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Juvenile court

Mekeila C Cook, Elizabeth Barnert, Roya Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Kayleen Ports, Eraka Bath
The study sought to: 1) describe the mental health and substance use profiles among participants of a specialty trafficking court program (the Succeed Though Achievement and Resilience Court); 2) describe youths' mental health and substance use treatment prior to participating in the program; and 3) examine whether abuse influences report of mental health problems and/or substance use. Retrospective case review of court files was performed on commercially sexually exploited youth who volunteered to participate in the court from 2012 to 2014 (N = 184)...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Lidón Villanueva, Keren Cuervo
This study aimed to examine the impact of the educational measure of confinement in juvenile detention center versus probation, on adult recidivism. Participants were 264 youths with a disciplinary record in the Juvenile Court ( M = 16.5), who were sentenced to custody in a juvenile closed detention center or to probation. The risk levels were assessed using the YLS/CMI Inventory (Youth Level of Service/Case Management). A follow-up period for studying these two groups into adulthood was carried out to register possible adult recidivism...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Sonia Jain, Alison K Cohen, Priya Jagannathan, Yvette Leung, Henrissa Bassey, Sara Bedford
Traditional juvenile reentry systems often inadequately meet offenders' complex needs. Policymakers and researchers increasingly recognize the importance of a collaborative community- and development-based reentry system to improve recidivism, youth developmental outcomes, and public safety. Yet, system-level process evaluations of integrated reentry systems are scarce. California's Alameda County juvenile reentry system implemented evidence-based strategies and practices to better serve reentry youth. We report findings from a process evaluation, using data from 15 key stakeholder interviews, focus groups with community-based providers, a reentry system-wide stakeholder survey, site visit observations, and document reviews...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Hasan Buker, Ayhan Erbay
To implement effective diversion programs and determine for a well-suited intervention strategy, ascertaining who, among the adjudicated youth, is more likely to involve in multiple offending, rather than desisting after an initial delinquent behavior, is of great significance. The overall objective of this study, therefore, is to contribute to the existing knowledge on assessing the risks for multiple offending during juvenile adjudication processes. In this regard, this study examined the predicting powers of several individual-level and family-level risk factors on multiple offending during adolescence, based on a data set derived from court-ordered social examination reports (SERs) on 400 adjudicated youth in Turkey...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
F Jeane Gerard, Kate C Whitfield, Kevin D Browne
This study explores modeling crime-scene characteristics of juvenile homicide in the French-speaking part of Belgium. Multidimensional scaling analysis was carried out on crime-scene characteristics derived from the court files of 67 individuals under 22 years old, who had been charged with murder or attempted murder (1995-2009). Three thematic regions (Expressive: multiple offenders; Instrumental: theft; Instrumental: sex/forensic awareness) distinguished types of aggression displayed during the offense. These themes reaffirm that the expressive-instrumental differentiation found in general homicide studies is valuable when attempting to discriminate juvenile homicides...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Angela A Robertson, Courtney S Walker
Decades of research have established that experience of abuse and/or neglect in childhood is related to negative outcomes, such as juvenile delinquency. Existing research has shown that involvement in child welfare services is also related to juvenile delinquency, particularly for children who are victims of neglect. Research has also identified educational factors such as chronic absenteeism as significant predictors of involvement in the juvenile justice system. However, little research has investigated the combined influence of educational factors, child abuse, and involvement in child protective services on justice system involvement...
December 11, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Mariano Ruperthuz Honorato
This article deals with the circulation and early spread of Freudianism in mass culture in Chilean society at the turn of the twentieth century. It documents the first references to Sigmund Freud in the Chilean media, the announcement of Freudian-style self-help classes, the appearance of psychoanalysts as characters in some fantasy novels, and the open lectures on psychoanalysis given by the first juvenile court judge in Santiago, the lawyer Samuel Gajardo Contreras. It explores the expectations projected onto Freudianism by the Chilean elite, and how Freud's theories contributed to a rethinking of childhood, the family and emotional life in Chile from 1920-1950...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Jasmyn Sanders, Alexandra R Hershberger, Haley M Kolp, Miji Um, Matthew Aalsma, Melissa A Cyders
Juvenile justice-involved youth face disproportionate rates of sexual abuse, which increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs), both of which are associated with poor long-term outcomes. The present study tested two mediation and moderation models, controlling for age, race, and history of physical abuse, with gender as a moderator, to determine whether PTSD symptoms serve as a risk factor and/or mechanism in the relationship between sexual abuse and substance use...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
Haley M Kolp, Alexandra R Hershberger, Jasmyn Sanders, Miji Um, Matthew Aalsma, Melissa A Cyders
Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms cooccur at high rates with illicit drug use in juvenile justice involved youth, which results in poorer outcomes; however, research has not identified where best to intervene in this relationship, limiting the identification of modifiable risk factors to reduce negative effects of CD symptoms. Two mediation models were examined to investigate the potential for CD symptoms to influence a reciprocal relationship between illicit drug use and positive drug attitudes, controlling for age, gender, and race...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Nathalie Gilfoyle, Joel A Dvoskin
An important part of the American Psychological Association's (APA) mission is to advance psychological science "to promote health, education, and public welfare." Organizations with powerful influence on human welfare include state and federal appellate courts, especially the U.S. Supreme Court. Initially, APA's amicus briefs focused on issues of importance to both individual psychologists and public policy. As the program evolved, APA increasingly focused on informing the courts about psychological science relevant to important legal issues, including criminal, civil, juvenile, education, disability, and human rights law...
November 2017: American Psychologist
David Schwartz, Jennifer E Lansford, Kenneth A Dodge, Gregory S Pettit, John E Bates
This longitudinal investigation examined interactions between aggression and peer victimization during middle childhood in the prediction of arrest through the adult years for 388 (198 boys, 190 girls) study participants. As part of an ongoing multisite study (i.e., Child Development Project), peer victimization and aggression were assessed via a peer nomination inventory in middle childhood, and juvenile and adult arrest histories were assessed via a self-report questionnaire as well as review of court records...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Keren Cuervo, Lidón Villanueva
Intervention in youth recidivism is critical in helping prevent young people from continuing their criminal career into adulthood, on a life-course-persistent trajectory. Andrews and Bonta attempt to provide an explanation of risk and protective factors using a conversion of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI), which predicts recidivism. In this study, scores have been obtained from 382 adolescents ( M age = 16.33 years) from the juvenile court, to check the ability of a reduced version of the YLS/CMI, to predict recidivism...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Pia M Mauro, Michael R McCart, Ashli J Sheidow, Sarah E Naeger, Elizabeth J Letourneau
While juvenile drug courts (JDCs) require treatment participation, youth and parent engagement in treatment cannot be mandated. We compared youths' and parents' self-reports of engagement in Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents (RRTA) and Treatment as Usual (TAU) in JDCs. Parents and youth receiving RRTA were more likely than those receiving TAU to report high engagement in treatment. High parent engagement in RRTA early in treatment predicted fewer missed appointments and lower youth substance use at 3 months...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
Sang Soo Lee, Yike Ding, Natalie Karapetians, Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez, Fernando Gabriel Noriega, Michael E Adams
Formation and expression of memories are critical for context-dependent decision making. In Drosophila, a courting male rejected by a mated female subsequently courts less avidly when paired with a virgin female, a behavioral modification attributed to "courtship memory." Here we show the critical role of hormonal state for maintenance of courtship memory. Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is essential for courtship memory through regulation of juvenile hormone (JH) levels in adult males. Reduction of JH levels via silencing of ETH signaling genes impairs short-term courtship memory, a phenotype rescuable by the JH analog methoprene...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Christopher M King
It remains unclear whether forensic mental health assessments for juvenile reverse transfer (to juvenile court) are distinct from those for juvenile transfer (to adult court). This survey consisted of an updated review of transfer and reverse transfer laws (in jurisdictions that have both mechanisms) in light of the generally accepted three-factor model of functional legal capacities involved in transfer evaluations (i.e., risk, sophistication-maturity, and treatment amenability). Results indicated that a majority of states' reverse transfer statutes refer explicitly or implicitly to the same three psycholegal constructs identified as central for transfer...
August 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Cheryl D Wills
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Kirk Heilbrun, Naomi E S Goldstein, David DeMatteo, Rebecca Newsham, Elizabeth Gale-Bentz, Lindsay Cole, Shelby Arnold
Behavioral health needs in justice-involved adolescents are an increasing concern, as it has been estimated that two-thirds of youths in the juvenile justice system now meet the criteria for one or more psychological disorders. This article describes the application of the Sequential Intercept Model (SIM), developed to describe five "points of interception" from standard prosecution into rehabilitation-oriented alternatives for adults (Munetz & Griffin, 2006), to juvenile justice. The five SIM intercepts are: (1) first contact with law enforcement or emergency services; (2) initial hearings and detention following arrest; (3) jails and courts (including problem-solving courts); (4) re-entry from jails, prisons and forensic hospitals; and (5) community corrections and community support, including probation and parole...
June 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Sunay Firat, Yigit Iltas, Mete K Gulmen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of migration on children in the juvenile justice system. The study takes into account whether these children arrived in the city via migration or not, the types of crimes against property and persons committed by the children brought before the Juvenile Courts, and the types, frequency, and durations of punishments and precautionary decisions they received. In addition, the study examines the children's ability to realize the meaning and consequences of their crimes and to lead their future behaviors effectively...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Marina Tolou-Shams, Emily Dauria, Selby M Conrad, Kathleen Kemp, Sarah Johnson, Larry K Brown
Approximately 80% of all arrested youth are diverted from detention and supervised in the community through probation, specialty courts and other community-based diversion efforts. Justice-involved youth have greater psychiatric impairment, substance use and sexual risk behaviors than their non-justice-involved peers. Family-based interventions to address mental health, substance use and recidivism have been successful in improving these youth outcomes; but the lack of integration of HIV/STI prevention is notable given the co-occurrence of substance use, delinquency and sexual risk-taking behaviors among justice-involved youth...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Elena Ortega-Campos, Juan García-García, Flor Zaldívar-Basurto
The present study examined the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) in a group of young Spanish offenders. The sample is made up of 594 minors from the Juvenile Court, between the ages of 14 and 18 at the time they committed the delinquent act. The SAVRY was able to differentiate between low and high-risk younger offenders. Mean scores on risk factor are greater in the group of recidivist offenders, the group of non-recidivist shows higher mean scores in Protective domain...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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