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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524771/mercury-levels-in-parturient-and-newborns-from-aveiro-region-portugal
#1
Ana Catarina Alves, Marta S Monteiro, Ana Luísa Machado, Mário Oliveira, Ana Bóia, Ana Correia, Nuno Oliveira, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
Since the outbreak of methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning in Japan and Iraq, mercury (Hg) is classified as well-established teratogen. The Portuguese region of Aveiro faced some decades ago an environmental Hg contamination due to activities from a chlor-alkali plant. Until now, no apparent evaluation was conducted regarding prenatal exposure to Hg in this area. The main objectives of this study were to: i) assess maternal and fetal exposure to Hg in the Aveiro region using noninvasive biological matrices; ii) examine the influence of variables that may contribute to Hg exposure during pregnancy; and iii) improve knowledge regarding metal accumulation and distribution over the maternal-fetal-placental unit...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#2
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521572/tissue-factor-activity-in-women-with-preeclampsia-or-sga-a-potential-explanation-for-the-excessive-thrombin-generation-in-these-syndromes
#3
Offer Erez, Roberto Romero, Edi Vaisbuch, Nandor Gabor Than, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Shali Mazaki-Tovi, Francesca Gotsch, Pooja Mittal, Zhong Dong, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Chong Jai Kim, Chia-Ling Nhan-Chang, Sun Kwon Kim, Lami Yeo, Moshe Mazor, Sonia S Hassan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the activity of tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in the plasma of women with preeclampsia (PE) and small for gestational age (SGA) neonate differ from that of normal pregnant women and whether they are related to specific placental lesions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included the following groups: (1) normal pregnancy (n = 68); (2) PE (n= 128); and (3) SGA (n = 56)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520923/decrease-in-expression-of-hoxa10-in-the-decidua-after-embryo-implantation-promotes-trophoblast-invasion
#4
Geeta Godbole, Pankaj Suman, Ankita Malik, Mosami Galvankar, Niraj Joshi, Asgerally Fazleabas, Satish Kumar Gupta, Deepak Modi
A central step towards successful pregnancy involves invasion of the trophoblast cells into the decidua for placentation. Herein, we show that in the human and baboon decidua, HOXA10 expression is downregulated post-implantation and this reduction is most prominent in the decidual cells juxtaposed to the invading placental villi. Intriguingly, the supernatants derived from HOXA10 depleted human decidual cells increase the invasiveness of the trophoblast cell lines ACH-3P and JEG3 in vitro; this increase is due to higher expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and reduced expression of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) in both the cell lines...
May 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515726/comparative-analysis-of-immune-checkpoint-molecules-and-their-potential-role-in-the-transmissible-tasmanian-devil-facial-tumor-disease
#5
Andrew S Flies, Nicholas B Blackburn, Alan Bruce Lyons, John D Hayball, Gregory M Woods
Immune checkpoint molecules function as a system of checks and balances that enhance or inhibit immune responses to infectious agents, foreign tissues, and cancerous cells. Immunotherapies that target immune checkpoint molecules, particularly the inhibitory molecules programmed cell death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), have revolutionized human oncology in recent years, yet little is known about these key immune signaling molecules in species other than primates and rodents. The Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease is caused by transmissible cancers that have resulted in a massive decline in the wild Tasmanian devil population...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515391/advanced-glycation-end-products-regulate-interleukin-1%C3%AE-production-in-human-placenta
#6
Kotomi Seno, Saoko Sase, Ayae Ozeki, Hironori Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Hirotada Suzuki, Shigeki Matsubara, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna
Maternal obesity is a major risk factor for pregnancy complications, causing inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8. Pregnant women with obesity develop accelerated systemic and placental inflammation with elevated circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs). IL-1β is a pivotal inflammatory cytokine associated with obesity and pregnancy complications, and its production is regulated by NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515017/fatty-acid-binding-protein3-expression-in-bewo-cells-a-human-placental-choriocarcinoma-cell-line
#7
Claire Leroy, Kari Anne Risan Tobin, Sanjay Basak, Anne Cathrine Staff, Asim K Duttaroy
Cellular uptake of long chain fatty acids in human placental trophoblasts is thought to be mediated by several membrane- and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP). FABP3 was shown to be involved in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) uptake in human trophoblastic choriocarcinoma cells, BeWo as the uptake of arachidonic acid,20:4n-6 (ARA) was decreased in FABP3-knockdown BeWo cells. However, the regulation of expression of FABP3 in these cells is not yet well known. The aim of the present study was to examine the FABP3 expression by LCPUFAs, insulin and LXR agonists in BeWo cells...
May 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509318/the-duration-of-pregnancy-in-ecologically-challenged-area-the-effects-of-environmental-pollution-with-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-the-angiogenesis-and-elements-of-the-mesenchymal-tissue-of-the-human-placenta
#8
Waldemar Wierzba, Stanisław Radowicki, Iwona Bojar, Jarosław Pinkas
INTRODUCTION: The literature presents only few reports regarding the effects of elevated levels of aromatic hydrocarbons (AH) on the functions of the human placenta. The effects of environmental contamination with AH (including phenol and 1-hydroxypyrene) have certain negative effects on parenchymal organs such as human placenta. OBJECTIVE: The paper aimed to assess the effects of elevated levels of AH on the placental angiogenesis and elements of the mesenchymal tissue of the placenta...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506758/decreased-homodimerization-and-increased-timp-1-complexation-of-uteroplacental-and-uterine-arterial-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-during-hypertension-in-pregnancy
#9
Juanjuan Chen, Zongli Ren, Minglin Zhu, Raouf A Khalil
Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy manifested as hypertension-in-pregnancy (HTN-Preg) and often intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Placental ischemia could be an initiating event, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. To test the hypothesis that dimerization of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a role in HTN-Preg and IUGR, the levels/activity of MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1), and their dimerization forms were measured in the placenta, uterus, and uterine artery of normal pregnant (Preg) rats and a rat model of reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP)...
May 12, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502983/alkaline-phosphatase-a-novel-treatment-target-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-ckd
#10
REVIEW
Mathias Haarhaus, Vincent Brandenburg, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Peter Stenvinkel, Per Magnusson
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of early death in the settings of chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and ageing. Cardiovascular events can be caused by an imbalance between promoters and inhibitors of mineralization, which leads to vascular calcification. This process is akin to skeletal mineralization, which is carefully regulated and in which isozymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have a crucial role. Four genes encode ALP isozymes in humans. Intestinal, placental and germ cell ALPs are tissue-specific, whereas the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of ALP (TNALP) is present in several tissues, including bone, liver and kidney...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501362/mode-of-conception-does-not-appear-to-affect-placental-volume-in-the-first-trimester
#11
Sara J Churchill, Erica T Wang, Marcy Akhlaghpour, Ellen H Goldstein, Dina Eschevarria, Naomi Greene, Matthew Macer, Temeka Zore, John Williams, Margareta D Pisarska
OBJECTIVE: To study whether infertility treatments, including IVF and non-IVF fertility treatments, are associated with diseases of placental insufficiency in early gestation. First trimester placental volumes by ultrasound and chorionic villi weight during sampling (CVS) were performed to detect differences between pregnancies conceived spontaneously versus with fertility treatments. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Academic tertiary center...
May 10, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501275/dysregulation-of-the-fas-fasl-system-in-an-experimental-animal-model-of-hellp-syndrome
#12
Jacob Gibbens, Rachael Morris, Teylor Bowles, Shauna-Kay Spencer, Kedra Wallace
INTRODUCTION: Placental FasL is up-regulated in women with HELLP (hemolysis elevated liver enzyme and low platelet) syndrome and has been proposed to contribute to the liver damage seen in these patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if an experimental rodent model of HELLP also had dysregulation of Fas/FasL compared to normal pregnant (NP) rats. We also set out to determine if blockade of the endothelin system regulated Fas/FasL expression in HELLP rats...
April 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497897/expression-profile-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-placental-tissues-of-patients-with-preterm-prelabor-rupture-of-membranes-and-spontaneous-preterm-labor-with-intact-membranes
#13
Lenka Dvorakova, Katarina Ivankova, Ladislav Krofta, Ilona Hromadnikova
PROBLEM: Investigating the stress response in the central cotyledon zone of placental tissue in pregnancies with PPROM, PTB, and at term in labor. METHOD OF STUDY: Gene expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90, and HspBP1 was compared between these particular groups. Correlation between variables including Hsp gene expression in placental tissue and the gestational age at delivery, WBC count at admission, and serum levels of CRP at admission in patients with PPROM and PTB was determined...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494705/brucellosis-in-endangered-hector-s-dolphins-cephalorhynchus-hectori
#14
K Buckle, W D Roe, L Howe, S Michael, P J Duignan, E Burrows, H Ha, S Humphrey, W L McDonald
Brucella spp infections of marine mammals are often asymptomatic but have been associated with reproductive losses and deaths. Zoonotic infections originating from marine isolates have also been described. Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) are an endangered species with a declining population, and the role of infectious disease in population dynamics is not fully understood. In this study, 27 Hector's dolphins found dead around the New Zealand coastline between November 2006 and October 2010 were evaluated for lesions previously associated with cetacean brucellosis...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494189/increased-placental-sflt-1-but-unchanged-plgf-expression-in-late-onset-preeclampsia
#15
Laura Ehrlich, Alice Hoeller, Michaela Golic, Florian Herse, Frank H Perschel, Wolfgang Henrich, Ralf Dechend, Berthold Huppertz, Stefan Verlohren
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether differences between late-onset preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can be explained by differential placental expression patters of sFlt-1, Flt-1, and placental growth factor (PlGF). METHODS: Placental tissues and maternal blood samples from seven patients with PE, five IUGR, and seven age-matched controls were studied for mRNA and protein levels as well as protein localization and expression intensity. RESULTS: Placental PlGF mRNA and protein expression were not altered by placental dysfunction while placental villous trophoblast expression intensity of PlGF was increased...
May 11, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493900/genomic-biomarkers-of-prenatal-intrauterine-inflammation-in-umbilical-cord-tissue-predict-later-life-neurological-outcomes
#16
Sloane K Tilley, Robert M Joseph, Karl C K Kuban, Olaf U Dammann, T Michael O'Shea, Rebecca C Fry
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. This study aimed to identify genomic biomarkers of intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue in preterm neonates that predict cognitive impairment at 10 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: Genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA) levels from umbilical cord tissue were obtained from 43 neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation. Genes that were differentially expressed across four indicators of intrauterine inflammation were identified and their functions examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489339/de-novo-igf2-mutation-on-the-paternal-allele-in-a-patient-with-silver-russell-syndrome-and-ectrodactyly
#17
Kaori Yamoto, Hirotomo Saitsu, Norio Nakagawa, Hisakazu Nakajima, Tatsuji Hasegawa, Yasuko Fujisawa, Masayo Kagami, Maki Fukami, Tsutomu Ogata
Although paternally expressed IGF2 is known to play a critical role in placental and body growth, only a single mutation has been found in IGF2. We identified, through whole exome sequencing, a de novo IGF2 indel mutation leading to frameshift (NM_000612.5:c.110_117delinsAGGTAA, p.(Leu37Glnfs*31)) in a patient with Silver-Russell syndrome, ectrodactyly, undermasculinized genitalia, developmental delay, and placental hypoplasia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mutation resided on the paternal allele by sequencing the long-PCR product harboring the mutation and methylation sensitive SmaI and SalI sites before and after SmaI/SalI digestion...
May 10, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489216/the-role-of-surgery-in-the-management-of-women-with-gestational-trophoblastic-disease
#18
Lana DE Lourdes Aguiar Lima, Lílian Padron, Raphael Câmara, Sue Yazaki Sun, Jorge Rezende, Antônio Braga
The Gestational Trophoblastic Disease includes an interrelated group of diseases originating from placental tissue, with distinct behaviors concerning local invasion and metastasis. The high sensitivity of the serial dosages of human chorionic gonadotrophin, combined with advances in chemotherapy treatment, have made gestational trophoblastic neoplasia curable, most often through chemotherapy. However, surgery remains of major importance in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease, improving their prognosis...
January 2017: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487113/a-technique-to-positively-identify-the-vaginal-fornices-during-complicated-postpartum-hysterectomy
#19
Michael A Belfort, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Karin A Fox
The frequency of cesarean hysterectomy is increasing, predominantly driven by an increased incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) associated with prior cesarean section with or without placenta previa. Most cases of MAP are located anteriorly with involvement of the bladder. The lower uterine segment in increta and percreta cases is frequently thinned and deformed, with extensive vascular supply to the bulging placenta. This deformation of the lower segment makes identification of the cervico-vaginal interface and vaginal fornices difficult...
May 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487027/interleukin-11-up-regulates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-target-pdia4-in-human-first-trimester-placenta-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-in-mice
#20
A L Winship, K Sorby, J Correia, A Rainczuk, J Yap, E Dimitriadis
Interleukin (IL)11 is a crucial factor for human trophoblast function and placentation. Elevated levels are associated with pregnancy complications including preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth. However, the regulation of IL11 in the placenta has not been investigated. We examined the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1β and TNFα, as well as low oxygen tension (2%) on IL11 levels in first trimester placental villous explants. IL1β upregulated IL11 mRNA and protein, while TNFα and low oxygen had no effect...
May 2017: Placenta
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