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Placental tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420514/detection-of-mosaic-15q11-1-q11-2-deletion-encompassing-nbeap1-and%C3%A2-poteb-in-a-fetus-with-diffuse-lymphangiomatosis
#1
Chih-Ping Chen, Kuo-Gon Wang, Hsu-Kuang Huang, Cheng-Ran Peng, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Chen-Chi Lee, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic diagnoses of mosaic deletion of chromosome 15q11.1-q11.2 in a fetus with diffuse lymphangiomatosis. CASE REPORT: A 33-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 22 weeks of gestation because of fetal diffuse lymphangiomatosis involving left-side chest, abdominal cavity, thigh and vulva, and intrauterine growth restriction. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,del(15) (q11.1q11.2)[9]/46,XX[26]. The mother had a karyotype of 46,XX...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419109/polymorphisms-in-the-selectin-gene-cluster-are-associated-with-fertility-and-survival-time-in-a-population-of-holstein-friesian-cows
#2
Xing Chen, Shujun Zhang, Zhangrui Cheng, Jessica S Cooke, Dirk Werling, D Claire Wathes, Geoffrey E Pollott
Selectins are adhesion molecules, which mediate attachment between leucocytes and endothelium. They aid extravasation of leucocytes from blood into inflamed tissue during the mammary gland's response to infection. Selectins are also involved in attachment of the conceptus to the endometrium and subsequent placental development. Poor fertility and udder health are major causes for culling dairy cows. The three identified bovine selectin genes SELP, SELL and SELE are located in a gene cluster. SELP is the most polymorphic of these genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418447/association-of-oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer-biomarkers-in-surgical-drain-fluid-with-patient-outcomes
#3
Amy Anne D Lassig, Anne M Joseph, Bruce R Lindgren, Bevan Yueh
Importance: Survival rates for head and neck cancer have been relatively stable for several decades. Individualized prognostic indicators are needed to identify patients at risk for poorer outcomes. Objective: To determine whether biomarker levels in surgical drain fluid of patients with head and neck cancer are associated with poor cancer outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx who required surgical treatment from April 1, 2011, to February 1, 2016, at a tertiary or academic care center...
April 13, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411943/immunomodulatory-properties-of-human-placental-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells
#4
M H Abumaree, F M Abomaray, M A Alshabibi, A S AlAskar, B Kalionis
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are isolated from various fetal and adult tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood and placenta. Placental MSCs (pMSCs), the main focus of this review, are relatively new MSC types that are not as intensively studied compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs). MSCs modulate the immune functions of important immune cells involved in alloantigen recognition and elimination, including antigen presenting cells (APCs), T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells...
April 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408374/expression-of-biglycan-in-first-trimester-chorionic-villous-sampling-placental-samples-and-altered-function-in-telomerase-immortalized-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#5
Amy Chui, Tilini Gunatillake, Shaun P Brennecke, Vera Ignjatovic, Paul T Monagle, John M Whitelock, Dagmar E van Zanten, Jasper Eijsink, Yao Wang, James Deane, Anthony J Borg, Janet Stevenson, Jan Jaap Erwich, Joanne M Said, Padma Murthi
OBJECTIVE: Biglycan (BGN) has reduced expression in placentae from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). We used first trimester placental samples from pregnancies with later small for gestational age (SGA) infants as a surrogate for FGR. The functional consequences of reduced BGN and the downstream targets of BGN were determined. Furthermore, the expression of targets was validated in primary placental endothelial cells isolated from FGR or control pregnancies. APPROACH AND RESULTS: BGN expression was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction in placental tissues collected during chorionic villous sampling performed at 10 to 12 weeks' gestation from pregnancies that had known clinical outcomes, including SGA...
April 13, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404894/induction-and-characterization-of-anti-tumor-endothelium-immunity-elicited-by-vallovax-therapeutic-cancer-vaccine
#6
Samuel C Wagner, Thomas E Ichim, Vladimir Bogin, Wei-Ping Min, Francisco Silva, Amit N Patel, Santosh Kesari
ValloVax is a placental endothelium derived vaccine which induces tissue-nonspecific antitumor immunity by blocking tumor angiogesis. To elucidate mechanisms of action, we showed that production of ValloVax, which involves treating placental endothelial cells with IFN-gamma, results in upregulation of HLA and costimulatory molecules. It was shown that in mixed lymphocyte reaction, ValloVax induces Type I cytokines and allo-proliferative responses. Plasma from ValloVax immunized mice was capable of killing in vitro tumor-like endothelium but not control endothelium...
February 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402512/defective-trophoblast-invasion-underlies-fetal-growth-restriction-and-pre-eclampsia-like-symptoms-in-the-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#7
G Barrientos, M Pussetto, M Rose, A C Staff, S M Blois, J E Toblli
STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of chronic hypertension on placental development, fetal growth and maternal outcome in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: SHRSP showed an impaired remodeling of the spiral arteries and abnormal pattern of trophoblast invasion during placentation, which were associated with subsequent maternal glomerular injury and increased baseline hypertension as well as placental insufficiency and asymmetric fetal growth restriction...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402449/enhancement-of-trophoblast-differentiation-and-survival-by-low-molecular-weight-heparin-requires-heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor
#8
Alan D Bolnick, Jay M Bolnick, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Brian A Kilburn, Omar J Pasalodos, Pankaj K Singhal, Jing Dai, Michael P Diamond, D Randall Armant, Sascha Drewlo
STUDY QUESTION: Does low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) require heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HBEGF) signaling to induce extravillous trophoblast differentiation and decrease apoptosis during oxidative stress? SUMMARY ANSWER: LMWH increased HBEGF expression and secretion, and HBEGF signaling was required to stimulate trophoblast extravillous differentiation, increase invasion in vitro and reduce trophoblast apoptosis during oxidative stress...
April 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401946/feasibility-of-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-tool-for-studying-pregnancy-related-disorders
#9
Naoki Fuchi, Kiyonori Miura, Hanako Doi, Tao-Sheng Li, Hideaki Masuzaki
The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for pregnancy-related disorders remain unclear. We investigated the feasibility of using placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a tool to study such pregnancy-related disorders. We isolated and expanded adequate numbers of cells with characteristic features of MSCs from the chorionic plate (CP-MSCs), chorionic villi (CV-MSCs), and decidua basalis (DB-MSCs) of human term placental tissues. All placenta-derived MSCs expressed pregnancy-associated C14MC microRNA (miRNA) (miR-323-3p)...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401076/presentation-of-placental-site-trophoblastic-tumor-with-amenorrhea
#10
Fariba Behnamfar, Safoura Rouholamin, Mahboubeh Esteki
Placental site throphoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare manifestation of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that may complicate any type of pregnancy. The disease is unique from other type, and is defined by slow growth, low human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) serum levels, the late-onset metastatic potential, and most significantly, insensitivity to chemotherapy. We describe a case of a 31-year-old woman with prolonged amenorrhea and slightly elevated serum beta hCG (βhCG) level, referred for termination of abnormal pregnancy...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400911/characterization-of-no-induced-nitrosative-status-in-human-placenta-from-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Francisco Visiedo, Celeste Santos-Rosendo, Rosa M Mateos-Bernal, M Del Mar Gil-Sánchez, Fernando Bugatto, Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado, Carmen Segundo, Cristina López-Tinoco
Dysregulation of NO production is implicated in pregnancy-related diseases, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The role of NO and its placental targets in GDM pregnancies has yet to be determined. S-Nitrosylation is the NO-derived posttranslational protein modification that can modulate biological functions by forming NO-derived complexes with longer half-life, termed S-nitrosothiol (SNO). Our aim was to examine the presence of endogenous S-nitrosylated proteins in cysteine residues in relation to antioxidant defense, apoptosis, and cellular signal transduction in placental tissue from control (n = 8) and GDM (n = 8) pregnancies...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399686/prevalence-of-congenital-malaria-in-newborns-of-mothers-co-infected-with-hiv-and-malaria-in-benin-city
#12
Fidelis Ewenitie Eki-Udoko, Ayebo E Sadoh, Michael O Ibadin, Augustine I Omoigberale
BACKGROUND: HIV and Plasmodium falciparum malaria co-infection annually complicates about one million pregnancies in sub-Saharan Africa. Congenital malaria (CM) has deleterious effects on newborns. Little is known about the effect of co-infections on the prevalence of CM in infants born by these women. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of CM in newborns of mothers co-infected with HIV and malaria compared to HIV-negative mothers with malaria in Benin-City. METHODS: Subjects were 162 newborns of mothers co-infected with HIV and malaria...
April 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397763/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-homeostasis-in-reproductive-physiology-and-pathology
#13
REVIEW
Elif Guzel, Sefa Arlier, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Mehmet Selcuk Tabak, Tugba Ekiz, Nihan Semerci, Kellie Larsen, Frederick Schatz, Charles Joseph Lockwood, Umit Ali Kayisli
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395331/immune-response-to-a-model-shared-placenta-tumor-associated-antigen-reduces-cancer-risk-in-parous-mice%C3%A2
#14
Susmita Jasti, Mina Farahbakhsh, Sean Nguyen, Brian K Petroff, Margaret G Petroff
During human pregnancy, paternally inherited antigens expressed by the fetal-placental unit can elicit expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. These cells can persist for years as memory T cells, but their effects on long-term maternal health are unknown. Shared placenta/tumor-associated antigens are expressed by placenta and tumors, but are minimally expressed or absent in normal adult tissues. We hypothesized that maternal T cells elicited against these antigens can alter risk of cancers expressing the same antigen after pregnancy, and tested this in mice using chicken ovalbumin (OVA) as a surrogate shared placenta/tumor antigen...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391374/resolution-of-inflammation-pathways-in-preeclampsia-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Luiza Oliveira Perucci, Mário Dias Corrêa, Luci Maria Dusse, Karina Braga Gomes, Lirlândia Pires Sousa
Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This disease is believed to occur in two stages with placental dysfunction in early pregnancy leading to maternal clinical findings after 20 weeks of gestation, as consequence of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Much evidence suggests that PE women display an overshooting inflammatory response throughout pregnancy due to an unbalanced regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses...
April 8, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390193/functional-amino-acids-in-the-development-of-the-pig-placenta
#16
REVIEW
Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Cassandra Herring, Heewon Seo, Zhaolai Dai, Junjun Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Xiaolong Wang
The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389228/brachyury-drives-formation-of-a-distinct-vascular-branchpoint-critical-for-fetal-placental-arterial-union-in-the-mouse-gastrula
#17
Adriana M Rodriguez, Dexter X Jin, Adam D Wolfe, Maria M Mikedis, Lauren Wierenga, Maleka P Hashmi, Christoph Viebahn, Karen M Downs
How the fetal-placental arterial connection is made and positioned relative to the embryonic body axis, thereby ensuring efficient and directed blood flow to and from the mother during gestation, is not known. Here we use a combination of genetics, timed pharmacological inhibition in living mouse embryos, and three-dimensional modeling to link two novel architectural features that, at present, have no status in embryological atlases. The allantoic core domain (ACD) is the extraembryonic extension of the primitive streak into the allantois, or pre-umbilical tissue; the vessel of confluence (VOC), situated adjacent to the ACD, is an extraembryonic vessel that marks the site of fetal-placental arterial union...
April 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388409/derivation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-with-in%C3%A2-vivo-embryonic-and-extraembryonic-potency
#18
Yang Yang, Bei Liu, Jun Xu, Jinlin Wang, Jun Wu, Cheng Shi, Yaxing Xu, Jiebin Dong, Chengyan Wang, Weifeng Lai, Jialiang Zhu, Liang Xiong, Dicong Zhu, Xiang Li, Weifeng Yang, Takayoshi Yamauchi, Atsushi Sugawara, Zhongwei Li, Fangyuan Sun, Xiangyun Li, Chen Li, Aibin He, Yaqin Du, Ting Wang, Chaoran Zhao, Haibo Li, Xiaochun Chi, Hongquan Zhang, Yifang Liu, Cheng Li, Shuguang Duo, Ming Yin, Huan Shen, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Hongkui Deng
Of all known cultured stem cell types, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) sit atop the landscape of developmental potency and are characterized by their ability to generate all cell types of an adult organism. However, PSCs show limited contribution to the extraembryonic placental tissues in vivo. Here, we show that a chemical cocktail enables the derivation of stem cells with unique functional and molecular features from mice and humans, designated as extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells, which are capable of chimerizing both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues...
April 6, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386023/unr-defines-a-novel-class-of-nucleoplasmic-reticulum-involved-in-mrna-translation
#19
Frédéric Saltel, Alban Giese, Lamia Azzi, Habiba Elatmani, Pierre Costet, Zakaria Ezzoukhry, Nathalie Dugot-Senant, Lucile Miquerol, Oréda Boussadia, Harald Wodrich, Pierre Dubus, Hélène Jacquemin-Sablon
Unr is a cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein with roles in the regulation of mRNA stability and translation. In this study, we have identified a novel function for Unr, which acts as a positive regulator of placental development. Unr expression studies in the developing placenta revealed the presence of Unr-rich foci apparently localized in the nuclei of trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). We determined that these foci are actually cross sections of a network of double-wall nuclear membranes invaginations containing a cytoplasmic core, related to the nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR), and accordingly named Unr-NRs...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384625/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-foetal-growth-and-metabolic-health-of-the-offspring
#20
Claudio Maffeis, Anita Morandi
Maternal and placental conditions that are unfavourable for the embryo/foetus have long-lasting effects on different tissues and functions of the body, which may persist for life and, potentially, also be transmitted to the offspring. This review resumes current evidence on principle maternal and gestational conditions associated with unfavourable metabolic programming of the offspring, along with their mechanisms of action, either supposed or already proved.
April 7, 2017: Obesity Facts
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