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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203388/on-the-development-of-the-chondrocranium-and-the-histological-anatomy-of-the-head-in-perinatal-stages-of-marsupial-mammals
#1
REVIEW
Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Analía M Forasiepi
An overview of the literature on the chondrocranium of marsupial mammals reveals a relative conservatism in shape and structures. We document the histological cranial anatomy of individuals representing Monodelphis domestica, Dromiciops gliroides, Perameles sp. and Macropus eugenii. The marsupial chondrocranium is generally characterized by the great breadth of the lamina basalis, absence of pila metoptica and large otic capsules. Its most anterior portion (cupula nasi anterior) is robust, and anterior to it there are well-developed tactile sensory structures, functionally important in the neonate...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202518/prolactin-receptor-mediated-internalization-of-imaging-agents-detects-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-with-enhanced-sensitivity-and-specificity
#2
Karthik M Sundaram, Yilin Zhang, Anirban K Mitra, Jean-Louis K Kouadio, Katja Gwin, Brian R Roman, Anthony A Kossiakoff, Ernst Lengyel, Joseph Piccirilli
Poor prognosis of ovarian cancer (OvCa), the deadliest of the gynecologic malignancies, reflects major limitations associated with detection and diagnosis. Current methods lack high sensitivity to detect small tumors and high specificity to distinguish malignant from benign tissue, both impeding diagnosis of early and metastatic cancer stages and leading to costly and invasive surgeries. Tissue microarray analysis revealed that >98% of OvCa express the prolactin receptor (PRLR), forming the basis of a new molecular imaging strategy...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198063/conserved-versus-derived-patterns-of-controlled-cell-death-during-the-embryonic-development-of-two-species-of-onychophora-velvet-worms
#3
Sandra Treffkorn, Georg Mayer
Background Apoptosis is involved in various developmental processes, including cell migration and tissue and organ formation. Some of these processes are conserved across metazoans, while others are specific to particular taxa. Although the patterns of apoptosis have been investigated in arthropods, no corresponding data are available from one of their closest relatives, the Onychophora (velvet worms). Results We analyzed the patterns of apoptosis in embryos of two onychophoran species: the lecithotrophic/matrotrophic viviparous peripatopsid Euperipatoides rowelli, and the placentotrophic viviparous peripatid Principapillatus hitoyensis...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196298/human-to-human-transmission-of-brucella-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Felipe F Tuon, Regina B Gondolfo, Natacha Cerchiari
OBJECTIVE: The most common form of transmitting human brucellosis is through contaminated food or direct contact with infected animals. Human-to-human transmission (HHT) has been described as isolated case reports. The aim of this systematic review was to describe all cases of HHT of human brucellosis reported in the medical literature. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Scielo databases using specific search terms published until March 2016...
February 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194822/autophagy-regulation-of-physiological-and-pathological-processes-in-the-female-reproductive-tract
#5
Bin Cao, Alison J Camden, Lindsay A Parnell, Indira U Mysorekar
Autophagy is a ubiquitous cell recycling pathway that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome and is essential for normal cellular function. Autophagic activity is up-regulated under physiological conditions as well as stressful conditions such as nutrient deprivation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, inflammation, and infection. Thus, it is essential to regard the functional importance of the pathway and its components in a given tissue context. Here we review what is known about the involvement of autophagy process during physiological processes in the female reproductive tract and in pregnancy from preimplantation to oocyte function to placental development, parturition, and postpartum remodeling of the uterus; as well as in pathological and adverse events during these processes...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192597/a-phase-2-and-biomarker-study-of-cabozantinib-in-patients-with-advanced-cholangiocarcinoma
#6
Lipika Goyal, Hui Zheng, Matthew B Yurgelun, Thomas A Abrams, Jill N Allen, James M Cleary, Michelle Knowles, Eileen Regan, Amanda Reardon, Anna Khachatryan, Rakesh K Jain, Valentina Nardi, Darrell R Borger, Dan G Duda, Andrew X Zhu
BACKGROUND: Advanced cholangiocarcinoma carries a poor prognosis, and no standard treatment exists beyond first-line gemcitabine/platinum-based chemotherapy. A single-arm, phase 2 and biomarker study of cabozantinib, a multikinase inhibitor with potent activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and MET, was performed for patients with advanced refractory cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Previously treated patients with unresectable or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma received cabozantinib (60 mg orally and daily on a continuous schedule)...
February 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187917/oxygen-and-placental-development-parallels-and-differences-with-tumour-biology
#7
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux, Andrew J Murray
Human placentation involves the invasion of the conceptus into the wall of the uterus, and establishment of a blood supply from the maternal spiral arteries. The placenta has therefore been likened to a malignant tumour, albeit a highly regulated one. Oxygen plays an important role in controlling both placental development and tumour behaviour. In the placenta, early development takes place in a physiological low oxygen environment, which undergoes a transition with onset of the full maternal arterial circulation towards the end of the first trimester...
February 1, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186371/gene-expression-and-epigenetic-aberrations-in-f1-placentas-fathered-by-obese-males
#8
Megan Mitchell, Reiner Strick, Pamela L Strissel, Ralf Dittrich, Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Galyna Pliushch, Ramya Potabattula, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analysed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186117/amelioration-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-through-transplantation-of-placental-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Hong Jiang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Kewei Tian, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Placental derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) have been suggested as a possible source of cells to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) due to their immunomodulatory functions, lack of ethical concerns, and potential to differentiate into neurons and oligodendrocytes. To investigate whether PMSCs share similar characteristics with embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), and if transplanted PMSCs have the ability to integrate and replace degenerated neural cells, we transplanted rat PMSCs and EMSCs into the central nervous system (CNS) of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177716/a-role-for-maternally-derived-myokines-to-optimize-placental-function-and-fetal-growth-across-gestation
#10
Chantal Dubé, Céline Aguer, Kristi Adamo, Shannon Bainbridge
Exercise during pregnancy is associated with improved health outcomes for both mother and baby, including a reduced risk of future obesity and susceptibility to chronic diseases. Overwhelming evidence demonstrates a protective effect of maternal exercise against fetal birth weight extremes, reducing the rates of both large- and small-for-gestational-age infants. It is speculated that this protective effect is mediated in part through exercise-induced regulation of maternal physiology and placental development/function...
January 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176427/uterine-serpin-serpina-14-correlates-negatively-with-cytokine-production-at-the-foetal-maternal-interface-but-not-in-the-corpus-luteum-in-pregnant-dairy-heifers-experimentally-infected-with-neospora-caninum
#11
B Serrano-Pérez, S Almería, R Mur-Novales, I López-Helguera, I Garcia-Ispierto, J L Alabart, L Darwich, F López-Gatius
This study examines gene expression patterns in dairy heifers experimentally infected with N. caninum during on Day 110 of pregnancy with live foetuses at euthanasia, 42 days later. The study population was constituted of four non-infected controls and three infected dams. Gene expression was determined on gamma interferon (IFNγ), (Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokine), interleukin-4 (IL4) (Th2 pro-gestation cytokine) or interleukin-10 (IL10) (T regulatory cytokine) and the serine peptidase inhibitor SERPINA14 in intercaruncular, placental, uterine lymph node (UTLN) and luteal tissue samples...
February 7, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166983/maternal-recognition-of-pregnancy-and-implantation-are-not-associated-with-an-interferon-response-of-the-endometrium-to-the-presence-of-the-conceptus-in-dromedary-camel
#12
Ahmed Sabry Salah Abdoon, Corrine Giraud-Delville, Omaima Mohamed Kandil, Annelye Kerboeuf-Giraud, Caroline Eozénou, Anais Vitorino Carvalho, Skidmore Julian, Olivier Sandra
Maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) and implantation involve appropriate interactions between the elongating conceptus and the receptive endometrium that will condition development of the feto-placental unit to term. Molecular mechanisms that take place at the conceptus-endometrium interface during early pregnancy have been extensively investigated in domestic ungulates but they are still poorly understood in camelids including the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), a domestic species with important economic and social roles in arid and semi-arid areas...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165148/a-correlative-study-of-the-allantois-in-pig-and-rabbit-highlighting-the-diversity-of-extraembryonic-tissues-in-four-mammalian-species-including-mouse-and-man
#13
Waad Hassan, Christoph Viebahn
Despite its conserved role in placenta and umbilical cord formation, the mammalian allantois shows remarkable diversity in size and form as well as in the timing of its appearance and attachment to the chorion. In the mouse, the common allantoic diverticulum is lacking; instead, the allantoic core domain is defined as a progenitor center for allantoic development. In this study, the allantoises of the pig and the rabbit as two nonrodent mammals of increasing significance in biomedical research are compared (1) morphologically using high resolution light and electron microscopy and (2) molecularly using brachyury mRNA expression as a mesodermal marker...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162941/stem-cells-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-the-five-questions-which-cells-when-in-which-dose-to-which-patients-via-which-route
#14
REVIEW
Martin Mueller, Boris W Kramer
Preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Despite advances in perinatology, immature infants continue to face serious risks such chronic respiratory impairment from bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Current treatment options are insufficient and novel approaches are desperately needed. In recent years stem cells have emerged as potential candidates to treat BPD with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) being particularly promising. MSCs originate from several stem cell niches including bone marrow, skin, or adipose, umbilical cord, and placental tissues...
December 24, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161067/description-and-characterization-of-a-unique-human-immunoglobulin-g1-kappa-idiotype-found-in-placental-tissue
#15
Craig D Scoville, Devon Rasmussen
Does maternal IgG found in placental tissue provide the fetus with more than just humoral immunity? To address this question, the IgGs from twelve placentas were studied and four of these samples were examined using mass spectrometry which revealed an IgG1k idiotype. A special dodecapeptide portion of the 3rd framework region of the VH chain sequence was identified as an idiotypic determinant in these placental- IgG1k (p-IgG1k) and referred to as peptideX2 and found to have biological activity. Antiserum to peptideX2 was made and then used with Western Immunoblotting to show that this unique H chain (containing peptideX2) appears to be present in all p-IgG tested and in all subjects tested...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161064/dysregulation-of-maternal-and-placental-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-preeclampsia
#16
J A Tamblyn, R Susarla, C Jenkinson, L E Jeffery, O Ohizua, R F Chun, S Y Chan, M D Kilby, M Hewison
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiology has linked preeclampsia (PET) to decreased maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3). However, alterations in systemic and placental/decidual transport and metabolism of 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy suggest that other forms of vitamin D may also contribute to the pathophysiology of PET. METHODS: In a cross sectional analysis of normal pregnant women at 1st (n = 25) and 3rd trimester (n = 21), pregnant women with PET (n = 22), and non-pregnant female controls (n = 20) vitamin D metabolites were quantified in paired maternal serum, placental, and decidual tissue...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161062/localisation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-egf-its-specific-receptor-egf-r-and-aromatase-at-the-materno-fetal-interface-during-placentation-in-the-pregnant-mare
#17
W R Twink Allen, Susan Gower, Sandra Wilsher
INTRODUCTION: Implantation and placentation in the mare does not commence until as late as day 40 after ovulation. The reasons for this and the growth factors and/or hormones which drive placentation when it does finally occur are of considerable academic and practical interest. METHOD: Placental interface tissues recovered from 11 accurately aged and perfused-fixed horse uteri between 20 and 68 days of gestation were stained immunocytochemically for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), its specific receptor (EGF-R) and for the steroid hormone enzyme, aromatase...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161057/extracellular-matrix-proteins-in-healthy-and-retained-placentas-comparing-hemochorial-and-synepitheliochorial-placentas
#18
M Franczyk, M Lopucki, N Stachowicz, D Morawska, M Kankofer
The placenta expresses structural and biologically active proteins. Their synthesis is mainly regulated by genomic or nongenomic signals and modulated by hormones. These protein profiles are altered during different stages of pregnancy. The biological properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were defined and described in a number of tissues including placenta. These properties enable them to be the main players in the processes of attachment or invasion into the endometrium during initial placenta formation and its timely separation after delivery and detachment...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158911/multiparity-upregulates-placental-plasminogen-and-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator
#19
María E Cortina, Silvana Litwin, María R Rial Hawila, Silvia Miranda
PROBLEM: Multiparity increased the number of trophoblast cells in decidua of both low and high fetal loss mouse models. However, they differ in fetal survival rate and maternal thymocyte subpopulations, suggesting that trophoblast invasiveness is not equivalent. Our aim was to explore the involved mechanism. METHOD OF STUDY: We studied placentae from primiparous and multiparous females of low and high fetal loss models. We investigated invasiveness in vitro, expression of plasminogen, and its activators: tissue type (tPA)-urokinase type (uPA), and activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148272/dose-dependent-induction-of-astrocyte-activation-and-reactive-astrogliosis-in-mouse-brain-following-maternal-exposure-to-carbon-black-nanoparticle
#20
Atsuto Onoda, Ken Takeda, Masakazu Umezawa
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that maternal exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and nanoparticles has adverse effects of on the central nervous system. Quantitative dose-response data is required to better understand the developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles. The present study investigated dose-dependent effects of maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticle (CB-NP) on astrocyte in the brains of mouse offspring. METHODS: A CB-NP suspension (2...
2, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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