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Horizontal DNA transfer

Suneeta Chimalapati, Marcela de Souza Santos, Kelly Servage, Nicole J De Nisco, Ankur B Dalia, Kim Orth
The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen and the leading cause of seafood borne acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, this bacterium was implicated as the etiologic agent of a severe shrimp disease with consequent devastating outcomes to shrimp farming. In both cases, acquisition of genetic material via horizontal transfer provided V. parahaemolyticus with new virulence tools to cause disease. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis often requires manipulating its genome...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Jacqueline Ferralli, Richard P Tucker, Ruth Chiquet-Ehrismann
Teneurins are type 2 transmembrane proteins expressed by developing neurons during periods of synaptogenesis and apoptosis. Neurons expressing teneurin-1 synapse with other teneurin-1-expressing neurons, and neurons expressing teneurin-2 synapse with other teneurin-2-expressing neurons. Knockdowns and mutations of teneurins lead to abnormal neuronal connections, but the mechanisms underlying teneurin action remain unknown. Teneurins appear to have evolved via horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotic proteins involved in bacterial self-recognition...
March 19, 2018: Biology Open
G Schiavo, M G Strillacci, A Ribani, S Bovo, S I Roman-Ponce, S Cerolini, F Bertolini, A Bagnato, L Fontanesi
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) insertions have been detected in the nuclear genome of many eukaryotes. These sequences are pseudogenes originated by horizontal transfer of mtDNA fragments into the nuclear genome, producing nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin (numt). In this study we determined the frequency and distribution of mtDNA-originated pseudogenes in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) nuclear genome. The turkey reference genome (Turkey_2.01) was aligned with the reference linearized mtDNA sequence using last...
March 9, 2018: Animal Genetics
Guillaume Méric, Leonardos Mageiros, Ben Pascoe, Dan J Woodcock, Evangelos Mourkas, Sarah Lamble, Rory Bowden, Keith A Jolley, Ben Raymond, Samuel K Sheppard
Bacterial plasmids can vary from small selfish genetic elements to large autonomous replicons that constitute a significant proportion of total cellular DNA. By conferring novel function to the cell, plasmids may facilitate evolution but their mobility may be opposed by co-evolutionary relationships with chromosomes or encouraged via the infectious sharing of genes encoding public goods. Here, we explore these hypotheses through large-scale examination of the association between plasmids and genomes in the phenotypically diverse Bacillus cereus group...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Marisa F Nicolás, Pablo Ivan Pereira Ramos, Fabíola Marques de Carvalho, Dhian R A Camargo, Carlene de Fátima Morais Alves, Guilherme Loss de Morais, Luiz G P Almeida, Rangel C Souza, Luciane P Ciapina, Ana C P Vicente, Roney S Coimbra, Ana T Ribeiro de Vasconcelos
The aim of this study was to unravel the genetic determinants responsible for multidrug (including carbapenems) resistance and virulence in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae by whole-genome sequencing and comparative analyses. Eighty-three clinical isolates initially identified as carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were collected from nosocomial infections in southeast Brazil. After RAPD screening, the KPC-142 isolate, showing the most divergent DNA pattern, was selected for complete genome sequencing in an Illumina HiSeq 2500 instrument...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Benoît Lacroix, Vitaly Citovsky
Besides the massive gene transfer from organelles to the nuclear genomes, which occurred during the early evolution of eukaryote lineages, the importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotes remains controversial. Yet, increasing amounts of genomic data reveal many cases of bacterium-to-eukaryote HGT that likely represent a significant force in adaptive evolution of eukaryotic species. However, DNA transfer involved in genetic transformation of plants by Agrobacterium species has traditionally been considered as the unique example of natural DNA transfer and integration into eukaryotic genomes...
March 3, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Noelia Martínez, Roberto Luque, Christian Milani, Marco Ventura, Oscar Bañuelos, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are mutualistic intestinal bacteria and their presence in the human gut has been associated with health-promoting activities. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in this genus is controversial, since, although bifidobacteria are non-pathogenic microorganisms, they could serve as reservoirs of resistance for intestinal pathogens. However, until now, few antibiotic resistance determinants have been functionally characterized in this genus. In this work, we show that Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 displays atypical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Robert F Potter, Meghan A Wallace, Allison R McMullen, Jerome Prusa, Christina L Stallings, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Gautam Dantas
OBJECTIVES: A carbapenem resistant Providencia rettgeri (PR1) isolate was recovered from a wound infection in Missouri, USA. This isolate possessed an EDTA inhibitable carbapenemase that was unidentified using the Xpert CARBA-R assay. Our objective was to elucidate the molecular determinant of carbapenem resistance in this isolate. We then sought to test the transmissibility of blaIMP-27 loci in clinical P. rettgeri and Proteus mirabilis isolates. METHODS: In October 2016 the novel ambler Class B carbapenemase blaIMP-27 , was reported in two different Proteus mirablis (PM185 and PM187) isolates...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Nicolás Tomasini
Introduction: Phylogenetic relationships between different lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, have been controversial for several years. However, recent phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses clarified the nuclear relationships among such lineages. However, incongruence between nuclear and kinetoplast DNA phylogenies has emerged as a new challenge. This incongruence implies several events of mitochondrial introgression at evolutionary level. However, the mechanism that gave origin to introgressed lineages is unknown...
February 2018: Current Genomics
Ashok Kumar, Satyabrata Bag, Bhabatosh Das
BACKGROUND: Genomic islands (GIs) are discrete segments of mobile DNA with defined boundaries, acquired in the bacterial genome from another organism by horizontal gene transfer during the course of evolution. GIs contribute significantly in virulence, disease development, antimicrobial resistance and metabolic process. OBJECTIVE: The present study focuses on the development of a vector based genetic tool carrying selectable and counter-selectable markers, in order to flag the GIs in the bacterial chromosome and monitor their stability in laboratory growth conditions...
February 22, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Irene Di Lecce, Chiara Bazzocchi, Jacopo G Cecere, Sara Epis, Davide Sassera, Barbara M Villani, Gaia Bazzi, Agata Negri, Nicola Saino, Fernando Spina, Claudio Bandi, Diego Rubolini
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of vertebrates and frequently parasitize avian species that can carry them across continents during their long-distance migrations. Ticks may have detrimental effects on the health state of their avian hosts, which can be either directly caused by blood-draining or mediated by microbial pathogens transmitted during the blood meal. Indeed, ticks host complex microbial communities, including bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Midichloria bacteria (Rickettsiales) are widespread tick endosymbionts that can be transmitted to vertebrate hosts during the tick bite, inducing an antibody response...
February 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Shuxian Wen, Donghua Feng, Zerong Lu, Junyan Liu, Brian M Peters, Hailing Tang, Danhong Su, Yong-Ping Lin, Ling Yang, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff, Dingqiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have become an important cause of nosocomial infections of hospitalized patients. METHODS: To investigate the microbial infection patterns and molecular epidemiology characteristics of the carbapenem-resistant GNB isolates from a long-term hospitalized patient, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phenotypic screening test for carbapenemase production, PCR screening and DNA sequencing of carbapenemase genes, repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR), multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and genetic environment analysis were performed...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Heyu Lin, Min Yu, Xiaolei Wang, Xiao-Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Vibrios are among the most diverse and ecologically important marine bacteria, which have evolved many characteristics and lifestyles to occupy various niches. The relationship between genome features and environmental adaptation strategies is an essential part for understanding the ecological functions of vibrios in the marine system. The advent of complete genome sequencing technology has provided an important method of examining the genetic characteristics of vibrios on the genomic level...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Xuelin Wang, Feng Cheng, Dekai Rohlsen, Changwei Bi, Chunyan Wang, Yiqing Xu, Suyun Wei, Qiaolin Ye, Tongming Yin, Ning Ye
Although organellar genomes (including chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes) are smaller than nuclear genomes in size and gene number, organellar genomes are very important for the investigation of plant evolution and molecular ecology mechanisms. Few studies have focused on the organellar genomes of horticultural plants. Approximately 1193 chloroplast genomes and 199 mitochondrial genomes of land plants are available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), of which only 39 are from horticultural plants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Gabriel Luz Wallau, Cristina Vieira, Élgion Lúcio Silva Loreto
Background: All living species contain genetic information that was once shared by their common ancestor. DNA is being inherited through generations by vertical transmission (VT) from parents to offspring and from ancestor to descendant species. This process was considered the sole pathway by which biological entities exchange inheritable information. However, Horizontal Transfer (HT), the exchange of genetic information by other means than parents to offspring, was discovered in prokaryotes along with strong evidence showing that it is a very important process by which prokaryotes acquire new genes...
2018: Mobile DNA
Cathleen M Green, Olga Novikova, Marlene Belfort
Background: Inteins are mobile, self-splicing sequences that interrupt proteins and occur across all three domains of life. Scrutiny of the intein landscape in prokaryotes led to the hypothesis that some inteins are functionally important. Our focus shifts to eukaryotic inteins to assess their diversity, distribution, and dissemination, with the aim to comprehensively evaluate the eukaryotic intein landscape, understand intein maintenance, and dissect evolutionary relationships. Results: This bioinformatics study reveals that eukaryotic inteins are scarce, but present in nuclear genomes of fungi, chloroplast genomes of algae, and within some eukaryotic viruses...
2018: Mobile DNA
Ke Chen, François Dorlhac de Borne, Nicolas Sierro, Nikolai V Ivanov, Malek Alouia, Sandrine Koechler, Léon Otten
Nicotiana otophora contains Agrobacterium-derived T-DNA sequences introduced by horizontal gene transfer (Chen et al., 2014). Sixty-nine contigs were assembled into four different cT-DNAs, totalling 83 kb. TC and TE result from two successive transformation events, each followed by duplication, yielding two TC and two TE inserts. TC is also found in other Nicotiana species, whereas TE is unique for N. otophora. Both cT-DNA regions are partially duplicated inverted repeats. Analysis of the cT-DNA divergence patterns allowed reconstruction of the evolution of the TC and TE regions...
February 3, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Roy N Platt, Michael W Vandewege, David A Ray
Transposable elements (TEs) are genetic elements with the ability to mobilize and replicate themselves in a genome. Mammalian genomes are dominated by TEs, which can reach copy numbers in the hundreds of thousands. As a result, TEs have had significant impacts on mammalian evolution. Here we summarize the current understanding of TE content in mammal genomes and find that, with a few exceptions, most fall within a predictable range of observations. First, one third to one half of the genome is derived from TEs...
February 1, 2018: Chromosome Research
Rohan Maddamsetti, Richard E Lenski
Few experimental studies have examined the role that sexual recombination plays in bacterial evolution, including the effects of horizontal gene transfer on genome structure. To address this limitation, we analyzed genomes from an experiment in which Escherichia coli K-12 Hfr (high frequency recombination) donors were periodically introduced into 12 evolving populations of E. coli B and allowed to conjugate repeatedly over the course of 1000 generations. Previous analyses of the evolved strains from this experiment showed that recombination did not accelerate adaptation, despite increasing genetic variation relative to asexual controls...
January 31, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Jan Zrimec, Aleš Lapanje
Horizontal gene transfer via plasmid conjugation enables antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to spread among bacteria and is a major health concern. The range of potential transfer hosts of a particular conjugative plasmid is characterised by its mobility (MOB) group, which is currently determined based on the amino acid sequence of the plasmid-encoded relaxase. To facilitate prediction of plasmid MOB groups, we have developed a bioinformatic procedure based on analysis of the origin-of-transfer (oriT), a merely 230 bp long non-coding plasmid DNA region that is the enzymatic substrate for the relaxase...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
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