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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330799/hypoxia-signaling-and-placental-adaptations
#1
Damayanti Chakraborty, Regan L Scott, Michael J Soares
Oxygen is an essential nutrient for cells. Oxygen is delivered to tissues via red blood cells through the vasculature. Molecular mechanisms mediating cellular responses to low oxygen tension have been identified. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are activated by low oxygen and promote transcriptional regulation of downstream effector genes, which lead to cellular adaptations. Controlled hypoxia exposure is utilized as an experimental tool to investigate biological processes, regulating cellular adaptations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329688/motorizing-and-optimizing-ultrasound-strain-elastography-for-detection-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-pregnancies
#2
Shier Nee Saw, Jess Yi Ru Low, Citra Nurfarah Zaini Mattar, Arijit Biswas, Lujie Chen, Choon Hwai Yap
Intrauterine growth restriction is a prevalent disease in pregnancy in which placental insufficiency leads to 5 to 10 times higher mortality and lifelong morbidities. The current detection rate is poor, and recently, ultrasound strain elastography (USEL) was proposed as a new diagnostic technique. Currently, placental USEL uses maternal subcutaneous fat as the reference layer, but this is not ideal as fat tissue stiffness can vary widely between subjects. Current USEL also uses manual palpation, and under different compression depths and rates, viscoelastic tissues such as placenta can yield different stiffness results...
January 9, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324984/doca-salt-hypertension-activates-plgf-in-the-spleen-to-couple-sympathetic-drive-and-immune-system-activation
#3
Marialuisa Perrotta, Andrea Lori, Lorenzo Carnevale, Stefania Fardella, Giuseppe Cifelli, Roberta Iacobucci, Francesco Mastroiacovo, Daniele Iodice, Fabio Pallante, Marianna Storto, Giuseppe Lembo, Daniela Carnevale
Aims: Chronic increase of mineralocorticoids obtained by administration of Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) results in salt dependent hypertension in animals. Despite the lack of a generalized sympathoexcitation, DOCA-salt hypertension has been also associated to overdrive of peripheral nervous system in organs typically targeted by blood pressure (BP), as kidneys and vasculature. Aim of this study was to explore whether DOCA-salt recruits immune system by overactivating sympathetic nervous system in lymphoid organs and whether this is relevant for hypertension...
January 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319206/butyl-paraben-promotes-apoptosis-in-human-trophoblast-cells-through-increased-oxidative-stress-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#4
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Butyl paraben (BP) has antimicrobial effects and is widely used as a preservative in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals. It is also absorbed into various tissues of the human body. It is known that BP is measurable in maternal and fetal tissues during pregnancy, but the effects of BP on placental development, essential for maintaining normal pregnancy, are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of BP on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness of human trophoblast cells, using an HTR8/SVneo cell line...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317300/mesenchymal-stem-cells-therapy-protects-fetuses-from-resorption-and-induces-th2-type-cytokines-profile-in-abortion-prone-mouse-model
#5
Amir Salek Farrokhi, Amir-Hassan Zarnani, Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni
The imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines is well known in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) mouse model. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunoregulatory properties that could modulate the Th1 cytokine responses in benefit of Th2 types. In this study, we aimed to analyze the local and systemic balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines following MSCs therapy. Syngeneic adipose derived MSCs were administered to abortion prone mice during the implantation window. The abortion rate was determined and IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, IL-2, IFN-γ and GM-CSF gene expression was evaluated by Real-Time-PCR in decidual and placental tissues of pregnant mice at day 13...
January 6, 2018: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316701/the-effect-of-cryopreserved-human-placental-tissues-on-biofilm-formation-of-wound-associated-pathogens
#6
Yong Mao, Anya Singh-Varma, Tyler Hoffman, Sandeep Dhall, Alla Danilkovitch, Joachim Kohn
Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and reduction of wound-related infections. Our previous study demonstrated that CVAM possesses intrinsic antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of wound-associated bacteria under planktonic culture conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CVAM and cryopreserved viable umbilical tissue (CVUT) on biofilm formation of S...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316483/organic-conjugated-small-molecule-materials-based-optical-probe-for-rapid-colorimetric-and-uv-vis-spectral-detection-of-phosphorylated-protein-in-placental-tissue
#7
Yanfang Wang, Na Yang, Yi Liu
A novel organic small molecule with D-Pi-A structure was prepared, which was found to be a promising colorimetric and ratiometric UV-vis spetral probe for detection of phosphorylated proteins with the help of tetravalent zirconium ion. Such optical probe based on chromophore WYF-1 shows a rapid response (within 10s) and high selectivity and sensitivity for phosphorylated proteins, giving distinct colorimetric and ratiometric UV-vis changes at 720 and 560nm. The detection limit for phosphorylated proteins was estimated to be 100nM...
January 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313202/monitoring-the-transcriptional-activity-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family-using-pna-strand-invasion-into-double-stranded-dna
#8
Grzegorz Machnik, Estera Skudrzyk, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Witold Szkróbka, Marcin Basiak, Aleksandra Bołdys, Helena Sławska, Bogusław Okopień
In the presented assay, we elaborated a method for distinguishing sequences that are genetically closely related to each other. This is particularly important in a situation where a fine balance of the allele abundance is a point of research interest. We developed a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) strand invasion technique for the differentiation between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) and ERVWE1 sequences, both molecularly similar, belonging to the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W family. We have found that this method may support the PCR technique in screening for minor alleles which, in certain conditions, may be undetected by the standard PCR technique...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312622/acute-nutritional-stress-during-pregnancy-affects-placental-efficiency-fetal-growth-and-adult-glucose-homeostasis
#9
Sajida Malik, Alan Diot, Karl Morten, Eszter Dombi, Manu Vatish, C A Richard Boyd, Joanna Poulton
Exposure to maternal malnutrition impairs postnatal health. Acute nutritional stress is less clearly implicated in intrauterine programming. We studied the effects of stressing pregnant mothers on perinatal growth and adult glucose homeostasis. We compared one group ("stressed", mothers fasted for 16 hours) with controls ("unstressed"). We found that fasting stress had adverse effects on the weight of the fetuses conceived (p<0.005) and the placental efficiency (p<0.001) in stressed compared to unstressed offspring...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307795/the-impact-of-prenatal-insults-on-the-human-placental-epigenome-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Helena Palma-Gudiel, Flors Cirera, Fátima Crispi, Elisenda Eixarch, Lourdes Fañanás
The placenta is the first human organ to reach full development during pregnancy. It serves as a barrier but also as an interchange surface. Epigenetic changes observed in placental tissue may reflect intrauterine insults while also pointing to physiological pathways altered under exposure to such environmental threats. By means of a systematic search of the literature, 39 papers assessing human placental epigenetic signatures in association with either (i) psychosocial stress, (ii) maternal psychopathology, (iii) maternal smoking during pregnancy, and (iv) exposure to environmental pollutants, were identified...
January 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307244/the-role-of-satb1-in-htr8-svneo-cells-and-pathological-mechanism-of-preeclampsia
#11
Haiying Rao, Yuxiang Bai, Fumei Zhang, Qingshu Li, Baimei Zhuang, Xin Luo, Hongbo Qi
OBJECTIVE: Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) play potential roles in invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, and involves in human placental and fetal development. The objective of this study is to explore the role of SATB1 in migration and invasion of trophoblast and the potential mechanism. METHODS: Human placental tissues from first trimester, second trimester, term and preeclampsia (PE) pregnancies were used to detect the expression and subcellular location of SATB1 and β-catenin...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307240/the-role-of-the-placenta-in-drug-transport-and-fetal-drug-exposure
#12
Gideon Koren, Asher Ornoy
It was assumed for decades that the human placenta serves as a barrier, protecting the fetus from exposure to xenobiotics circulating in the mother. The thalidomide disaster completely reversed this concept. The study of the human placenta is therefore critical to understanding the mechanisms by which xenobiotics reach the fetus and exert their effects. Areas covered: This review describes mechanisms by which several groups of drugs interact with the human placenta, and experimental methods to study these interactions in humans...
January 8, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306096/embryotoxic-cytokines-potential-roles-in-embryo-loss-and-fetal-programming
#13
REVIEW
Sarah A Robertson, Peck-Yin Chin, Joseph G Femia, Hannah M Brown
Cytokines in the reproductive tract environment at conception mediate a dialogue between the embryo and maternal tissues to profoundly influence embryo development and implantation success. Through effects on gene expression and the cell stress response, cytokines elicit an epigenetic impact with consequences for placental development and fetal growth, which in turn affect metabolic phenotype and long-term health of offspring. There is substantial evidence demonstrating that pro-survival cytokines, such as GM-CSF, CSF1, LIF, HB-EGF and IGFII, support embryos to develop optimally...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306095/effect-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-congeners-on-placental-cytokine-production
#14
Yuko Arita, Corinne Yeh, Theodosia Thoma, Darios Getahun, Ramkumar Menon, Morgan R Peltier
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are pollutants that may increase the risk of preterm birth. In previous studies, we found that a mixture of PBDEs altered the expression of biomarkers for preterm birth by the placenta. However, there are 209 different PBDE congeners with different tissue distributions. How these different congeners may alter the production of immunomodulators by the placenta that help to maintain the survival of the fetal allograft is unclear. Therefore, we compared the effects 5 common congeners on basal and bacteria-stimulated cytokine production by the placenta...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291511/establishment-and-characterization-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-placental-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#15
Shagufta Parveen
Human term placenta is a bulky organ which harbours abundant mesenchymal stromal cells. This study reports isolation and characterization of placental mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) followed by reprogramming of PMSCs to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The placental human iPSC (PhiPSC) line is pluripotent with high telomerase activity, genetically identical to parental PMSCs, transgene free, karyotypically normal and differentiates into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm both in vitro and in vivo. Thus PMSCs serve as a unique cell type for human perinatal iPSC derivation from extra embryonic tissue...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288978/expression-and-function-of-muc1-in-uterine-tissues-during-early-pregnancy-in-sheep-after-natural-oestrous-or-artificially-induced-oestrous
#16
Xiangguo Wang, Boyang Zhu, Shanhui Xiong, Xihui Sheng, Xiaolong Qi, Qizhen Huang, Chaolei Chen, Yong Guo, Hemin Ni
Mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed mainly in the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and glandular epithelium (GE) of the endometrium in many mammalian species including mice, rats, pigs, sheep, horses and humans during various stages of a menstrual or oestrous cycle, where it plays an important role in embryo implantation and placentation. However, the expression and function of MUC1 in uterine tissues during early pregnancy in sheep after artificially-induced oestrous is not known. Therefore, we investigated the expression and function of MUC1 in the early pregnant and non-pregnant uterine tissues of sheep with natural oestrous or artificially-induced oestrous on days 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 of the cycle by in situ hybridization, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical staining and western blotting methods...
December 20, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283328/n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-1-and-endometriosis-a-minireview
#17
Tong Lou, Chongdong Liu, Zhenyu Zhang
NDRG1 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1) was previously considered to be a differentiation-related gene. However, many other functions of NDRG1 have since been identified, including proliferation, migration, invasion, and vascularization of tumor cells. Currently regarded as a tumor suppressor in most studies, NDRG1 is abundant in prostate, brain, kidney, placental, and intestinal tissues. It is expressed in normal endometrium, with higher expression occurring in the secretory phase. NDRG1 was first identified as an inhibitor of signaling pathways associated with the pathology of endometriosis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279089/neospora-caninum-bioassay-in-gerbils-using-placental-tissues-from-naturally-infected-goats
#18
R C Costa, L P Mesquita, M V L Nunes, I M Oliveira, L F S Oliveira, Alinne R Souza, P C Maiorka, M S Varaschin
Neospora caninum is one of the main agents that causes abortions in cattle worldwide. However, little is known about the pathogenesis of neosporosis in small ruminants, especially goats. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have been used as a model for neosporosis, and this species is highly susceptible to infection by bovine N. caninum strains. The present study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of gerbils to a N. caninum isolate from goats. The placentas were obtained from naturally infected goats, that presented with mild to severe lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic infiltrate, foci of necrosis, calcification and protozoan-like structures...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277267/placental-baseline-conditions-modulate-the-hyperoxic-bold-mri-response
#19
Marianne Sinding, David A Peters, Sofie S Poulsen, Jens B Frøkjær, Ole B Christiansen, Astrid Petersen, Niels Uldbjerg, Anne Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: Human pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction may be characterized by a high hyperoxic Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI response. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it is associated with altered placental baseline conditions, including a lower oxygenation and altered tissue morphology, as estimated by the placental transverse relaxation time (T2*). METHOD: We included 49 normal pregnancies (controls) and 13 pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction (cases), defined by a birth weight < 10th percentile in combination with placental pathological signs of vascular malperfusion...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277265/fetal-sex-determination-of-human-placental-tissues
#20
Séverine A Degrelle, Thierry Fournier
It is now demonstrated that the sex-specific maternal-placental-fetal interaction plays an important role in placental functions and pathologies. Determination of fetal-sex may therefore be an important consideration in studies using placenta samples. In this present study, we describe a simple, fast, and cheap protocol, which allows the fetal-sex determination of placental tissues from various starting materials (villi or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, isolated cytotrophoblasts or cellular debris from whole cell lysates, and cDNA) by a single duplex PCR reaction followed by agarose gel electrophoresis...
January 2018: Placenta
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