-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-and-management-in-elderly
#3
Francesco Violi, Lorenzo Loffredo, Roberto Carnevale, Pasquale Pignatelli, Daniele Pastori
SIGNIFICANCE The incidence of cardiovascular events increases by aging, representing the main cause of death in old population. Aging is associated with over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may affect clotting and platelet activation, and impair endothelial function so predisposing elderly patients to thrombotic complications. RECENT ADVANCES There are increasing evidences to suggest that aging is associated with an imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Thus, up-regulation of ROS-producing enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and myeloperoxidase, along with down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, occur during aging...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815418/availability-of-angiography-and-therapeutic-embolization-for-the-treatment-of-acute-bleeding-in-patients-with-hemophilia
#4
Mi Jin Kim, Ji Young Oh, Young Shil Park
Clotting factor replacement therapy alone is often inadequate for acute bleeding in hemophilia patients, and surgery for such patients poses significant clinical challenges. Arterial angiographic intervention is used to control bleeding in local blood vessels. In the present study, we examined the clinical course and prognosis of hemophilia patients with bleeding who had undergone angiography, and evaluated the validity of diagnostic angiography and therapeutic embolization in these patients. Angiography was performed in five hemophilia patients, who experienced bleeding that was difficult to control even after treatment with clotting factor replacement or bypassing agent therapy...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814942/awareness-of-venous-thromboembolism-and-thromboprophylaxis-among-hospitalized-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Hind Almodaimegh, Lama Alfehaid, Nada Alsuhebany, Rami Bustami, Shmylan Alharbi, Abdulmalik Alkatheri, Abdulkareem Albekairy
BACKGROUND: Patient awareness of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and thromboprophylaxis is essential for their safety. In this study, we evaluated patients' awareness of VTE and their perceptions of thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional survey to patients hospitalized at the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Of 190 patients approached, 174 completed the survey, constituting a response rate of 95%...
2017: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809406/clot-entrapped-blood-cells-in-synergy-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-create-a-pro-angiogenic-healing-response
#6
Melanie A Burkhardt, Isabel Gerber, Cameron Moshfegh, Miriam S Lucas, Jasmin Waser, Maximilian Y Emmert, Simon P Hoerstrup, Falko Schlottig, Viola Vogel
Blood clots stop bleeding and provide cell-instructive microenvironments. Still, in vitro models used to study implant performance typically neglect any possible interactions of recruited cells with surface-adhering blood clots. Here we study the interaction and synergies of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with surface-induced blood clots in an in vitro model by fluorescence microscopy, scanning and correlative light and electron microscopy, ELISA assays and zymography. The clinically used alkali-treated rough titanium (Ti) surfaces investigated here are known to enhance blood clotting compared to native Ti and to improve the healing response, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
August 15, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804829/lupus-anticoagulant-testing-activated-partial-thromboplastin-time-aptt-and-silica-clotting-time-sct
#7
Armando Tripodi, Veena Chantarangkul
Actvated partial thromboplastin time and its congener test Silica clotting time are used for the laboratory detection of lupus anticoagulants. Their performance consists of mixing test plasma with activators of the contact coagulation factors, phospholipids and calcium chloride, and recording the clotting time. Here we describe the principle, performance and extensive practical details of the two methods, the problems that may be encountered and how they can be identified and overcome.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804827/assessment-of-hereditary-thrombophilia-performance-of-antithrombin-at-testing
#8
Jana N Gausman, Richard A Marlar
Antithrombin (AT) is a naturally occurring plasma inhibitor of coagulation, which is a synthesized in the liver. AT inhibits coagulation serine proteases (the enzymatically activated forms of the clotting factors), mainly thrombin (factor IIa) and factor Xa, but also to a lesser extent factors IXa, XIa, and XIIa. Acting alone, AT inhibits coagulation factors, but does this very slowly; however, when coupled with heparin as a cofactor, the speed of inhibition is increased many fold. The AT/Heparin complex is the most powerful naturally occurring anticoagulant in blood...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804825/assessment-of-hereditary-thrombophilia-performance-of-protein-c-pc-testing
#9
Richard A Marlar, Jana N Gausman
Protein C (PC) is a plasma Vitamin K-dependent pro-enzyme protein that is synthesized in the liver. Upon activation, PC regulates the coagulation process by neutralizing the procoagulant activities of factors V and VIII in the presence of the cofactor Protein S. PC is a major regulator of the coagulation process. The clotting based Protein C assay, the protocol described in this chapter, quantitates the amount of functional PC present in the specimen in a proportional fashion based on the prolongation of the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804824/laboratory-testing-for-activated-protein-c-resistance-apcr
#10
Soma Mohammed, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Activated protein C resistance (APCR) describes a hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). This results in an increased risk of venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Protein C is a natural anticoagulant that is synthesized in the liver and is activated to APC via proteolysis. APC then degrades Factors Va and VIIIa. APCR describes the reduced inability of APC to cleave Factors Va and VIIIa, which therefore promotes increased thrombin generation and potentially leads to a prothrombotic state...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804823/an-overview-of-thrombophilia-and-associated-laboratory-testing
#11
Martina Montagnana, Giuseppe Lippi, Elisa Danese
Venous thromboembolism, usually entailing deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or both, is a complex and multifactorial disorder, in which a number of putative conditions interplay and finally contribute to propel the individual risk over a certain degree, so ultimately culminating in the development of venous occlusive disorders. Thrombophilia is commonly defined as a propensity to develop venous thromboembolism on the basis of an underlying hypercoagulable state attributable to inherited or acquired disorders of blood coagulation or fibrinolysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804820/performance-and-interpretation-of-mixing-tests-in-coagulation
#12
Geoffrey Kershaw
Mixing tests in coagulation studies allow the laboratory to correctly differentiate factor deficiency from inhibitors as the cause of a prolonged clotting time. This is important in terms of subsequent laboratory follow-up and clinical patient management. In this chapter, a suggested method of performing mixing tests is given, with procedures applying two different formulas for interpretation, the percent correction and the index of circulating anticoagulant.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804819/performance-of-activated-partial-thromboplastin-time-aptt-determining-reagent-sensitivity-to-factor-deficiencies-heparin-and-lupus-anticoagulants
#13
Geoffrey Kershaw
The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a useful global assay for the assessment of the contact factor pathway of hemostasis and its inhibitors. The test is usually performed on fully automated analyzers using commercially prepared reagents. The three main clinical areas of interest are detection of factor deficiencies, detection of lupus anticoagulants and in the monitoring of therapy with unfractionated heparin. Methods are described here for assessing APTT reagents for their sensitivity to clotting time prolongation in each of these areas of interest...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803708/anti-phospholipid-syndrome-current-opinion-on-mechanisms-involved-laboratory-characterization-and-diagnostic-aspects
#14
REVIEW
Jean Amiral, Marie Peyrafitte, Claire Dunois, Anne Marie Vissac, Jerard Seghatchian
Anti-phospholipid syndrome is a complex and severe clinical situation, associated with symptoms such as recurrent thrombosis, arterial or venous, at any site, pregnancy loss, and other related syndromes. These clinical burdens, are highly variable from patient to patient, and are associated with biological abnormalities, such as the presence of the Lupus Anticoagulant or phospholipid dependent antibodies, confirmed on two occasions at least 12 weeks apart. From the diagnosis standpoint, both, functional (clotting) or immunological assays, are difficult to standardize and to optimize, due to the absence of reference material, or a characteristic clinical group, and international reference preparations...
July 15, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802974/characteristics-of-thrombin-generation-in-a-fulminant-porcine-sepsis-model
#15
Judit Tóth, Ildikó Beke Debreceni, Ádám Deák, Katalin Pető, Mariann Berhés, Endre Hajdú, Judit Szabó, Norbert Németh, Béla Fülesdi, János Kappelmayer
INTRODUCTION: The activation of blood coagulation has been demonstrated in most cases of sepsis, however previous studies in humans could not detect hypercoagulability with global hemostasis assays. In a fulminant porcine sepsis model we analysed coagulation screening tests and thrombin generation to evaluate hemostatic alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Live Escherichia coli bacteria were inoculated to female pigs and prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen were measured by coagulometry...
August 1, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801460/multiplexed-silicon-photonic-sensor-arrays-enable-facile-characterization-of-coagulation-protein-binding-to-nanodiscs-with-variable-lipid-content
#16
Ellen M Muehl, Joshua M Gajsiewicz, Sara M Medfisch, Zachary S B Wiersma, James H Morrissey, Ryan C Bailey
Interactions of soluble proteins with the cell membrane are critical within the blood coagulation cascade. Of particular interest are the interactions of γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain-containing clotting proteins with lipids. Variability among conventional analytical methods presents challenges for comparing clotting protein-lipid interactions. Most previous studies have investigated only a single clotting protein and lipid composition and have yielded widely different binding constants. Herein, we demonstrate that a combination of lipid bilayer Nanodiscs and a multiplexed silicon photonic analysis technology enables high-throughput probing of many protein-lipid interactions among blood-clotting proteins...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801136/outcomes-of-pharmacomechanical-catheter-directed-thrombolysis-for-acute-and-subacute-inferior-vena-cava-thrombosis-a-retrospective-evaluation-in-a-single-institution
#17
K Ye, J Qin, M Yin, X Liu, X Lu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The objective was to assess the mid-term results of pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) for symptomatic acute and subacute inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis; the risk factors of early thrombosis recurrence and iliocaval patency were also evaluated. METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2015, 54 patients (33 men; mean age 47.1 years) with symptomatic acute and subacute IVC thrombosis were treated with PCDT. Primary technical success (clot lysis ≥ 50% after PCDT), stent-assisted technical success (residual stenosis < 30% after stenting), clinical success (freedom from thrombosis recurrence within 30 days), complications, frequency of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS; Villalta score ≥ 5), and iliocaval patency were recorded at follow-up evaluation...
August 8, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799234/arhgef10-knockout-inhibits-platelet-aggregation-and-protects-mice-from-thrombus-formation
#18
Dai-Hua Lu, Chun-Chieh Hsu, Shiu-Wen Huang, Huang-Ju Tu, Tur-Fu Huang, Houng-Chi Liou, Hsiao-Mei Liao, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Wen-Mei Fu, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: ARHGEF10, a member of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) family, stimulates the Rho GTPases. Rho GTPases have been reported to regulate a variety of cellular behaviors such as cell polarity, cytoskeletal organization and gene transcription. ARHGEF10 SNPs are linked with the risk of ischemic stroke. However, the role of ARHGEF10 in platelet function remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of ARHGEF10 in platelet function. METHODS: ARHGEF10 knockout mice were generated...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798878/treatment-of-knee-osteochondral-lesions-using-a-novel-clot-of-autologous-plasma-rich-in-growth-factors-mixed-with-healthy-hyaline-cartilage-chips-and-intra-articular-injection-of-prgf
#19
Ramón Cugat, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Gilbert Steinbacher, Pedro Álvarez-Díaz, Xavier Cuscó, Roberto Seijas, David Barastegui, Jordi Navarro, Patricia Laiz, Montserrat García-Balletbó
Knee cartilage or osteochondral lesions are common and challenging injuries. To date, most symptomatic lesions warrant surgical treatment. We present two cases of patients with knee osteochondral defects treated with a one-step surgical procedure consisting of an autologous-based matrix composed of healthy hyaline cartilage chips, mixed plasma poor-rich in platelets clot, and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Both patients returned to playing soccer at the preinjury activity level and demonstrated excellent defect filling in both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy (in one of them)...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793786/hemophilia-gene-therapy-ready-for-prime-time
#20
Thierry VandenDriessche, Marinee K L Chuah
Hemophilia A and B are congenital X-linked bleeding disorders caused by mutations in the genes encoding for the blood clotting factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX), respectively. Since the beginning of gene therapy, hemophilia has been considered an attractive disease target that served as a trailblazer for the field at large. Different technologies have been explored to efficiently and safely deliver the therapeutic FVIII and FIX genes into the patients' cells. Currently, the most promising vectors for hemophilia gene therapy are adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) and lentiviral vectors...
August 10, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
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