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Placental tissue

Charikleia Kelaidi, Antonis Kattamis, Filia Apostolakou, Christos Poziopoulos, Christina Lazaropoulou, Polyxeni Delaporta, Ino Kanavaki, Ioannis Papassotiriou
BACKGROUND: Levels of the angiogenic cytokines Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and the angiogenic balance, expressed by sFlt-1/PlGF ratio, are perturbed in Sickle Cell Disease and iron overload, but they have not been evaluated in Non-Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia (NTDT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We measured levels of PlGF, sFlt-1 and vWF:antigen in patients with NTDT of beta thalassemia genotype, and correlated them with erythrocytic indices and markers of iron overload, inflammation and tissue hypoxia...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Jonas Hönig, Ivana Mižíková, Claudio Nardiello, David Emanuel Surate Solaligue, Maximilian J Daume, István Vadász, Konstantin Mayer, Susanne Herold, Stefan Günther, Werner Seeger, Rory Edward Morty
The emergence of microRNA as regulators of organogenesis and tissue differentiation has stimulated interest in the ablation of microRNA expression and function during discrete periods of development. To this end, inducible, conditional modulation of microRNA expression with doxycycline-based tetracycline-controlled transactivator and tamoxifen-based estrogen receptor systems has found widespread use. However, the induction agents and components of genome recombination systems negatively impact pregnancy, parturition, and post natal development; thereby limiting the use of these technologies between late gestation and the early post-natal period...
March 14, 2018: RNA
Ji Young Lee, Hyun Mi Kim, Mi Ju Kim, Hyun-Hwa Cha, Won Joon Seong
OBJECTIVE: To compare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in placentas between spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia pregnancies. RESULTS: Placental samples matched for gestational age were obtained from 20 cases of spontaneous preterm births and 19 cases of preeclampsia. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from placenta tissue and the 3'UTR region of HLA-G was amplified via polymerase chain reaction...
March 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Sabrina L Roberti, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of inhibiting mTOR, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and PPARδ pathways in the early post-implantation period on decidual function, embryo viability and feto-placental growth in the rat? SUMMARY ANSWER: mTOR inhibition from day 7 to day 9 of pregnancy in rats caused decidual PPARγ and PPARδ upregulation on day 9 of pregnancy and resulted in embryo resorption by day 14 of pregnancy...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
Olena Pogozhykh, Volodymyr Prokopyuk, Constança Figueiredo, Denys Pogozhykh
Placental structures, capable to persist in a genetically foreign organism, are a natural model of allogeneic engraftment carrying a number of distinctive properties. In this review, the main features of the placenta and its derivatives such as structure, cellular composition, immunological and endocrine aspects, and the ability to invasion and deportation are discussed. These features are considered from a perspective that determines the placental material as a unique source for regenerative cell therapies and a lesson for immunological tolerance...
2018: Stem Cells International
Elvira Larqué, Eva Morales, Rosaura Leis, José E Blanco-Carnero
BACKGROUND: To what extent does the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration help to meet the physiological needs of humans is an ongoing subject of debate. Remaining unexposed to the sun to reduce melanoma cancer risk, current lifestyle with less out door activities, and increasing obesity rates, which in turn increases the storage of vitamin D in the adipose tissue, are presumably factors that contribute to the substantial upsurge in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in humans...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Stavros Sifakis, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, Artemis Pontikaki, Alexis Velegrakis, George I Papaioannou, Ourania Koukoura, Demetrios A Spandidos, Nikos Papantoniou
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a gynecological disorder of varying etiology. In the present study, an expression analysis of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA), pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2) and placenta-specific-1 (PLAC-1) was conducted in pregnancies with FGR and control pregnancies. Placental tissues were collected from pregnancies with FGR (n=16) and control pregnancies (n=16) and the expression of the genes of interest was examined by qPCR. The mean expression levels of PAPPA and PAPPA2 were significantly lower (P<0...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Anber Naqvi, Abdul Qadir, Adeel Mahmood, Mujtaba Baqar, Iqra Aslam, Farhan Sajid, Mehvish Mumtaz, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
The present study biomonitored the placental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in women from Punjab Province, Pakistan, that provides the pioneer data for occurrence and body burden of PCBs in placental tissues from South Asian women. The ∑34 PCB concentrations in placental tissues were ranged from 20.2 to 115.98 ng/g lipid weight (lip. wt.), with predominance of tetra-PCB (54.67%). The levels of ∑8 DL-PCBs and ∑6 -indicator PCBs were ranged from 2.03 to 27.64 ng/g (lip. wt.) and 1.71 to 30...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kevin Doello
Cancer tissues and placental ones share many properties such as invasiveness, metastasis and local immunosuppressive effects. The goal of the present article is to hypothesize a theory about cancer origin that links placental and cancerous tissues at molecular level. This hypothesis explain that cancer origin could be due to low hypoxic conditions in the peripheral zones of benign tumors which might up-regulate the expression of IGF2, and, consequently, trophoblastic genes. In fact, many phenotypic characteristics and molecular markers are shared between these two cell types (cancerous and trophoblastics ones), providing evidences to support this hypothesis...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
M Vasku, N Kleine-Eggebrecht, W Rath, M G Mohaupt, G Escher, U Pecks
OBJECTIVE: The enzyme 11ß-dehydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11ß-HSD2) converts active cortisol (F) to inactive cortisone (E). A reduced 11ß-HSD2 activity in the placenta has been demonstrated for prematurity, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. We hypothesized that disturbed placental function rather than a maternal response contributes to decreased 11ßHSD2 activity as reflected by a diminished conversion of F to E. Hence, the aim of the present study was to estimate the systemic activity of 11ß-HSD2 throughout gestation and in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) by calculating maternal serum F/E ratios...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Frank T Spradley, Jillian A Smith, Barbara T Alexander, Christopher D Anderson
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is linked to increased risk for chronic disease. Placental ischemia and insufficiency in the mother are implicated in predisposing IUGR offspring to metabolic dysfunction, including hypertension, insulin resistance, abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether these metabolic disturbances contribute to the developmental origins of exaggerated cardiovascular-renal disease (CVRD) risk accompanying IUGR is unclear. IUGR impacts the pancreas, adipose tissue, and liver, which are hypothesized to program for hepatic insulin resistance and subsequent NAFLD...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bai Yuxiang, Rao Haiying, Chen Wei, Luo Xin, Tong Chao, Qi Hongbo
To identify the profiles of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in human placental tissues and to explore the potential roles of dysregulated circRNAs in the pathological genesis of preeclampsia, expression profiles of circRNAs in human placentas were performed in this study. Utilizing high-throughput technology, based on fold changes and P values, 300 circRNAs that are differentially expressed between preeclampsia and normal placental tissues were identified. Among them, hg38_circ_0014736 and hsa_circ_0015382 were validated as significantly upregulated by real-time quantitative PCR with divergent primers...
February 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Nicholas R Ladwig, J Kenneth Schoolmeester, Laura Weil, Jocelyn S Chapman, Charles Zaloudek, Sarah E Umetsu
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a neoplasm of intermediate malignant potential that only rarely involves the gynecologic tract. Several cases of IMT arising in various locations including the lung, bladder, trachea, and breast in association with pregnancy have been reported in the literature, and 3 cases involving the placenta have been previously described. We report 2 cases of IMT identified in association with pregnancy; the first was an intrauterine mass delivered entirely separate from the placenta and fetus, and the second was an incidental mass identified within the placental parenchyma following delivery...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez, Ignacio Ferre, Michela Re, Patricia Vázquez, Luis Miguel Ferrer, Javier Blanco-Murcia, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Manuel Pizarro Díaz, Marta González-Huecas, Enrique Tabanera, Paula García-Lunar, Julio Benavides, Pablo Castaño, Andrew Hemphill, Matthew A Hulverson, Grant R Whitman, Kasey L Rivas, Ryan Choi, Kayode K Ojo, Lynn K Barrett, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora
Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, and recent studies have highlighted its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. Vaccines or drugs for the control of neosporosis are lacking. Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), which are ATP-competitive inhibitors of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), were shown to be highly efficacious against several apicomplexan parasites in vitro and in laboratory animal models. We here present the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of BKI-1553 in pregnant ewes and foetuses using a pregnant sheep model of N...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Xiao Huang, Pascale Anderle, Lu Hostettler, Marc U Baumann, Daniel V Surbek, Edgar C Ontsouka, Christiane Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Gestational disorders such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia (PE) are main causes of poor perinatal outcomes worldwide. Both diseases are related with impaired materno-fetal nutrient transfer, but the crucial transport mechanisms underlying IUGR and PE are not fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to identify membrane transporters highly associated with transplacental nutrient deficiencies in IUGR/PE. RESULTS: In silico analyses on the identification of differentially expressed nutrient transporters were conducted using seven eligible microarray datasets (from Gene Expression Omnibus), encompassing control and IUGR/PE placental samples...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Corrine Hanson, Elizabeth Lyden, Jeremy Furtado, Matthew Van Ormer, Marina Schumacher, Ammar Kamil, Elizabeth McGinn, Katherine Rilett, Elizabeth Elliott, Caleb Cave, Rebecca Johnson, Kara Weishaar, Ann Anderson-Berry
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, and vitamin E has powerful anti-oxidant properties. Vitamin E occurs in several different isoforms which differ in their ability to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherol in maternal-infant pairs, and the impact on maternal-newborn outcomes. METHODS: Vitamin E status was evaluated in 189 mother-infant pairs...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Inés Velasco, Sarah C Bath, Margaret P Rayman
Iodine is an essential micronutrient incorporated into thyroid hormones. Although iodine deficiency can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders throughout life, it is most critical in the early stages of development, as the foetal brain is extremely dependent on iodine supply. During the last two decades, our understanding of thyroid physiology during gestation has substantially improved. Furthermore, thyroid hormone receptors have been identified and characterised in placental and embryonic tissues, allowing us to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of thyroid hormones...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Wanyi Zhang, Rina Su, Li Lin, Huixia Yang
INTRODUCTION: Fetal macrosomia has confirmed be related to multiple labor complications and metabolism syndromes later in life. However, the mechanism of fetal macrosomia in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women is still obscure. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (ARHGEF11) and the insulin signaling pathway in placenta affecting fetal overgrowth in NGT and GDM pregnant women. METHODS: Eighty-nine pregnant women with paired antepartum BMI were recruited and divided into four groups: NGT with normal birth weight (NGT-N, n = 30) or macrosomia (NGT-M, n = 22) and GDM with normal birth weight (GDM-N, n = 22) or macrosomia (GDM-M, n = 15)...
March 2018: Placenta
Jossimara Polettini, Lauren S Richardson, Ramkumar Menon
OBJECTIVE: A physiologic increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is observed through pregnancy. ROS-induced damage to major cellular elements, specifically protein peroxidation, can lead to fetal and placental tissue senescence and inflammation often associated with normal parturition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of oxidative stress (OS) in inducing changes in proteins, senescence, and sterile inflammation in pregnant mice. METHODS: CD-1 mice (n = 5/group) on day 14 of gestation were subjected to minilaparotomy and the uterine horn between gestational sacs was injected with the following: saline (control), cigarette smoke extract (CSE) CSE diluted in saline and CSE + SB 203580 (SB) (a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor)...
March 2018: Placenta
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