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W Hargrove

Eric J Lehr, T Sloane Guy, Robert L Smith, Eugene A Grossi, Richard J Shemin, Evelio Rodriguez, Gorav Ailawadi, Arvind K Agnihotri, Trevor M Fayers, W Clark Hargrove, Brian W Hummel, Junaid H Khan, S Chris Malaisrie, John R Mehall, Douglas A Murphy, William H Ryan, Arash Salemi, Romualdo J Segurola, J Michael Smith, J Alan Wolfe, Paul W Weldner, Glenn R Barnhart, Scott M Goldman, Clifton T P Lewis
Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program.
July 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Reva E Johnson, Konrad P Koerding, Levi J Hargrove, Jonathon W Sensinger
In this paper we asked the question: if we artificially raise the variability of torque control signals to match that of EMG, do subjects make similar errors and have similar uncertainty about their movements? We answered this question using two experiments in which subjects used three different control signals: torque, torque+noise, and EMG. First, we measured error on a simple target-hitting task in which subjects received visual feedback only at the end of their movements. We found that even when the signal-to-noise ratio was equal across EMG and torque+noise control signals, EMG resulted in larger errors...
August 25, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Matthew L Williams, Joseph E Bavaria, Michael A Acker, Nimesh D Desai, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, W Clark Hargrove, Pavan Atluri, Wilson Y Szeto
BACKGROUND: When valve replacement is required in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), it is not clear if mechanical or bioprosthetic valve selection is better. We compared outcomes between ESRD patients who underwent either mechanical or biologic valve replacements at our institution. METHODS: All patients with ESRD who underwent either mitral or aortic valve replacement from 2002 to 2014 at our institution were reviewed (n = 215; mechanical = 64, biological = 151)...
August 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
George J Arnaoutakis, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Joseph E Bavaria, Ibrahim Sultan, Mary Siki, Suveeksha Naidu, Rita K Milewski, Matthew L Williams, W Clark Hargrove, Nimesh D Desai, Wilson Y Szeto
BACKGROUND: There remains concern that moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA) with antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) may provide suboptimal distal organ protection compared with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). We compared postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in in patients who underwent elective hemiarch repair with either DHCA/RCP or MHCA/ACP. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all patients undergoing elective aortic hemiarch reconstruction for aneurysmal disease between 2009 and 2014...
October 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Tatiana Y Hargrove, Laura Friggeri, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Suneethi Sivakumaran, Eugenia M Yazlovitskaya, Scott W Hiebert, F Peter Guengerich, Michael R Waterman, Galina I Lepesheva
Rapidly multiplying cancer cells synthesize greater amounts of cholesterol to build their membranes. Cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) are currently in clinical trials for anticancer chemotherapy. However, given at higher doses, statins cause serious side effects by inhibiting the formation of other biologically important molecules derived from mevalonate. Sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), which acts 10 steps downstream, is potentially a more specific drug target because this portion of the pathway is fully committed to cholesterol production...
August 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Tyson H Brown, Liana J Richardson, Taylor W Hargrove, Courtney S Thomas
This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans...
June 2016: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Arminder S Jassar, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Joseph E Bavaria, Jacob Gutsche, Nimesh D Desai, Matthew L Williams, Rita K Milewski, W Clark Hargrove, Wilson Y Szeto
OBJECTIVE: We describe an alternate technique for establishing antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) during hypothermic circulatory arrest via direct, central cannulation of the innominate artery. METHODS: From 2009 to 2015, 100 elective hemiarch reconstructions for proximal aortic aneurysms were performed under moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA). Cerebral perfusion was instituted with ACP via direct cannulation of the innominate artery. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 63 ± 13 years (72 men; 72%)...
April 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Tamara I Pestina, Phillip W Hargrove, Huifen Zhao, Paul E Mead, Matthew P Smeltzer, Mitchell J Weiss, Andrew Wilber, Derek A Persons
Patients with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) are candidates for gene therapy using autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but concomitant multi-organ disease may contraindicate pretransplant conditioning with full myeloablation. We tested whether nonmyeloablative conditioning, a regimen used successfully for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation of adult SCD patients, allows engraftment of γ-globin gene-corrected cells to a therapeutic level in the Berkeley mouse model of SCD. Animals transplanted according to this regimen averaged 35% engraftment of transduced hematopoietic stem cells with an average vector copy < 2...
2015: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Amanda E Hargrove, Thomas F Martinez, Alissa A Hare, Alexis A Kurmis, John W Phillips, Sudha Sud, Kenneth J Pienta, Peter B Dervan
Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides are high affinity DNA-binding small molecules that can inhibit protein-DNA interactions. In VCaP cells, a human prostate cancer cell line overexpressing both AR and the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion, an androgen response element (ARE)-targeted Py-Im polyamide significantly downregulates AR driven gene expression. Polyamide exposure to VCaP cells reduced proliferation without causing DNA damage. Py-Im polyamide treatment also reduced tumor growth in a VCaP mouse xenograft model...
2015: PloS One
Glyn A Vale, John W Hargrove, N Alan Cullis, Andrew Chamisa, Stephen J Torr
BACKGROUND: The behaviour of insect vectors has an important bearing on the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit, and on the opportunities for vector control. Two sorts of electrocuting device have been particularly useful for studying the behaviour of tsetse flies (Glossina spp), the vectors of the trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. Such devices consist of grids on netting (E-net) to catch tsetse in flight, or on cloth (E-cloth) to catch alighting flies...
October 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
R Shafafy, W McClatchie, K Chettiar, K Gill, R Hargrove, S Sturridge, A Guyot
Infection is a leading indication for revision arthroplasty. Established criteria used to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI) include a range of laboratory tests. Leucocyte esterase (LE) is widely used on a colorimetric reagent strip for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. This inexpensive test may be used for the diagnosis or exclusion of PJI. Aspirates from 30 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and 79 knee arthroplasties (KA) were analysed for LE activity. Semi-quantitative reagent strip readings of 15, 70, 125 and 500 white blood cells (WBC) were validated against a manual synovial white cell count (WCC)...
September 2015: Bone & Joint Journal
Tyson H Brown, Taylor W Hargrove, Derek M Griffith
This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study and an approach informed by the Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor to examine the extent to which socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions are mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among men. Results reveal that racial/ethnic differences in socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions-individually and collectively-account for a substantial proportion of racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations...
October 2015: Family & Community Health
Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Tyler Wallen, Aaron Pulsipher, Emil Pitkin, Lauren P Solometo, Shenara Musthaq, Jeanne Fox, Michael Acker, W Clark Hargrove
BACKGROUND: In patients requiring a second-time or more operation on the mitral valve (MV), we assessed whether the outcomes of the minimally invasive port access approach (port access group) were equivalent to those of the traditional redo sternotomy approach (redo sternotomy group). METHODS: In a retrospective review (1998-2011), 409 patients had previous MV operations requiring a second-time or more MV reintervention. Of those, 67 patients had the port access approach, and 342 had the redo sternotomy approach...
July 2015: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Galina I Lepesheva, Tatiana Y Hargrove, Girish Rachakonda, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Sébastien Pomel, Sandrine Cojean, Pius N Nde, W David Nes, Charles W Locuson, M Wade Calcutt, Michael R Waterman, J Scott Daniels, Philippe M Loiseau, Fernando Villalta
Sterol 14α-demethylases (CYP51) are the enzymes essential for sterol biosynthesis. They serve as clinical targets for antifungal azoles and are considered as targets for treatment of human Trypanosomatidae infections. Recently, we have shown that VNI, a potent and selective inhibitor of trypanosomal CYP51 that we identified and structurally characterized in complex with the enzyme, can cure the acute and chronic forms of Chagas disease. The purpose of this work was to apply the CYP51 structure/function for further development of the VNI scaffold...
November 1, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Arminder S Jassar, Rohan S Menon, Caroline Komlo, Jacob Gutsche, Nimesh D Desai, W Clark Hargrove, Joseph E Bavaria, Wilson Y Szeto
BACKGROUND: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with retrograde cerebral perfusion (DHCA group) has traditionally been the cerebral protection strategy during transverse hemiarch aortic reconstruction. Recently, we have adopted moderate hypothermic (≥ 25 °C) circulatory arrest (MHCA) with antegrade cerebral perfusion (MHCA group). We compared the outcomes for these two circulatory arrest management strategies. METHODS: From 2008 to 2012, in a concurrent series of 376 patients (DHCA, 301; MHCA, 75) undergoing transverse hemiarch for aortic aneurysm disease, incidences of concomitant root replacement (44% vs 47%, p = 0...
May 2015: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
J W Hargrove, S F Ackley
Mortality estimates are central to understanding tsetse fly population dynamics, but are difficult to acquire from wild populations. They can be obtained from age distribution data but, with limited data, it is unclear whether the assumptions required to make the estimates are satisfied and, if not, how violations affect the estimates. We evaluate the assumptions required for existing mortality estimation techniques using long-term longitudinal ovarian dissection data from 144,106 female tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen, captured in Zimbabwe between 1988 and 1999...
June 2015: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Glyn A Vale, John W Hargrove, Michael J Lehane, Philippe Solano, Stephen J Torr
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies occur in much of sub-Saharan Africa where they transmit the trypanosomes that cause the diseases of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. One of the most economical and effective methods of tsetse control is the use of insecticide-treated screens, called targets, that simulate hosts. Targets have been ~1 m2, but recently it was shown that those tsetse that occupy riverine situations, and which are the main vectors of sleeping sickness, respond well to targets only ~0...
March 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
John W Hargrove, M Odwell Muzari
BACKGROUND: The biology of adult tsetse (Glossina spp), vectors of trypanosomiasis in Africa, has been extensively studied - but little is known about larviposition in the field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In September-November 1998, in the hot-dry season in Zimbabwe's Zambezi Valley, we used artificial warthog burrows to capture adult females as they deposited larvae. Females were subjected to ovarian dissection and were defined as perinatal flies, assumed to have entered burrows to larviposit, if oocyte sizes indicated >95% pregnancy completion...
March 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Glyn A Vale, John W Hargrove, Andrew Chamisa, Ian F Grant, Stephen J Torr
BACKGROUND: African trypansomiases of humans and animals can be controlled by attacking the vectors, various species of tsetse fly. Treatment of cattle with pyrethroids to kill tsetse as they feed is the most cost-effective method. However, such treatments can contaminate cattle dung, thereby killing the fauna which disperse the dung and so play an important role in soil fertility. Hence there is a need to identify cost-effective methods of treating cattle with minimal impact on dung fauna...
March 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Fabrizia Urbinati, Phillip W Hargrove, Sabine Geiger, Zulema Romero, Jennifer Wherley, Michael L Kaufman, Roger P Hollis, Christopher B Chambers, Derek A Persons, Donald B Kohn, Andrew Wilber
Sickle cell disease (SCD) can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. However, this is only possible when a matched donor is available, making the development of gene therapy using autologous hematopoietic stem cells a highly desirable alternative. We used a culture model of human erythropoiesis to directly compare two insulated, self-inactivating, and erythroid-specific lentiviral vectors, encoding for γ-globin (V5m3-400) or a modified β-globin (βAS3-FB) for production of antisickling hemoglobin (Hb) and correction of red cell deformability after deoxygenation...
May 2015: Experimental Hematology
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