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W Hargrove

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043521/initiation-of-antihypertensive-monotherapy-and-incident-fractures-among-medicare-beneficiaries
#1
Jennifer L Hargrove, Yvonne M Golightly, Virginia Pate, Carri H Casteel, Laura R Loehr, Stephen W Marshall, Til Stürmer
BACKGROUND: Research suggests antihypertensive medications are associated with fractures in older adults, however results are inconsistent and few have examined how the association varies over time. We sought to examine the association between antihypertensive class and incident non-vertebral fractures among older adults initiating monotherapy according to time since initiation. METHODS: We used a new-user cohort design to identify Medicare beneficiaries (≥ 65 years of age) initiating antihypertensive monotherapy during 2008-2011 using a 20% random sample of Fee-For-Service Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in parts A (inpatient services), B (outpatient services), and D (prescription medication) coverage...
October 18, 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977648/psychosocial-mechanisms-underlying-older-black-men-s-health
#2
Tyson H Brown, Taylor W Hargrove
Objectives: To evaluate the psychosocial mechanisms underlying older Black men's self-rated health, we examined: (a) the individual, cumulative, and collective effects of stressors on health; (b) the direct effects of psychosocial resources on health; and (c) the stress-moderating effects of psychosocial resources. Method: This study is based on a nationally representative sample of Black men aged 51-81 (N = 593) in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models of the psychosocial determinants of self-rated health draw on data from the HRS 2010 and 2012 Core datasets and Psychosocial Modules...
August 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854189/a-dynamic-model-for-estimating-adult-female-mortality-from-ovarian-dissection-data-for-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-pallidipes-austen-sampled-in-zimbabwe
#3
Sarah F Ackley, John W Hargrove
Human and animal trypanosomiasis, spread by tsetse flies (Glossina spp), is a major public health concern in much of sub-Saharan Africa. The basic reproduction number of vector-borne diseases, such as trypanosomiasis, is a function of vector mortality rate. Robust methods for estimating tsetse mortality are thus of interest for understanding population and disease dynamics and for optimal control. Existing methods for estimating mortality in adult tsetse, from ovarian dissection data, often use invalid assumptions of the existence of a stable age distribution, and age-invariant mortality and capture probability...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814002/joint-based-velocity-feedback-to-virtual-limb-dynamic-perturbations
#4
Eric J Earley, Kyle J Kaveny, Reva E Johnson, Levi J Hargrove, Jon W Sensinger
Despite significant research developing myoelectric prosthesis controllers, many amputees have difficulty controlling their devices due in part to reduced sensory feedback. Many attempts at providing supplemental sensory feedback have not significantly aided control. We hypothesize this is because the feedback provided contains redundant information already provided by vision. However, whereas vision provides egocentric, position-based feedback, sensory feedback tied to joint coordinates may provide information complementary to vision...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672001/host-seeking-efficiency-can-explain-population-dynamics-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-morsitans-morsitans-in-response-to-host-density-decline
#5
Jennifer S Lord, Zinhle Mthombothi, Vitalis K Lagat, Fatumah Atuhaire, John W Hargrove
Females of all blood-feeding arthropod vectors must find and feed on a host in order to produce offspring. For tsetse-vectors of the trypanosomes that cause human and animal African trypanosomiasis-the problem is more extreme, since both sexes feed solely on blood. Host location is thus essential both for survival and reproduction. Host population density should therefore be an important driver of population dynamics for haematophagous insects, and particularly for tsetse, but the role of host density is poorly understood...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535297/antihypertensive-adherence-trajectories-among-older-adults-in-the-first-year-after-initiation-of-therapy
#6
Jennifer L Hargrove, Virginia Pate, Carri H Casteel, Yvonne M Golightly, Laura R Loehr, Stephen W Marshall, Til Stürmer
BACKGROUND: Adherence to antihypertensives is suboptimal, but previous methods of quantifying adherence fail to account for varying patterns of use over time. We sought to improve classification of antihypertensive adherence using group-based trajectory models, and to determine whether individual factors predict adherence trajectories. METHODS: We identified older adults initiating antihypertensive therapy during 2008-2011 using a 20% sample of Medicare (federal health insurance available to US residents over the age of 65) beneficiaries enrolled in parts A (inpatient services), B (outpatient services), and D (prescription medication)...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301512/adaptation-to-random-and-systematic-errors-comparison-of-amputee-and-non-amputee-control-interfaces-with-varying-levels-of-process-noise
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Reva E Johnson, Konrad P Kording, Levi J Hargrove, Jonathon W Sensinger
The objective of this study was to understand how people adapt to errors when using a myoelectric control interface. We compared adaptation across 1) non-amputee subjects using joint angle, joint torque, and myoelectric control interfaces, and 2) amputee subjects using myoelectric control interfaces with residual and intact limbs (five total control interface conditions). We measured trial-by-trial adaptation to self-generated errors and random perturbations during a virtual, single degree-of-freedom task with two levels of feedback uncertainty, and evaluated adaptation by fitting a hierarchical Kalman filter model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120369/bile-duct-ligation-induced-biliary-hyperplasia-hepatic-injury-and-fibrosis-are-reduced-in-mast-cell-deficient-kit-w-sh-mice
#8
Laura Hargrove, Lindsey Kennedy, Jennifer Demieville, Hannah Jones, Fanyin Meng, Sharon DeMorrow, Walker Karstens, Taronish Madeka, John Greene, Heather Francis
Activated mast cells (MCs) release histamine (HA) and MCs infiltrate the liver following bile duct ligation (BDL), increasing intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) and fibrosis. We evaluated the effects of BDL in MC-deficient (Kit(W-sh) ) mice. Wild-type (WT) and Kit(W-sh) mice were subjected to sham or BDL for up to 7 days and Kit(W-sh) mice were injected with cultured mast cells or 1× phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) before collecting serum, liver, and cholangiocytes. Liver damage was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and alanine aminotransferase levels...
June 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662478/minimally-invasive-mitral-valve-surgery-iii-training-and-robotic-assisted-approaches
#9
Eric J Lehr, T Sloane Guy, Robert L Smith, Eugene A Grossi, Richard J Shemin, Evelio Rodriguez, Gorav Ailawadi, Arvind K Agnihotri, Trevor M Fayers, W Clark Hargrove, Brian W Hummel, Junaid H Khan, S Chris Malaisrie, John R Mehall, Douglas A Murphy, William H Ryan, Arash Salemi, Romualdo J Segurola, J Michael Smith, J Alan Wolfe, Paul W Weldner, Glenn R Barnhart, Scott M Goldman, Clifton T P Lewis
Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program.
July 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576255/emg-versus-torque-control-of-human-machine-systems-equalizing-control-signal-variability-does-not-equalize-error-or-uncertainty
#10
Reva E Johnson, Konrad P Kording, Levi J Hargrove, Jonathon W Sensinger
In this paper we asked the question: if we artificially raise the variability of torque control signals to match that of EMG, do subjects make similar errors and have similar uncertainty about their movements? We answered this question using two experiments in which subjects used three different control signals: torque, torque+noise, and EMG. First, we measured error on a simple target-hitting task in which subjects received visual feedback only at the end of their movements. We found that even when the signal-to-noise ratio was equal across EMG and torque+noise control signals, EMG resulted in larger errors...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544289/valve-selection-in-end-stage-renal-disease-should-it-always-be-biological
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Matthew L Williams, Joseph E Bavaria, Michael A Acker, Nimesh D Desai, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, W Clark Hargrove, Pavan Atluri, Wilson Y Szeto
BACKGROUND: When valve replacement is required in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), it is not clear if mechanical or bioprosthetic valve selection is better. We compared outcomes between ESRD patients who underwent either mechanical or biologic valve replacements at our institution. METHODS: All patients with ESRD who underwent either mitral or aortic valve replacement from 2002 to 2014 at our institution were reviewed (n = 215; mechanical = 64, biological = 151)...
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318775/the-impact-of-deep-versus-moderate-hypothermia-on-postoperative-kidney-function-after-elective-aortic-hemiarch-repair
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
George J Arnaoutakis, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Joseph E Bavaria, Ibrahim Sultan, Mary Siki, Suveeksha Naidu, Rita K Milewski, Matthew L Williams, W Clark Hargrove, Nimesh D Desai, Wilson Y Szeto
BACKGROUND: There remains concern that moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA) with antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) may provide suboptimal distal organ protection compared with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). We compared postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in in patients who underwent elective hemiarch repair with either DHCA/RCP or MHCA/ACP. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all patients undergoing elective aortic hemiarch reconstruction for aneurysmal disease between 2009 and 2014...
October 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313059/human-sterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-as-a-target-for-anticancer-chemotherapy-towards-structure-aided-drug-design
#13
Tatiana Y Hargrove, Laura Friggeri, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Suneethi Sivakumaran, Eugenia M Yazlovitskaya, Scott W Hiebert, F Peter Guengerich, Michael R Waterman, Galina I Lepesheva
Rapidly multiplying cancer cells synthesize greater amounts of cholesterol to build their membranes. Cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) are currently in clinical trials for anticancer chemotherapy. However, given at higher doses, statins cause serious side effects by inhibiting the formation of other biologically important molecules derived from mevalonate. Sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), which acts 10 steps downstream, is potentially a more specific drug target because this portion of the pathway is fully committed to cholesterol production...
August 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284076/using-multiple-hierarchy-stratification-and-life-course-approaches-to-understand-health-inequalities-the-intersecting-consequences-of-race-gender-ses-and-age
#14
Tyson H Brown, Liana J Richardson, Taylor W Hargrove, Courtney S Thomas
This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans...
June 2016: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26725716/direct-innominate-artery-cannulation-an-alternate-technique-for-antegrade-cerebral-perfusion-during-aortic-hemiarch-reconstruction
#15
Arminder S Jassar, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Joseph E Bavaria, Jacob Gutsche, Nimesh D Desai, Matthew L Williams, Rita K Milewski, W Clark Hargrove, Wilson Y Szeto
OBJECTIVE: We describe an alternate technique for establishing antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) during hypothermic circulatory arrest via direct, central cannulation of the innominate artery. METHODS: From 2009 to 2015, 100 elective hemiarch reconstructions for proximal aortic aneurysms were performed under moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA). Cerebral perfusion was instituted with ACP via direct cannulation of the innominate artery. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 63 ± 13 years (72 men; 72%)...
April 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665131/amelioration-of-murine-sickle-cell-disease-by-nonablative-conditioning-and-%C3%AE-globin-gene-corrected-bone-marrow-cells
#16
Tamara I Pestina, Phillip W Hargrove, Huifen Zhao, Paul E Mead, Matthew P Smeltzer, Mitchell J Weiss, Andrew Wilber, Derek A Persons
Patients with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) are candidates for gene therapy using autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but concomitant multi-organ disease may contraindicate pretransplant conditioning with full myeloablation. We tested whether nonmyeloablative conditioning, a regimen used successfully for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation of adult SCD patients, allows engraftment of γ-globin gene-corrected cells to a therapeutic level in the Berkeley mouse model of SCD. Animals transplanted according to this regimen averaged 35% engraftment of transduced hematopoietic stem cells with an average vector copy < 2...
2015: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26571387/tumor-repression-of-vcap-xenografts-by-a-pyrrole-imidazole-polyamide
#17
Amanda E Hargrove, Thomas F Martinez, Alissa A Hare, Alexis A Kurmis, John W Phillips, Sudha Sud, Kenneth J Pienta, Peter B Dervan
Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides are high affinity DNA-binding small molecules that can inhibit protein-DNA interactions. In VCaP cells, a human prostate cancer cell line overexpressing both AR and the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion, an androgen response element (ARE)-targeted Py-Im polyamide significantly downregulates AR driven gene expression. Polyamide exposure to VCaP cells reduced proliferation without causing DNA damage. Py-Im polyamide treatment also reduced tumor growth in a VCaP mouse xenograft model...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26505202/efficacy-of-electrocuting-devices-to-catch-tsetse-flies-glossinidae-and-other-diptera
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Glyn A Vale, John W Hargrove, N Alan Cullis, Andrew Chamisa, Stephen J Torr
BACKGROUND: The behaviour of insect vectors has an important bearing on the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit, and on the opportunities for vector control. Two sorts of electrocuting device have been particularly useful for studying the behaviour of tsetse flies (Glossina spp), the vectors of the trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. Such devices consist of grids on netting (E-net) to catch tsetse in flight, or on cloth (E-cloth) to catch alighting flies...
October 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26330590/use-of-leucocyte-esterase-reagent-strips-in-the-diagnosis-or-exclusion-of-prosthetic-joint-infection
#19
R Shafafy, W McClatchie, K Chettiar, K Gill, R Hargrove, S Sturridge, A Guyot
Infection is a leading indication for revision arthroplasty. Established criteria used to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI) include a range of laboratory tests. Leucocyte esterase (LE) is widely used on a colorimetric reagent strip for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. This inexpensive test may be used for the diagnosis or exclusion of PJI. Aspirates from 30 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and 79 knee arthroplasties (KA) were analysed for LE activity. Semi-quantitative reagent strip readings of 15, 70, 125 and 500 white blood cells (WBC) were validated against a manual synovial white cell count (WCC)...
September 2015: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26291191/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-men-s-health-examining-psychosocial-mechanisms
#20
Tyson H Brown, Taylor W Hargrove, Derek M Griffith
This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study and an approach informed by the Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor to examine the extent to which socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions are mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among men. Results reveal that racial/ethnic differences in socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions-individually and collectively-account for a substantial proportion of racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations...
October 2015: Family & Community Health
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