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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813259/alternatives-for-abandoned-children-insights-from-the-bucharest-early-intervention-project
#1
REVIEW
Charles H Zeanah, Kathryn L Humphreys, Nathan A Fox, Charles A Nelson
The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is the first and only randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care for orphaned and abandoned children. Across various domains of brain and behavioral development we demonstrated that children in families developed more favorably than children in institutions, that foster care remediates some but not all compromises associated with institutional placement and that earlier placement in foster care leads to more developmental gains in some but not all domains...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813241/should-potential-risk-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-be-discussed-with-young-athletes
#2
Kimberly Hornbeck, Kevin Walter, Matthew Myrvik
As participation in youth sports has risen over the past two decades, so has the incidence of youth sports injuries. A common topic of concern is concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, in young athletes and whether concussions sustained at a young age could lead to lifelong impairment such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While the pathway from a concussed young athlete to an adult with CTE remains unknown, current research is attempting to provide more clarity. This article discusses how health care professionals can help foster an informed, balanced decision-making process regarding participation in contact sports that involves the parents as well as the children...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809581/-mental-health-of-preschool-foster-care-children-how-do-foster-families-influence-the-way-children-cope-with-trauma
#3
Mira Vasileva, Franz Petermann
Parents and other significant persons have an important role when preschool children develop or cope with psychological symptoms following traumatic experiences. The underlying mechanisms of the interaction between traumatic experiences and influences of the foster family are still unclear. This study investigates foster parents’ stress levels and parenting styles as moderators or mediators in the context of traumatic experiences. Foster parents of 286 children between three and seven years participated in an online or paper-and-pencil survey...
August 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805141/inhibited-attachment-disordered-behavior-in-institutionalized-preschool-children-links-with-early-and-current-relational-experiences
#4
Raquel Corval, Jay Belsky, Joana Baptista, Paula Oliveira, Ana Mesquita, Isabel Soares
Inhibited attachment disordered behavior (IADB) is characterized by difficulty in establishing an attachment relationship with a primary caregiver; is associated with persistent social and emotional problems; and is observed most frequently in contexts of pathological care such as institutional rearing. Here, we seek to enhance understanding of the conditions that give rise to IADB among institutionalized children by examining prior family experiences of neglect and deprivation and concurrent relational experiences at the institution...
August 14, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804649/trends-and-disparities-in-the-prevalence-of-childhood-obesity-in-south-texas-between-2009-and-2015
#5
Byron A Foster, Trevor M Maness, Christian A Aquino
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have highlighted possible decreases over time in obesity, particularly among children aged 2-5 years. Hispanic children experience significantly higher obesity rates, and less is known about trends for Hispanic children. METHODS: A large healthcare system-based dataset from south Texas was used to analyze body mass index (BMI) values obtained clinically from 2009 through 2015. Age and race/ethnicity specific prevalence of overweight and obesity were calculated using CDC standards and trends were examined over time using regression analyses, and mapping software was used to identify geographic variation...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799260/parent-and-staff-perceptions-of-parental-needs-during-a-child-s-hospital-admission-to-a-paediatric-high-dependency-unit-a-new-zealand-study
#6
Mandie Foster, Lisa Whitehead
AIM: This study aimed to identify parents' and staff's perceptions of parents' needs during a paediatric high-dependency unit admission and the relationships between needs, socio-demographic and clinical variables and explores if these perceptions have changed. METHODS: This study uses a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design, and 104 parents whose children received care and 88 staff who worked within a paediatric high-dependency unit at a tertiary hospital in New Zealand completed the Needs of Parents' Questionnaire in 2011...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792079/mentoring-relationship-quality-and-maltreated-children-s-coping
#7
Ashley A Chesmore, Lindsey M Weiler, Heather N Taussig
Coping strategies are believed to protect against the harmful effects of maltreatment on children's psychosocial outcomes. Caregivers are thought to be critical in helping children develop adaptive coping strategies, yet many maltreated children have poor and/or insecure relationships with their parents. A quality relationship with a caring, non-parental adult (e.g., a mentor), however, may be one strategy to promote healthy coping among maltreated children. Children (N = 154) in this study participated in a mentoring and skill-based program for maltreated preadolescents placed in foster care...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789647/evaluation-of-muscle-activity-bite-force-and-salivary-cortisol-in-children-with-bruxism-before-and-after-low-level-laser-applied-to-acupoints-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Mônica da Consolação Canuto Salgueiro, Carolina Carvalho Bortoletto, Anna Carolina RattoTempestini Horliana, Ana Carolina Costa Mota, Lara Jansiski Motta, Pamella de Barros Motta, Raquel Agnelli MesquitaFerrari, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Sandra Kalil Bussadori
BACKGROUND: Bruxism is a repetitive activity that causes tooth wear, audible sounds, and discomfort. Preventive measures have been studied for conditions that can exert a negative influence on physiological development in children. Low-level laser therapy administered over acupoints is an effective, painless, low-cost treatment option that has achieved good results. Thus, the aim of the proposed study is to evaluate changes in muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism after the application of low-level laser to accupoints...
August 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766191/promoting-afterschool-quality-and-positive-youth-development-cluster-randomized-trial-of-the-pax-good-behavior-game
#9
Emilie Phillips Smith, D Wayne Osgood, Yoonkyung Oh, Linda C Caldwell
This randomized trial tested a strategy originally developed for school settings, the Pax Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG), in the new context of afterschool programs. We examined this approach in afterschool since 70% of all juvenile crime occurs between the hours of 3-6 pm, making afterschool an important setting for prevention and promotion. Dual-career and working families need monitoring and supervision for their children in quality settings that are safe and appropriately structured. While substantial work has identified important features of afterschool programs, increasing attention is being given to how to foster quality...
August 1, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765679/placement-instability-among-young-people-removed-from-their-original-family-and-the-likely-mental-health-implications
#10
Simon Rice, Sue Cotton, Kristen Moeller-Saxone, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, Anne Magnus, Carol Harvey, Cathy Humphreys, Stephen Halperin, Angela Scheppokat, Patrick McGorry, Helen Herrman
BACKGROUND: Young people in out-of-home care are more likely to experience poorer mental and physical health outcomes related to their peers. Stable care environments are essential for ameliorating impacts of disruptive early childhood experiences, including exposure to psychological trauma, abuse and neglect. At present there are very few high quality data regarding the placement stability history of young people in out-of-home care in Australia or other countries. OBJECTIVES: To undertake the first systematic census of background, care type and placement stability characteristics of young people living in the out-of-home care sector in Australia...
April 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758882/attitude-towards-gender-roles-and-violence-against-women-and-girls-vawg-baseline-findings-from-an-rct-of-1752-youths-in-pakistan
#11
Tazeen Saeed Ali, Rozina Karmaliani, Judith Mcfarlane, Hussain M A Khuwaja, Yasmeen Somani, Esnat D Chirwa, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Violence against women is driven by gender norms that normalize and justify gender inequality and violence. Gender norms are substantially shaped during adolescence. Programs offered through schools offer an opportunity to influence gender attitudes toward gender equity if we understand these to be partly shaped by peers and the school environment. OBJECTIVE: We present an analysis of the baseline research conducted for a randomized controlled trial with 1752 grade 6 boys and girls and their attitudes toward gender roles, VAWG, and associated factors...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758783/mind-mindedness-in-parents-of-looked-after-children
#12
Sarah Fishburn, Elizabeth Meins, Sarah Greenhow, Christine Jones, Simon Hackett, Nina Biehal, Helen Baldwin, Linda Cusworth, Jim Wade
The studies reported here aimed to test the proposal that mind-mindedness is a quality of personal relationships by assessing mind-mindedness in caregiver-child dyads in which the relationship has not spanned the child's life or in which the relationship has been judged dysfunctional. Studies 1 and 2 investigated differences in mind-mindedness between adoptive parents (ns = 89, 36) and biological parents from the general population (ns = 54, 114). Both studies found lower mind-mindedness in adoptive compared with biological parents...
July 31, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751530/a-10-year-review-of-child-injury-hospitalisations-health-outcomes-and-treatment-costs-in-australia
#13
Rebecca J Mitchell, Kate Curtis, Kim Foster
BACKGROUND: Childhood injury is a leading cause of hospitalisation, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of child injury and survival over time in Australia. To examine the characteristics, temporal trend and survival for children who were hospitalised as a result of injury in Australia. METHOD: A retrospective examination of linked hospitalisation and mortality data for injured children aged 16 years or less during 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2012. Negative binomial regression examined change in injury hospitalisation trends...
July 27, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751491/pediatric-chronic-critical-illness-reducing-excess-hospitalizations
#14
Renee D Boss, Erin P Williams, Carrie M Henderson, Rebecca R Seltzer, Miriam C Shapiro, Emily Hahn, Nancy Hutton
OBJECTIVES: The past 2 decades have seen an expanding pediatric population that is chronically critically ill: children with repeated and prolonged hospitalizations and ongoing dependence on technologies to sustain vital functions. Although illness complexity prompts many hospitalizations, our goal with this study was to explore modifiable patient, family, and health system contributions to excess hospital days for children with chronic critical illness (CCI). METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 51 stakeholders known for their CCI expertise...
July 27, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746733/mothers-with-substance-addictions-show-reduced-reward-responses-when-viewing-their-own-infant-s-face
#15
Sohye Kim, Udita Iyengar, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza, Helena J V Rutherford, Lane Strathearn
Maternal addiction constitutes a major public health problem affecting children, with high rates of abuse, neglect, and foster care placement. However, little is known about the ways in which substance addiction alters brain function related to maternal behavior. Prior studies have shown that infant face cues activate similar dopamine-associated brain reward regions to substances of abuse. Here, we report on a functional MRI study documenting that mothers with addictions demonstrate reduced activation of reward regions when shown reward-related cues of their own infants...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745146/disorganized-attachment-in-infancy-a-review-of-the-phenomenon-and-its-implications-for-clinicians-and-policy-makers
#16
Pehr Granqvist, L Alan Sroufe, Mary Dozier, Erik Hesse, Miriam Steele, Marinus van Ijzendoorn, Judith Solomon, Carlo Schuengel, Pasco Fearon, Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg, Howard Steele, Jude Cassidy, Elizabeth Carlson, Sheri Madigan, Deborah Jacobvitz, Sarah Foster, Kazuko Behrens, Anne Rifkin-Graboi, Naomi Gribneau, Gottfried Spangler, Mary J Ward, Mary True, Susan Spieker, Sophie Reijman, Samantha Reisz, Anne Tharner, Frances Nkara, Ruth Goldwyn, June Sroufe, David Pederson, Deanne Pederson, Robert Weigand, Daniel Siegel, Nino Dazzi, Kristin Bernard, Peter Fonagy, Everett Waters, Sheree Toth, Dante Cicchetti, Charles H Zeanah, Karlen Lyons-Ruth, Mary Main, Robbie Duschinsky
Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the individual in forensic/child protection settings and that disorganized attachment (2) reliably indicates child maltreatment, (3) is a strong predictor of pathology, and (4) represents a fixed or static "trait" of the child, impervious to development or help...
July 26, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743054/continuity-for-children-after-guardianship-versus-adoption-with-kin-approximating-the-right-counterfactual
#17
Nancy Rolock, Kevin R White
Over the past two decades there has been a rapid increase in the number of children and youth living in guardianship and adoptive homes who were previously in foster care. Further, previous studies compared outcomes for children in guardianship homes to those for children in adoptive homes, despite the fact that many factors likely affect the selection of foster youth into different types of permanent placements. This study examined two counterfactuals for guardianship as a permanent placement type: adoption only and adoption or long-term-fostercare (A+LTFC)...
July 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739651/improving-asthma-care-by-building-statewide-quality-improvement-infrastructure
#18
Judith C Dolins, Jennifer Powell, Edward Wise, Kimberly Giuliano, Peggy Stemmler, Wes Stubblefield, P Cooper White, James Wiley, Dennis Z Kuo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pediatric medical professionals have an increasing desire for quality improvement (QI) methods that produce sustainable changes in health care delivery. Previous reports have described QI in single settings or single coordinating entities that work with multiple sites. The objectives of this project are (1) to improve care for children with asthma across multiple practice settings and (2) to develop state-level expertise to support QI projects across entities in multiple states...
July 24, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738459/-gene-gene-interaction-on-central-obesity-in-school-aged-children-in-china
#19
L W Fu, M X Zhang, L J Wu, L W Gao, J Mi
Objective: To investigate possible effect of 6 obesity-associated SNPs in contribution to central obesity and examine whether there is an interaction in the 6 SNPs in the cause of central obesity in school-aged children in China. Methods: A total of 3 502 school-aged children who were included in Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) Study were selected, and based on the age and sex specific waist circumference (WC) standards in the BCAMS study, 1 196 central obese cases and 2 306 controls were identified...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738074/adversity-emotion-recognition-and-empathic-concern-in-high-risk-youth
#20
Jodi A Quas, Kelli L Dickerson, Richard Matthew, Connor Harron, Catherine M Quas
Little is known about how emotion recognition and empathy jointly operate in youth growing up in contexts defined by persistent adversity. We investigated whether adversity exposure in two groups of youth was associated with reduced empathy and whether deficits in emotion recognition mediated this association. Foster, rural poor, and comparison youth from Swaziland, Africa identified emotional expressions and rated their empathic concern for characters depicted in images showing positive, ambiguous, and negative scenes...
2017: PloS One
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