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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646952/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-primary-transmission-and-management
#1
Alexander C Outhred, Philip N Britton, Ben J Marais
The DOTS strategy assisted global tuberculosis (TB) control, but was unable to prevent the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains. Genomic evidence confirms the transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in many different settings, indicative of epidemic spread. These findings emphasise the need for enhanced infection control measures in health care and congregate settings. Young children in TB endemic areas are particularly vulnerable. Although advances in TB drug and vaccine development are urgently needed, improved access to currently available preventive therapy and treatment for drug resistant TB could reduce the disease burden and adverse outcomes experienced by children...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598219/recent-approaches-to-ameliorate-selectivity-and-sensitivity-of-enzyme-based-cholesterol-biosensors-a-review
#2
Anjum Gahlaut, Vinita Hooda, Vikas Dhull, Vikas Hooda
The healthcare area is often reluctant to execute new technology unless they are proven to be safe, constructive and secure. Eventually, an aspiration stands for providing point-of-care testing service to allow a better estimation of the biochemical levels of a patient that entails an insistent remedial action. With increasing mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in present scenario, it has become the need of hour to develop more advance methods for their diagnosis, so that it can be determined at sensitive levels and can be prevented from being fatal...
June 9, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502023/sources-of-care-for-alcohol-and-other-drug-problems-the-role-of-the-african-american-church
#3
Eunice C Wong, Kathryn P Derose, Paula Litt, Jeremy N V Miles
African Americans experience significant disparities in treatment access, retention, and quality of care for alcohol and drug use (AOD) problems. Religious congregations, often the first point of contact for help with AOD problems, can play an integral role in improving access to treatment. However, little is known about the role of African American churches in addressing AOD problems. We administered a survey to a faith-based collaborative of 169 African American churches in Los Angeles to examine how AOD problems are identified in congregations, the types of support provided, barriers to providing treatment referrals, and factors associated with the provision of treatment referrals...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438523/predictors-of-early-childbirth-among-female-adolescents-in-foster-care
#4
Bryn King, Melissa Van Wert
PURPOSE: Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. METHODS: A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387570/seeking-and-accepting-u-s-clergy-theological-and-moral-perspectives-informing-decision-making-at-the-end-of-life
#5
Justin J Sanders, Vinca Chow, Andrea C Enzinger, Tai-Chung Lam, Patrick T Smith, Rebecca Quiñones, Andrew Baccari, Sarah Philbrick, Gloria White-Hammond, John Peteet, Tracy A Balboni, Michael J Balboni
BACKGROUND: People with serious illness frequently rely on religion/spirituality to cope with their diagnosis, with potentially positive and negative consequences. Clergy are uniquely positioned to help patients consider medical decisions at or near the end of life within a religious/spiritual framework. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine clergy knowledge of end-of-life (EOL) care and beliefs about the role of faith in EOL decision making for patients with serious illness...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382882/mating-system-mate-choice-and-parental-care-in-a-bark-beetle
#6
O Baruch, Z Mendel, I Scharf, A R Harari
The cypress bark beetle, Phloeosinus armatus, is a common element of the dying cypress tree system in East-Mediterranean countries. Adult beetles congregate for breeding on this ephemeral resource. We studied three traits that characterize this beetle's sexual behavior and linked them to its reproductive success: mating system, mate choice, and parental care. We found that the females are the 'pioneering sex', excavating the mating chamber. The average female is slightly larger than the male, and female and male body size is correlated, demonstrating size-assortative mating...
April 6, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361734/tuberculosis-in-enclosed-populations
#7
REVIEW
Sorana Segal-Maurer
Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is most effective in close contact indoor environments in various congregate settings including health care facilities, homeless shelters, correctional facilities, long-term care facilities, as well as community settings such as homes, schools, workplaces, and various modes of transportation. Outbreaks are fueled by numerous factors including the HIV epidemic, ease of global travel, unstable socio-economic and/or political situations, and lapses in response to potentially infectious patients...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333913/tuberculosis-among-foreign-born-persons-diagnosed-%C3%A2-10-years-after-arrival-in-the-united-states-2010-2015
#8
Clarisse A Tsang, Adam J Langer, Thomas R Navin, Lori R Armstrong
The majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the United States are attributable to reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) (1). LTBI refers to the condition when a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis without signs and symptoms, or radiographic or bacteriologic evidence of TB disease. CDC and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend screening populations at increased risk for LTBI, including persons who have lived in congregate settings at high risk and persons who were born in, or are former residents of countries with TB incidence ≥20 cases per 100,000 population (2-4)...
March 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188462/caring-for-the-caregiver-identifying-the-needs-of-those-called-to-care-through-partnerships-with-congregations
#9
Panagis Galiatsatos, Katie Nelson, W Daniel Hale
As the older adult population continues to grow, the prevalence of chronic diseases is also increasing, leading to the need for novel ways of managing this large population of patients. One solution is to focus on informal caregivers. These informal caregivers already make a substantial contribution to our nation's healthcare finances and patient health outcomes. Caregivers also derive benefits from caring for their family member or friend; however, it is not uncommon for these individuals to experience negative health consequences, or what is often called "burden of care...
June 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185893/u-s-clergy-religious-values-and-relationships-to-end-of-life-discussions-and-care
#10
Michael J Balboni, Adam Sullivan, Andrea C Enzinger, Patrick T Smith, Christine Mitchell, John R Peteet, James A Tulsky, Tyler VanderWeele, Tracy A Balboni
CONTEXT: Although clergy interact with approximately half of U.S. patients facing end-of-life medical decisions, little is known about clergy-congregant interactions or clergy influence on end-of-life decisions. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to conduct a nationally representative survey of clergy beliefs and practices. METHODS: A mailed survey to a nationally representative sample of clergy completed in March 2015 with 1005 of 1665 responding (60% response rate)...
June 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165683/women-reigious-unite-to-eradicate-trafficking
#11
Ann Victory, Ann Oestreich
The history of women's religious congregations is a history of addressing unmet needs. The founders and foundresses of our communities read the signs of their times and gathered women together to serve God and God's most vulneiable people. When the Second Vatican Council invited us to re-examine our founding charisms in light of the needs of our times, we rediscovered our own preferential option for those who are poor, often with a special care for women and children. While we continued to engage in traditional minis- tries serving the people of God without distinction, we expanded our outreach through social services, pastoral ministries and work for social justice and systemic change...
July 2016: Health Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065183/paramyxovirus-outbreak-in-a-long-term-care-facility-the-challenges-of-implementing-infection-control-practices-in-a-congregate-setting
#12
Steven Schaeffer Spires, H Keipp Talbot, Carolyn A Pope, Thomas R Talbot
OBJECTIVE We report an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections in a dementia care ward containing 2 separately locked units (A and B) to heighten awareness of these pathogens in the older adult population and highlight some of the infection prevention challenges faced during a noninfluenza respiratory viral outbreak in a congregate setting. METHODS Cases were defined by the presence of new signs or symptoms that included (1) a single oral temperature ≥ 37...
January 9, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983624/sharing-the-load-amish-healthcare-financing
#13
Kristyn Rohrer, Lauren Dundes
When settling healthcare bills, the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania rely on an ethos of mutual aid, independent of the government. Consonant with this philosophy, many Amish do not participate in or receive benefits from Social Security or Medicare. They are also exempted from the Affordable Care Act of 2010. This study expands the limited documentation of Amish Hospital Aid, an Amish health insurance program that covers major medical costs. Interview data from 11 Amish adults in Lancaster County depict how this aid program supplements traditional congregational alms coverage of medical expenses...
December 14, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956073/an-unintended-consequence-of-culture-change-in-va-community-living-centers
#14
Jill Harrison, Denise A Tyler, Renée R Shield, Whitney L Mills, Kristen E Morgan, Maxwell E Cutty, Danielle L Coté, Susan M Allen
OBJECTIVE: Although a growing body of evidence suggests that culture change and its corollary, person-centered care improves resident outcomes in the nursing home setting, little is known about the effect of culture change in a postacute setting in which patients receive skilled nursing and rehabilitation services for a relatively short period of time before returning home. DESIGN: Data for this study were collected as part of a larger project to understand the impact of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) policies to shift the mission of VHA Community Living Centers (CLCs) from long-stay custodial care to short-stay skilled nursing and rehabilitative care...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933462/what-do-you-need-to-get-male-partners-of-pregnant-women-tested-for-hiv-in-resource-limited-settings-the-baby-shower-cluster-randomized-trial
#15
Echezona E Ezeanolue, Michael C Obiefune, Wei Yang, Chinenye O Ezeanolue, Jennifer Pharr, Alice Osuji, Amaka G Ogidi, Aaron T Hunt, Dina Patel, Gbenga Ogedegbe, John E Ehiri
Male partner involvement has the potential to increase uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Finding cultural appropriate strategies to promote male partner involvement in PMTCT programs remains an abiding public health challenge. We assessed whether a congregation-based intervention, the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), would lead to increased uptake of HIV testing among male partners of pregnant women during pregnancy. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of forty churches in Southeastern Nigeria randomly assigned to either the HBI (intervention group; IG) or standard of care referral to a health facility (control group; CG) was conducted...
February 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862005/predicting-homelessness-among-emerging-adults-aging-out-of-foster-care
#16
Melissa Ford Shah, Qinghua Liu, J Mark Eddy, Susan Barkan, David Marshall, David Mancuso, Barbara Lucenko, Alice Huber
This study examines risk and protective factors associated with experiencing homelessness in the year after "aging out" of foster care. Using a state-level integrated administrative database, we identified 1,202 emerging adults in Washington State who exited foster care between July 2010 and June 2012. Initial bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between candidate predictive factors and an indicator of homelessness in a 12-month follow-up period. After deploying a stepwise regression process, the final logistic regression model included 15 predictive factors...
November 10, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797991/experiences-and-explanations-of-mental-ill-health-in-a-group-of-devout-christians-from-the-ethnic-majority-population-in-secular-sweden-a-qualitative-study
#17
Aina Lilja, Valerie DeMarinis, Arja Lehti, Annika Forssén
OBJECTIVE: To explore existential meaning-making in an ethnic-majority subgroup with mental ill health and to increase knowledge about the importance of gaining access to such information in mental healthcare. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and systematic text condensation analysis. PARTICIPANTS: 17 devote Christians with an ethnic-Swedish background, 12 women and 5 men, 30-73 years old, from different congregations across Sweden, having sought medical care for mental ill health of any kind...
October 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766088/effectiveness-of-caregiver-training-in-mindfulness-based-positive-behavior-support-mbpbs-vs-training-as-usual-tau-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Nirbhay N Singh, Giulio E Lancioni, Bryan T Karazsia, Jeffrey Chan, Alan S W Winton
Caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often end up having their medical and psychological well-being compromised due to the stressful nature of caregiving, especially when those in their care engage in aggressive behavior. In this study, we provided caregivers with mindfulness-based training to enable them to better manage their psychological well-being and, through this, to also enhance specific indices of quality of life of the individuals in their care. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) and Training-as-Usual (TAU) for caregivers in a congregate care facility for individuals with severe and profound IDD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762160/-i-thought-if-i-marry-the-prophet-i-would-not-die-the-significance-of-religious-affiliation-on-marriage-hiv-testing-and-reproductive-health-practices-among-young-married-women-in-zimbabwe
#19
Denise Dion Hallfors, Bonita J Iritani, Lei Zhang, Shane Hartman, Winnie K Luseno, Elias Mpofu, Simbarashe Rusakaniko
This study examines the association between religious affiliation and reasons for marriage, perceived church attitudes, and reproductive health-seeking behaviors, including HIV testing, among young women in eastern rural Zimbabwe. The sample comprised women (N = 35) who had married by 2012 while participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of school support on HIV-related risk. The RCT sample was identified in 2007 as all female sixth graders in 25 rural eastern Zimbabwe primary schools whose parents, one or both, had died (N = 328)...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665002/housing-first-improves-adherence-to-antipsychotic-medication-among-formerly-homeless-adults-with-schizophrenia-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Stefanie N Rezansoff, Akm Moniruzzaman, Seena Fazel, Lawrence McCandless, Ric Procyshyn, Julian M Somers
Adherence to antipsychotic medication is a significant challenge among homeless patients. No experimental trials have investigated the impact of Housing First on adherence among patients with schizophrenia. We investigated whether Housing First in congregate and scattered-site configurations resulted in superior adherence compared to usual care. Adult participants (n = 165) met criteria for homelessness, schizophrenia, and initiation of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy prior to recruitment to an unblinded, 3-arm randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, Canada...
September 24, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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