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Robert Gorman

Christopher B Rodell, Madonna E Lee, Hua Wang, Satoshi Takebayashi, Tetsushi Takayama, Tomonori Kawamura, Jeffrey S Arkles, Neville N Dusaj, Shauna M Dorsey, Walter R T Witschey, James J Pilla, Joseph H Gorman, Jonathan F Wenk, Jason A Burdick, Robert C Gorman
BACKGROUND: Injectable, acellular biomaterials hold promise to limit left ventricular remodeling and heart failure precipitated by infarction through bulking or stiffening the infarct region. A material with tunable properties (eg, mechanics, degradation) that can be delivered percutaneously has not yet been demonstrated. Catheter-deliverable soft hydrogels with in vivo stiffening to enhance therapeutic efficacy achieve these requirements. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a hyaluronic acid hydrogel that uses a tandem crosslinking approach, where the first crosslinking (guest-host) enabled injection and localized retention of a soft (<1 kPa) hydrogel...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Daniel Ryan Clark, Huayang Zhu, David R Diercks, Sandrine Ricote, Robert J Kee, Ali Almansoori, Brian P Gorman, Ryan P O'Hayre
A laser-assisted atom-probe-tomographic (LAAPT) method has been developed and applied to measure and characterize the three-dimensional atomic and electronic nanostructure at an yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BaZr0.9Y0.1O3-δ, BZY10) grain boundary. Proton-conducting perovskites, such as BZY10, are attracting intense interest for a variety of energy conversion applications. However, their implementation has been hindered, in part, because of high grain-boundary (GB) resistance that is attributed to a positive GB space-charge layer (SCL)...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
Jessica R Gorman, Brian W Whitcomb, Daniel Standridge, Vanessa L Malcarne, Sally A D Romero, Samantha A Roberts, H Irene Su
PURPOSE: We compared adoption consideration between female young adult cancer survivors and women of the same age in the general US population, hypothesizing that cancer survivors who desired children would report greater interest in adoption than an age-adjusted general population sample who desired children. METHODS: After age-standardizing the cancer survivor cohort to match the age distribution of the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth (NSFG), we estimated adoption consideration among women age 18-35 years who wanted a (another) child in the two cohorts overall and within age groups...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Kathryn M Camp, Danuta Krotoski, Melissa A Parisi, Katrina A Gwinn, Bruce H Cohen, Christine S Cox, Gregory M Enns, Marni J Falk, Amy C Goldstein, Rashmi Gopal-Srivastava, Gráinne S Gorman, Stephen P Hersh, Michio Hirano, Freddie Ann Hoffman, Amel Karaa, Erin L MacLeod, Robert McFarland, Charles Mohan, Andrew E Mulberg, Joanne C Odenkirchen, Sumit Parikh, Patricia J Rutherford, Shawne K Suggs-Anderson, W H Wilson Tang, Jerry Vockley, Lynne A Wolfe, Steven Yannicelli, Philip E Yeske, Paul M Coates
In December 2014, a workshop entitled "Nutritional Interventions in Primary Mitochondrial Disorders: Developing an Evidence Base" was convened at the NIH with the goals of exploring the use of nutritional interventions in primary mitochondrial disorders (PMD) and identifying knowledge gaps regarding their safety and efficacy; identifying research opportunities; and forging collaborations among researchers, clinicians, patient advocacy groups, and federal partners. Sponsors included the NIH, the Wellcome Trust, and the United Mitochondrial Diseases Foundation...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Rosanne C Schoonbeek, Satoshi Takebayashi, Chikashi Aoki, Toru Shimaoka, Matthew A Harris, Gregory L Fu, Timothy S Kim, Yoav Dori, Jeremy McGarvey, Harold Litt, Wobbe Bouma, Gerald Zsido, Andrew C Glatz, Jonathan J Rome, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Matthew J Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary insufficiency is the nexus of late morbidity and mortality after transannular patch repair of tetralogy of Fallot. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of implantation of the novel Medtronic Harmony transcatheter pulmonary valve (hTPV) and to assess its effect on pulmonary insufficiency and ventricular function in an ovine model of chronic postoperative pulmonary insufficiency. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen sheep underwent baseline cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, surgical pulmonary valvectomy, and transannular patch repair...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Hua Wang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Shauna M Dorsey, Jeremy R McGarvey, Kenneth S Campbell, Jason A Burdick, Joseph H Gorman, James J Pilla, Robert C Gorman, Jonathan F Wenk
Myocardial contractility of the left ventricle (LV) plays an essential role in maintaining normal pump function. A recent ex-vivo experimental study showed that cardiomyocyte force generation varies across the three myocardial layers of the LV wall. However, the in-vivo distribution of myocardial contractile force is still unclear. The current study was designed to investigate the in-vivo transmural distribution of myocardial contractility using a non-invasive computational approach. For this purpose, four cases with different transmural distributions of maximum isometric tension (Tmax) and/or reference sarcomere length (lR) were tested with animal-specific finite element (FE) models, in combination with magnetic resonance images (MRI), pressure catheterization, and numerical optimization...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Constantinos Kurt Wibmer, Jason Gorman, Colin S Anthony, Nonhlanhla N Mkhize, Aliaksandr Druz, Talita York, Stephen D Schmidt, Phillip Labuschagne, Mark K Louder, Robert T Bailer, Salim S Abdool Karim, John R Mascola, Carolyn Williamson, Penny L Moore, Peter D Kwong, Lynn Morris
: All HIV-1 infected individuals develop strain-specific neutralizing antibodies to their infecting virus, which in some cases mature into broadly neutralizing antibodies. Defining the epitopes of strain-specific antibodies that overlap with conserved sites of vulnerability might provide mechanistic insights into how broadly neutralizing antibodies arise. We have previously described an HIV-1 clade C infected donor, CAP257, who developed broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies targeting an N276 glycan-dependent epitope in the CD4 binding site...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Virology
Francisco Contijoch, Srikant Kamesh Iyer, James J Pilla, Paul Yushkevich, Joseph H Gorman, Robert C Gorman, Harold Litt, Yuchi Han, Walter R T Witschey
PURPOSE: Develop self-gated MRI for distinct heartbeat morphologies in subjects with arrhythmias. METHODS: Golden angle radial data was obtained in seven sinus and eight arrhythmias subjects. An image-based cardiac navigator was derived from single-shot images, distinct beat types were identified, and images were reconstructed for repeated morphologies. Image sharpness, contrast, and volume variation were quantified and compared with self-gated MRI. Images were scored for image quality and artifacts...
August 31, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Steven A Hardy, Emma L Blakely, Andrew I Purvis, Mariana C Rocha, Syeda Ahmed, Gavin Falkous, Joanna Poulton, Michael R Rose, Olivia O'Mahony, Niamh Bermingham, Charlotte F Dougan, Yi Shiau Ng, Rita Horvath, Doug M Turnbull, Grainne S Gorman, Robert W Taylor
Pathogenic mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) gene mutations represent a prominent cause of primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-related disease despite accounting for only 5%-10% of the mitochondrial genome.(1,2) Although some common mt-tRNA mutations, such as the m.3243A>G mutation, exist, the majority are rare and have been reported in only a small number of cases.(3) The MT-TP gene, encoding mt-tRNA(Pro), is one of the less polymorphic mt-tRNA genes, and only 5 MT-TP mutations have been reported as a cause of mitochondrial muscle disease to date (table e-1 at Neurology...
August 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Inez J Wijdh-den Hamer, Wobbe Bouma, Eric K Lai, Melissa M Levack, Eric K Shang, Alison M Pouch, Thomas J Eperjesi, Theodore J Plappert, Paul A Yushkevich, Judy Hung, Massimo A Mariani, Kamal R Khabbaz, Thomas G Gleason, Feroze Mahmood, Michael A Acker, Y Joseph Woo, Albert T Cheung, Matthew J Gillespie, Benjamin M Jackson, Joseph H Gorman, Robert C Gorman
OBJECTIVES: Repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation with undersized annuloplasty is characterized by high recurrence rates. We sought to determine the value of pre-repair 3-dimensional echocardiography over 2-dimensional echocardiography in predicting recurrence at 6 months. METHODS: Intraoperative transesophageal 2-dimensional echocardiography and 3-dimensional echocardiography were performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Amy E Vincent, Yi Shiau Ng, Kathryn White, Tracey Davey, Carmen Mannella, Gavin Falkous, Catherine Feeney, Andrew M Schaefer, Robert McFarland, Grainne S Gorman, Robert W Taylor, Doug M Turnbull, Martin Picard
Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alison M Pouch, Benjamin M Jackson, Eric Lai, Manabu Takebe, Sijie Tian, Albert T Cheung, Y Joseph Woo, Prakash A Patel, Hongzhi Wang, Paul A Yushkevich, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman
BACKGROUND: Degenerative mitral valve disease is associated with variable and complex defects in valve morphology. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has shown promise in aiding preoperative planning for patients with this disease but to date has not been as transformative as initially predicted. The clinical usefulness of 3DE has been limited by the laborious methods currently required to extract quantitative data from the images. METHODS: To maximize the utility of 3DE for preoperative valve evaluation, this work describes an automated 3DE image analysis method for generating models of the mitral valve that are well suited for both qualitative and quantitative assessment...
September 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Rachel A McBain, Janet L Taylor, Robert B Gorman, Simon C Gandevia, Jane E Butler
What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine whether specific reflex connections operate between intercostal afferents and the scalene muscles in humans, and whether these connections operate after a clinically complete cervical spinal cord injury. What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first description of a short-latency inhibitory reflex connection between intercostal afferents from intercostal spaces to the scalene muscles in able-bodied participants. We suggest that this reflex is mediated by large-diameter afferents...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Yi Shiau Ng, Catherine Feeney, Andrew M Schaefer, Carol Ellen Holmes, Paula Hynd, Charlotte L Alston, John P Grady, Mark Roberts, Mellisa Maguire, Alexandra Bright, Robert W Taylor, Yan Yiannakou, Robert McFarland, Doug M Turnbull, Gráinne S Gorman
OBJECTIVES: The m.3243A>G MTTL1 mutation is the most common cause of mitochondrial disease; yet there is limited awareness of intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO) in this disorder. We aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and clinical outcome of patients with m.3243A>G-related mitochondrial disease manifesting with IPO. METHODS: In this large, observational cohort study, we assessed the clinical, molecular, and radiological characteristics of patients with genetically determined m...
July 25, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Geoffrey K Isbister, Karyn Ang, Kieron Gorman, Joyce Cooper, Ahmed Mostafa, Michael S Roberts
OBJECTIVE: Acute beta-blocker overdose can cause severe cardiac dysfunction. Chronic toxicity is rare but potentially severe. We report therapeutic dosing of metoprolol resulting in unusual pharmacokinetics and toxicity, given high-dose insulin therapy for treatment. CASE DETAILS: A 90-year-old female presented with hypotension, tachycardia and severe cardiac dysfunction after commencing a rapidly increasing metoprolol dose of 250 mg split daily. She was admitted to intensive care and given high-dose insulin therapy (10 U/kg/h), noradrenaline, adrenaline and dobutamine for severe cardiac dysfunction (cardiac index, 0...
November 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Michael J Ormsbee, Katherine A Gorman, Elizabeth A Miller, Daniel A Baur, Lisa A Eckel, Robert J Contreras, Lynn B Panton, Maria T Spicer
The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Sumit Parikh, Amel Karaa, Amy Goldstein, Yi S Ng, Grainne Gorman, Annette Feigenbaum, John Christodoulou, Richard Haas, Mark Tarnopolsky, Bruce K Cohen, David Dimmock, Tim Feyma, Mary K Koenig, Helen Mundy, David Niyazov, Russell P Saneto, Mark S Wainwright, Courtney Wusthoff, Robert McFarland, Fernando Scaglia
Solid organ transplants are rarely performed in both adult and pediatric patients with primary mitochondrial disease. Poor outcomes have been described in case reports and small case series. It is unclear whether the underlying genetic disease has a significant impact on post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Data were obtained for 35 patients from 17 Mitochondrial Disease Centers across North America, the United Kingdom and Australia. Patient outcomes were noted after liver, kidney or heart transplantation...
July 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Hui Li, Shuyi Wang, Rui Kong, Wenge Ding, Fang-Hua Lee, Zahra Parker, Eunlim Kim, Gerald H Learn, Paul Hahn, Ben Policicchio, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Claire Deleage, Xingpei Hao, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Jason Gorman, Matthew Gardner, Mark G Lewis, Theodora Hatziioannou, Sampa Santra, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea, S Munir Alam, Hua-Xin Liao, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D Tomaras, Michael Farzan, Elena Chertova, Brandon F Keele, Jacob D Estes, Jeffrey D Lifson, Robert W Doms, David C Montefiori, Barton F Haynes, Joseph G Sodroski, Peter D Kwong, Beatrice H Hahn, George M Shaw
Most simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) bearing envelope (Env) glycoproteins from primary HIV-1 strains fail to infect rhesus macaques (RMs). We hypothesized that inefficient Env binding to rhesus CD4 (rhCD4) limits virus entry and replication and could be enhanced by substituting naturally occurring simian immunodeficiency virus Env residues at position 375, which resides at a critical location in the CD4-binding pocket and is under strong positive evolutionary pressure across the broad spectrum of primate lentiviruses...
June 14, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Evan H Campbell Grant, David A W Miller, Benedikt R Schmidt, Michael J Adams, Staci M Amburgey, Thierry Chambert, Sam S Cruickshank, Robert N Fisher, David M Green, Blake R Hossack, Pieter T J Johnson, Maxwell B Joseph, Tracy A G Rittenhouse, Maureen E Ryan, J Hardin Waddle, Susan C Walls, Larissa L Bailey, Gary M Fellers, Thomas A Gorman, Andrew M Ray, David S Pilliod, Steven J Price, Daniel Saenz, Walt Sadinski, Erin Muths
Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a "smoking gun" was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ankush Aggarwal, Alison M Pouch, Eric Lai, John Lesicko, Paul A Yushkevich, Joseph H Gorman Iii, Robert C Gorman, Michael S Sacks
Residual and physiological functional strains in soft tissues are known to play an important role in modulating organ stress distributions. Yet, no known comprehensive information on residual strains exist, or non-invasive techniques to quantify in-vivo deformations for the aortic valve (AV) leaflets. Herein we present a completely non-invasive approach for determining heterogeneous strains - both functional and residual - in semilunar valves and apply it to normal human AV leaflets. Transesophageal 3D echocardiographic (3DE) images of the AV were acquired from open-heart transplant patients, with each AV leaflet excised after heart explant and then imaged in a flattened configuration ex-vivo...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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