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Muscle building

Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2011-2013...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Qunfeng Cheng, Jingsong Peng
Nacre-inspired nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties have achieved remarkable success in the past decades. The high performance of nacre-inspired nanocomposites lays down the basis for the further application of smart devices. Recently, some smart nanocomposites inspired by nacre have demonstrated well mechanical properties as well as effective and stable stimuli-responsive functions. In this concept, we summarize the recent development of smart nacre-inspired nanocomposites including 1D fibers, 2D films and 3D bulk nanocomposites in response to temperature, moisture, light, strain, etc...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Stephanie Häfner, Finn Burg, Martina Kannler, Nicole Urban, Peter Mayer, Alexander Dietrich, Dirk Trauner, Johannes Broichhagen, Michael Schaefer
Natural products have many health benefits and their application can improve the quality of life. Recently, the diterpene (+) larixol and its acetylated congeners demonstrated a selective inhibition of the second messenger-gated cation channel transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) over its close isoforms TRPC3 and TRPC7. Building on this knowledge, we expand these findings by chemical diversification of (+)-larixol mostly at position C6. Implementing High-Throughput Ca2+ FLIPR screening assays and electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings, we showcase larixyl N-methylcarbamate, dubbed SH045, as a compound with nanomolar affinity and a 13-fold subtype selectivity over TRPC3 in stably expressing HEK293 cells...
March 9, 2018: ChemMedChem
Mamunur Rashid, Jorma Heikkonen, Arun D Singh, Tero T Kivelä
PURPOSE: To build multivariate models to assess correctly and efficiently the contribution of tumor characteristics on the rate of regression of choroidal melanomas after brachytherapy in a way that adjusts for confounding and takes into account variation in tumor regression patterns. DESIGN: Modeling of longitudinal observational data. PARTICIPANTS: Ultrasound images from 330 of 388 consecutive choroidal melanomas (87%) irradiated from 2000 through 2008 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, a national referral center...
February 27, 2018: Ophthalmology
Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Alan Albert Aragon
Controversy exists about the maximum amount of protein that can be utilized for lean tissue-building purposes in a single meal for those involved in regimented resistance training. It has been proposed that muscle protein synthesis is maximized in young adults with an intake of ~ 20-25 g of a high-quality protein; anything above this amount is believed to be oxidized for energy or transaminated to form urea and other organic acids. However, these findings are specific to the provision of fast-digesting proteins without the addition of other macronutrients...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Maria Blanco, Denise Fernandes, Juliane Rizzi, David Huertas, Nuno Caiola, Pilar Fernández, Cinta Porte
The lower course of the Ebro River is polluted with high concentrations of organochlorine compounds dumped by a chloro-alkali plant during the last century. A remediation plan, including building of a protective wall, removal and disposal of polluted sediments started in 2012. With the aim of assessing the effects of dredging of contaminated sediments and potential alterations of water quality, areas located upstream (RR) and downstream (BE, A) the chemical plant (FL) were monitored prior (October 2012) and during dredging (June 2013) using roach (Rutilus rutilus) as sentinel organisms...
February 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rolando Vegliante, Luca Di Leo, Fabio Ciccarone, Maria Rosa Ciriolo
Among metabolic rearrangements occurring in cancer cells, lipid metabolism alteration has become a hallmark, aimed at sustaining accelerated proliferation. In particular, fatty acids (FAs) are dramatically required by cancer cells as signalling molecules and membrane building blocks, beyond bioenergetics. Along with de novo biosynthesis, free FAs derive from dietary sources or from intracellular lipid droplets, which represent the storage of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme of lipolysis, catalysing the first step of intracellular TAGs hydrolysis in several tissues...
February 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Linda Rhodes, Bill Zollers, Jessica A Wofford, Ernst Heinen
Ghrelin is a hormone, secreted from cells in the stomach, which is important in the regulation of appetite and food intake in mammals. It exerts its action by binding to a specific G-protein-coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) which is found in areas of the brain associated with the regulation of food intake. Ghrelin causes a release of growth hormone (GH) through binding to GHS-R1a in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. A class of compounds known as growth hormone secretagogues, or ghrelin receptor agonists, were developed for therapeutic use in humans for the stimulation of GH in the frail elderly, and have subsequently been studied for their effects on increasing appetite and food intake, increasing body weight, building lean muscle mass, and treating cachexia...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Klaus R Scherer, Marcello Mortillaro, Irene Rotondi, Ilaria Sergi, Stéphanie Trznadel
Although research on facial emotion recognition abounds, there has been little attention on the nature of the underlying mechanisms. In this article, using a "reverse engineering" approach, we suggest that emotion inference from facial expression mirrors the expression process. As a strong case can be made for an appraisal theory account of emotional expression, which holds that appraisal results directly determine the nature of facial muscle actions, we claim that observers first detect specific appraisals from different facial muscle actions and then use implicit inference rules to categorize and name specific emotions...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Meena K Yadav, K S Yadav
Type II diabetic mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that impairs normal insulin production and glucose transport to the liver and muscles. In the India, about 1-5% population suffer from diabetes or related complication. So there is need to cure this disease. DM chronic auditory complications may include spiral ganglia atrophy, degeneration of the vestibulocochlear nerve myelin sheath, reduction of the number of spiral lamina nerve fibres, and thickening of the capillary walls of the stria vascularis and small arteries...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Marc Vetter, Ordessia Charran, Emre Yilmaz, Bryan Edwards, Mitchel A Muhleman, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas
Winged scapula is caused by paralysis of the serratus anterior or trapezius muscles due to damage to the long thoracic or accessory nerves, resulting in loss of strength and range of motion of the shoulder. Because this nerve damage can happen in a variety of ways, initial diagnosis may be overlooked. This paper discusses the anatomical structures involved in several variations of winged scapula, the pathogenesis of winged scapula, and several historical and contemporary surgical procedures used to treat this condition...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
Xu Zhou, Daijiao Yi, Yanhong Wu, Xinghua Pei, Haiming Yu, Yanhong Chen, Yu Jiang, Wenpu Li
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and loss of lung function. The present study aimed to investigate the diaphragmatic protein expression of myostatin and its correlation with apoptosis in a rat model of CPOD. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and a COPD group, the latter of which were exposed to cigarette smoke to build a rat model of COPD. The validity of the COPD model was evaluated by assessment of lung function and histopathological analysis...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Handan Guler, Perihan Cetin, Zeliha Burcu Yurtsal, Busra Cesur, Mine Bekar, Tuba Uçar, Funda Evcili, Ali Cetin
This study assesses the efficacy of simulation-based episiotomy training (SBET) with beef tongue and sponge models in terms of the self confidence of midwifery students while performing episiotomy. Third-year midwifery students from Cumhuriyet University in the fall semesters of 2011 and 2012 were enrolled in the sponge and beef tongue model groups (n = 36 and n = 37, respectively). A checklist was prepared on the required skills for performing episiotomy which can be broken into three main parts, namely preparation, cutting and repairing and completion...
February 9, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Junhua Wu, Pengfei Li, Chenling Dong, Heting Jiang, Bin Xue, Xiang Gao, Meng Qin, Wei Wang, Bin Chen, Yi Cao
Designing synthetic protein hydrogels with tailored mechanical properties similar to naturally occurring tissues is an eternal pursuit in tissue engineering and stem cell and cancer research. However, it remains challenging to correlate the mechanical properties of protein hydrogels with the nanomechanics of individual building blocks. Here we use single-molecule force spectroscopy, protein engineering and theoretical modeling to prove that the mechanical properties of protein hydrogels are predictable based on the mechanical hierarchy of the cross-linkers and the load-bearing modules at the molecular level...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Philip Möller, Xiaochen Liu, Stefan Schuster, Daniel Boley
Many differentiated cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for generating energy in the form of ATP needed for cellular metabolism. In contrast most tumor cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Warburg found that cancer cells to support oxidative phosphorylation, tend to ferment glucose or other energy source into lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, which is an inefficient way to generate ATP. This effect also occurs in striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes and microglia, endothelial cells and several mammalian cell types, a phenomenon termed the "Warburg effect"...
2018: PloS One
Huike Dong, Guanghua Lu, Zhenhua Yan, Jianchao Liu, Haohan Yang, Matthew Nkoom
As a cycloaliphatic brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been widely used in building thermal insulation and fireproof materials. However, there is little information on the bioconcentration as well as effects with respect to HBCD exposure in the aquatic environment. To investigate the bioconcentration of HBCD in tissues (muscle and liver) and its biochemical and behavioural effects, juvenile crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to different concentrations of technical HBCD (nominal concentrations, 2, 20, 200 μg/L) for 7 days, using a flow-through exposure system...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Fernanda Bajanca, Laurence Vandel
Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDAC) control transcription during myogenesis. HDACs promote chromatin condensation, inhibiting gene transcription in muscle progenitor cells until myoblast differentiation is triggered and HDACs are released. HATs, namely CBP/p300, activate myogenic regulatory and elongation factors promoting myogenesis. HDAC inhibitors are known to improve regeneration in dystrophic muscles through follistatin upregulation. However, the potential of directly modulating HATs remains unexplored...
December 21, 2017: PLoS Currents
Wyndham Kent Anger, Jason Kyler-Yano, Katie Vaughn, Bradley Wipfli, Ryan Olson, Magali Blanco
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 14-week Total Worker Health (TWH) intervention designed for construction crews. METHODS: Supervisors (n = 22) completed computer-based training and self-monitoring activities on team building, work-life balance, and reinforcing targeted behaviors. Supervisors and workers (n = 13) also completed scripted safety and health education in small groups with practice activities. RESULTS: The intervention led to significant (P < 0...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Elisabeth Charrier, Lorraine Montel, Atef Asnacios, Florence Delort, Patrick Vicart, François Gallet, Sabrina Batonnet-Pichon, Sylvie Hénon
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The mechanical properties of cells are essential to maintain their proper functions, and mainly rely on their cytoskeleton. A lot of attention has been paid to actin filaments, demonstrating their central role in the cells mechanical properties, but much less is known about the participation of intermediate filament networks. Indeed the contribution of IFs, such as vimentin, keratins, and lamins, to cell mechanics has only been assessed recently. We study here the involvement of desmin, an intermediate filament specifically expressed in muscle cells, in the rheology of immature muscle cells...
February 1, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Utku Şükrü Yavuz, Francesco Negro, Robin Diedrichs, Dario Farina
Motor neurons innervating antagonist muscles receive reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs in order to facilitate the joint movement in the two directions. The present study investigates the mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs between the tibialis anterior (TA) and triceps surae (soleus and medial gastrocnemius) motor units. We assessed this mutual mechanism in large populations of motor units for building a statistical distribution of the inhibition amplitudes during standardized input to the motor neuron pools in order to minimize the effect of modulatory pathways...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
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