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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646115/genome-analysis-of-endomicrobium-proavitum-suggests-loss-and-gain-of-relevant-functions-during-the-evolution-of-intracellular-symbionts
#1
Hao Zheng, Carsten Dietrich, Andreas Brune
Bacterial endosymbionts of eukaryotes show progressive genome erosion, but detailed investigations of the evolutionary processes involved in the transition to an intracellular lifestyle are generally hampered by the lack of extant free-living lineages. Here, we characterize the genome of the recently isolated, free-living Endomicrobium proavitum, the second member of the Elusimicrobia phylum brought into pure culture, and compare it to the closely related "Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae" strain Rs-D17, a previously described but uncultured endosymbiont of termite gut flagellates...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645177/mobile-genetic-elements-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-movement-for-change
#2
Ana Cehovin, Steven B Lewis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoeae, possesses several mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The MGEs such as transposable elements mediate intra-chromosomal rearrangements, while plasmids and the gonococcal genetic island are involved in inter-chromosomal gene transfer. Additionally, gonococcal MGEs serve as hotspots for recombination and integration of other genetic elements such as bacteriophages, contribute to gene regulation or spread genes through gonococcal populations by horizontal gene transfer...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644126/extensive-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-cheese-associated-bacteria
#3
Kevin S Bonham, Benjamin E Wolfe, Rachel J Dutton
Acquisition of genes through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) allows microbes to rapidly gain new capabilities and adapt to new or changing environments. Identifying widespread HGT regions within multispecies microbiomes can pinpoint the molecular mechanisms that play key roles in microbiome assembly. We sought to identify horizontally transferred genes within a model microbiome, the cheese rind. Comparing 31 newly-sequenced and 134 previously sequenced bacterial isolates from cheese rinds, we identified over 200 putative horizontally transferred genomic regions containing 4,844 protein coding genes...
June 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644125/exploiting-crispr-cas-to-manipulate-enterococcus-faecalis-populations
#4
Karthik Hullahalli, Marinelle Rodrigues, Kelli L Palmer
CRISPR-Cas provides a barrier to horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes. It was previously observed that functional CRISPR-Cas systems are absent from multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterococcus faecalis, which only possess an orphan CRISPR locus, termed CRISPR2, lacking cas genes. It was of interest to investigate how the interplay between CRISPR-Cas genome defense and antibiotic selection for mobile genetic elements shapes E. faecalis populations. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR2 can be reactivated for genome defense in MDR strains...
June 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642992/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-pmqr-genes-and-class-1-integrons-in-quinolone-resistant-marine-bacteria-and-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-from-an-aquacultural-area
#5
Alexandra Tomova, Larisa Ivanova, Alejandro H Buschmann, Henry P Godfrey, Felipe C Cabello
Antimicrobial usage in aquaculture selects for antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in the marine environment. The relevance of this selection to terrestrial animal and human health is unclear. Quinolone-resistance genes qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS were chromosomally located in four randomly chosen quinolone-resistant marine bacteria isolated from an aquacultural area with heavy quinolone usage. In quinolone-resistant uropathogenic clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from a coastal area bordering the same aquacultural region, qnrA was chromosomally located in two E...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638805/increased-zinc-availability-enhances-initial-aggregation-and-biofilm-formation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#6
Lindsey R Brown, Rachel C Caulkins, Tyler E Schartel, Jason W Rosch, Erin S Honsa, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Sean Cherry, Justin A Thornton
Bacteria growing within biofilms are protected from antibiotics and the immune system. Within these structures, horizontal transfer of genes encoding virulence factors, and promoting antibiotic resistance occurs, making biofilms an extremely important aspect of pneumococcal colonization and persistence. Identifying environmental cues that contribute to the formation of biofilms is critical to understanding pneumococcal colonization and infection. Iron has been shown to be essential for the formation of pneumococcal biofilms; however, the role of other physiologically important metals such as copper, zinc, and manganese has been largely neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636666/molecular-and-microbiological-report-of-a-hospital-outbreak-of-ndm-1-carrying-enterobacteriaceae-in-mexico
#7
Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Elvira Garza-González, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Humberto Barrios, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Santiago Petersen-Morfin, Jesus Silva-Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiological, molecular and epidemiological data of an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico. METHODS: From September 2014 to July 2015, all CRE clinical isolates recovered during an outbreak in the Hospital Civil "Fray Antonio Alcalde" in Jalisco, Mexico were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, carbapenemase production, carbapenemase-encoding genes, and plasmid profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630398/hcf-1-encoded-by-baculovirus-acmnpv-is-required-for-productive-nucleopolyhedrovirus-infection-of-non-permissive-tn368-cells
#8
Ami Tachibana, Rina Hamajima, Moe Tomizaki, Takuya Kondo, Yoshie Nanba, Michihiro Kobayashi, Hayato Yamada, Motoko Ikeda
Baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) replicates in both Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 and Trichoplusia ni Tn368 cells, whereas AcMNPV defective in hcf-1 (host cell-factor 1) gene productively infects only Sf21 cells, indicating that HCF-1 is indispensable for the AcMNPV productive infection of Tn368 cells. Here, we demonstrated that HCF-1 protein transiently expressed in Tn368 cells promotes the DNA synthesis of Hyphantria cunea MNPV (HycuMNPV), Orygia pseudotsugata MNPV and Bombyx mori NPV, which are normally unable to replicate in Tn368 cells...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627648/characterization-of-a-blandm%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-harboring-plasmid-from-a-salmonella%C3%A2-enterica-clinical-isolate-in-china
#9
Jinwei Huang, Shanshan Deng, Jianmin Ren, Jianfei Tu, Meiping Ye, Minggui Wang
The plasmid-mediated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes has been reported to be involved in the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and poses a serious threat for the success of bacterial infection treatment and human health worldwide. The present study used a 454 GS‑FLX pyrosequencing system to determine the ~140 kb nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS36‑NDM, which was identified in a Salmonella Stanley isolate from the stool sample of an 11‑month‑old girl at Lishui Central Hospital, China, and which contains a New Delhi metallo‑β‑lactamase‑1 (NDM‑1) carbapenem resistance gene (blaNDM‑1)...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622673/exact-algorithms-for-duplication-transfer-loss-reconciliation-with-non-binary-gene-trees
#10
Misagh Kordi, Mukul S Bansal
Duplication-Transfer-Loss (DTL) reconciliation is a powerful method for studying gene family evolution in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. DTL reconciliation seeks to reconcile gene trees with species trees by postulating speciation, duplication, transfer, and loss events. Efficient algorithms exist for finding optimal DTL reconciliations when the gene tree is binary. In practice, however, gene trees are often non-binary due to uncertainty in the gene tree topologies, and DTL reconciliation with non-binary gene trees is known to be NP-hard...
June 1, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621762/the-landscape-of-the-emergence-of-life
#11
Sohan Jheeta
This paper reports on the various nuances of the origins of life on Earth and highlights the latest findings in that arena as reported at the Network of Researchers on Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (NoR HGT and LUCA) which was held from the 3-4th November 2016 at the Open University, UK. Although the answers to the question of the origin of life on Earth will not be fathomable anytime soon, a wide variety of subject matter was able to be covered, ranging from examining what constitutes a LUCA, looking at viral connections and "from RNA to DNA", i...
June 16, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620358/the-transcriptional-regulators-of-the-crp-family-regulate-different-essential-bacterial-functions-and-can-be-inherited-vertically-and-horizontally
#12
REVIEW
Gloria Soberón-Chávez, Luis D Alcaraz, Estefanía Morales, Gabriel Y Ponce-Soto, Luis Servín-González
One of the best-studied transcriptional regulatory proteins in bacteria is the Escherichia coli catabolite repressor protein (CRP) that when complexed with 3'-5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) changes its conformation and interacts with specific DNA-sequences. CRP DNA-binding can result in positive or negative regulation of gene expression depending on the position of its interaction with respect to RNA polymerase binding site. The aim of this work is to review the biological role and phylogenetic relations that some members of the CRP family of transcriptional regulators (also known as cAMP receptor protein family) have in different bacterial species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613863/structural-characterization-of-a-eukaryotic-cyanase-from-tetranychus-urticae
#13
Caleb R Schlachter, Vincent Klapper, Nicky Wybouw, Taylor Radford, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Miodrag Grbic, Maksymilian Chruszcz
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a polyphagous agricultural pest and poses a high risk to global crop production as it is rapidly developing pesticide resistance. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis has revealed the presence of a remarkable cyanase gene in T. urticae and related mite species within the Acariformes lineage. Cyanase catalyzes the detoxification of cyanate and is potentially an attractive protein target for the development of new acaricides. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that within the Acariformes, the cyanase gene originates from a single horizontal gene transfer event, preceding subsequent speciation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611956/comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-shiga-toxin-producing-shigella-sonnei-stss-strain
#14
Domonkos Sváb, Balázs Bálint, Bálint Vásárhelyi, Gergely Maróti, István Tóth
Shigella strains are important agents of bacillary dysentery, and in recent years Shigella sonnei has emerged as the leading cause of shigellosis in industrialized and rapidly developing countries. More recently, several S. sonnei and Shigella flexneri strains producing Shiga toxin (Stx) have been reported from sporadic cases and from an outbreak in America. In the present study we aimed to shed light on the evolution of a recently identified Shiga toxin producing S. sonnei (STSS) isolated in Europe. Here we report the first completely assembled whole genome sequence of a multidrug resistant (MDR) Stx-producing S...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611742/analysis-of-the-genome-and-mobilome-of-a-dissimilatory-arsenate-reducing-aeromonas-sp-o23a-reveals-multiple-mechanisms-for-heavy-metal-resistance-and-metabolism
#15
Witold Uhrynowski, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Lukasz Dziewit, Monika Radlinska, Pawel S Krawczyk, Leszek Lipinski, Dorota Adamska, Lukasz Drewniak
Aeromonas spp. are among the most ubiquitous microorganisms, as they have been isolated from different environmental niches including waters, soil, as well as wounds and digestive tracts of poikilothermic animals and humans. Although much attention has been paid to the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, the role of these bacteria in environmentally important processes, such as transformation of heavy metals, remains to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was a detailed genomic characterization of Aeromonas sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600959/beyond-the-canonical-strategies-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-prokaryotes
#16
REVIEW
Cristina García-Aljaro, Elisenda Ballesté, Maite Muniesa
Efforts to identify and characterize strategies for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in prokaryotes could have overlooked some mechanisms that do not entirely fit in with the canonical ones most often described (conjugation of plasmids, phage transduction and transformation). The difficulty in distinguishing the different HGT strategies could have contributed to underestimate their real extent. Here we review non classical HGT strategies: some that require mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and others independent of MGE...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596991/long-persistence-of-a-streptococcus-pneumoniae-23f-clone-in-a-cystic-fibrosis-patient
#17
Martin Rieger, Harald Mauch, Regine Hakenbeck
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates of serotype 23F with intermediate penicillin resistance were recovered on seven occasions over a period of 37 months from a cystic fibrosis patient in Berlin. All isolates expressed the same multilocus sequence type (ST), ST10523. The genome sequences of the first and last isolates, D122 and D141, revealed the absence of two phage-related gene clusters compared to the genome of another ST10523 strain, D219, isolated earlier at a different place in Germany. Genomes of all three strains carried the same novel mosaic penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes, pbp2x, pbp2b, and pbp1a; these genes were distinct from those of other penicillin-resistant S...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596758/a-functional-metagenomic-analysis-of-tetracycline-resistance-in-cheese-bacteria
#18
Ana B Flórez, Lucía Vázquez, Baltasar Mayo
Metagenomic techniques have been successfully used to monitor antibiotic resistance genes in environmental, animal and human ecosystems. However, despite the claim that the food chain plays a key role in the spread of antibiotic resistance, metagenomic analysis has scarcely been used to investigate food systems. The present work reports a functional metagenomic analysis of the prevalence and evolution of tetracycline resistance determinants in a raw-milk, blue-veined cheese during manufacturing and ripening...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592722/release-and-constancy-of-an-antibiotic-resistance-gene-in-seawater-under-grazing-stress-by-ciliates-and-heterotrophic-nanoflagellates
#19
Thi Lan Thanh Bien, Ngo Vy Thao, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Yumiko Obayashi, Satoru Suzuki
Extracellular DNA (exDNA) is released from bacterial cells through various processes. The antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) coded on exDNA may be horizontally transferred among bacterial communities by natural transformation. We quantitated the released/leaked tetracycline resistance gene, tet(M) over time under grazing stress by ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNFs), and found that extracellular tet(M) (ex-tetM) increased with bacterial grazing. Separate microcosms containing tet(M)-possessing bacteria with ciliates or HNFs were prepared...
June 8, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591314/complete-plasmid-sequence-carrying-type-iv-like-and-type-vii-secretion-systems-from-an-atypical-mycobacteria-strain
#20
Sergio Mascarenhas Morgado, Michel Abanto Marín, Fernanda S Freitas, Erica Lourenço Fonseca, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente
The genus Mycobacterium is highly diverse and ubiquitous in nature, comprehending fast- and slow-growing species with distinct impact in public health. The plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer represents one of the major events in bacteria evolution. Here, we report the complete sequence of a 160,489 bp circular plasmid (pCBMA213_2) from an atypical and fast-growing environmental mycobacteria. This is a unique plasmid, in comparison with the characterised mycobacteria plasmids, harboring a type IV-like and ESX-P2 type VII secretion systems...
July 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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