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horizontal gene transfers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334919/antibiotics-trigger-initiation-of-sccmec-transfer-by-inducing-sos-responses
#1
Pilong Liu, Zhaowei Wu, Huping Xue, Xin Zhao
The rise of antimicrobial resistance limits therapeutic options for infections by methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element as the only carrier of the methicillin-resistance determinants, the mecA or mecC gene. The use of antibiotics increases the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanism by which antibiotics promote horizontal dissemination of SCCmec is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that many antibiotics, including β-lactams, can induce the expression of ccrC1 and SCCmec excision from the bacterial chromosome...
March 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334155/genetic-diversity-of-symbiotic-paraburkholderia-species-isolated-from-nodules-of-mimosa-pudica-l-and-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-grown-in-soils-of-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest-mata-atl%C3%A3-ntica
#2
Rebeca Fuzinatto Dall Agnol, Caroline Bournaud, Sérgio Miana de Faria, Gilles Béna, Lionel Moulin, Mariangela Hungria
Some species of the genus Paraburkholderia that are able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes are called β-rhizobia and represent a group of ecological and biotechnological importance. We used Mimosa pudica and Phaseolus vulgaris to trap 427 rhizobial isolates from rhizospheric soil of Mimoseae trees in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Eighty-four representative strains were selected according to the 16S rRNA haplotypes and taxonomically characterized using a concatenated 16S rRNA-recA phylogeny...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333270/environmental-and-genetic-modulation-of-the-phenotypic-expression-of-antibiotic-resistance
#3
Diarmaid Hughes, Dan I Andersson
Antibiotic resistance can be acquired by mutation or horizontal transfer of a resistance gene, and generally an acquired mechanism results in a predictable increase in phenotypic resistance. However, recent findings suggest that the environment and/or the genetic context can modify the phenotypic expression of specific resistance genes/mutations. An important implication from these findings is that a given genotype does not always result in the expected phenotype. This dissociation of genotype and phenotype has important consequences for clinical bacteriology and for our ability to predict resistance phenotypes from genetics and DNA sequences...
March 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333234/horizontal-transfer-of-the-blandm-1-gene-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-biofilms
#4
Windy D Tanner, Robyn M Atkinson, Ramesh K Goel, Mark A Toleman, Lowell Scott Benson, Christina A Porucznik, James A VanDerslice
Horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the global spread of the blaNDM-1 gene. Multiple studies have demonstrated plasmid transfer of blaNDM-1 between Gram-negative bacteria, primarily Enterobacteriaceae species, but conjugational transfer of natural blaNDM-1 plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae into Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii has not previously been shown. As P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii are both typically strong biofilm-formers, transfer of natural blaNDM-1 plasmids could potentially occur more readily in this environment...
February 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333184/analysis-of-blashv-12-carrying-escherichia-coli-clones-and-plasmids-from-human-animal-and-food-sources
#5
Carla Andrea Alonso, Geovana Brenner Michael, Jun Li, Sergio Somalo, Carmen Simón, Yang Wang, Heike Kaspar, Kristina Kadlec, Carmen Torres, Stefan Schwarz
Objectives: This study aimed at characterizing 23 Escherichia coli isolates from various sources and their respective bla SHV-12 -carrying plasmids and sequencing one of these plasmids completely. Methods: Isolates were typed by XbaI-PFGE, MLST and PCR-based phylotyping. Transformed bla SHV-12 -carrying plasmids were examined by replicon typing, S1-nuclease, conjugation, EcoRI-HindIII-BamHI digests and plasmid MLST. Co-located resistance genes and integrons as well as the bla SHV-12 genetic environment were analysed by PCR and sequencing...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328284/non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-vaccination-as-a-measure-to-interfere-with-horizontal-gene-transfer
#6
J D Langereis, M I de Jonge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327641/sequential-displacement-of-type-vi-secretion-system-effector-genes-leads-to-evolution-of-diverse-immunity-gene-arrays-in-vibrio-cholerae
#7
Paul C Kirchberger, Daniel Unterweger, Daniele Provenzano, Stefan Pukatzki, Yan Boucher
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) enable bacteria to engage neighboring cells in contact-dependent competition. In Vibrio cholerae, three chromosomal clusters each encode a pair of effector and immunity genes downstream of those encoding the T6SS structural machinery for effector delivery. Different combinations of effector-immunity proteins lead to competition between strains of V. cholerae, which are thought to be protected only from the toxicity of their own effectors. Screening of all publically available V...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327522/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-shewanella-phage-host-system-from-the-gut-of-the-tunicate-ciona-intestinalis
#8
Brittany Leigh, Charlotte Karrer, John P Cannon, Mya Breitbart, Larry J Dishaw
Outnumbering all other biological entities on earth, bacteriophages (phages) play critical roles in structuring microbial communities through bacterial infection and subsequent lysis, as well as through horizontal gene transfer. While numerous studies have examined the effects of phages on free-living bacterial cells, much less is known regarding the role of phage infection in host-associated biofilms, which help to stabilize adherent microbial communities. Here we report the cultivation and characterization of a novel strain of Shewanella fidelis from the gut of the marine tunicate Ciona intestinalis, inducible prophages from the S...
March 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324738/protist-evolution-stealing-genes-to-gut-it-out
#9
David Moreira, Purificación López-García
The amount and evolutionary impact of horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotes remain contentious issues. A new phylogenomic study suggests that gene transfer from prokaryotes has contributed significantly to the adaptation and metabolic evolution of Blastocystis, the most widespread human gut eukaryotic parasite.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323299/cyanobacterial-nitrogenases-phylogenetic-diversity-regulation-and-functional-predictions
#10
Alberto A Esteves-Ferreira, João Henrique Frota Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira Vaz, Luna V Alvarenga, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Wagner L Araújo
Cyanobacteria is a remarkable group of prokaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms, with several genera capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) and presenting a wide range of morphologies. Although the nitrogenase complex is not present in all cyanobacterial taxa, it is spread across several cyanobacterial strains. The nitrogenase complex has also a high theoretical potential for biofuel production, since H2 is a by-product produced during N2 fixation. In this review we discuss the significance of a relatively wide variety of cell morphologies and metabolic strategies that allow spatial and temporal separation of N2 fixation from photosynthesis in cyanobacteria...
March 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321006/genetic-characterization-of-soybean-rhizobia-isolated-from-different-ecological-zones-in-north-eastern-afghanistan
#11
Safiullah Habibi, Abdul Ghani Ayubi, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu, Hitoshi Sekimoto, Tadashi Yokoyama
Seventy rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars: Japanese cultivar Enrei and USA cultivar Stine3300, which were inoculated with different soil samples from Afghanistan. In order to study the genetic properties of the isolates, the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes (nodD1 and nifD) were elucidated. Furthermore, the isolates were inoculated into the roots of two soybean cultivars, and root nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation abilities were subsequently evaluated in order to assess symbiotic performance...
March 17, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318579/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-characterization-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-bovine-mastitic-milk-in-south-korea-from-2012-to-2015
#12
Dong-Seob Tark, Dong Chan Moon, Hee Young Kang, Su-Ran Kim, Hyang-Mi Nam, Hee-Soo Lee, Suk-Chan Jung, Suk-Kyung Lim
In this study, we aimed to assess trends in antimicrobial resistance and to investigate the characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates from bovine mastitic milk from 2012 to 2015. A total of 374 Escherichia coli isolates were analyzed (154 in 2012, 113 in 2013, 76 in 2014, and 31 in 2015). No consistent trends in antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates occurred during the 4-yr period. The most frequently observed resistance was tetracycline (23.3%), followed by streptomycin (17...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316142/evolutionary-ecology-of-beta-lactam-gene-clusters-in-animals
#13
Wouter Suring, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Blanke, Janine Mariën, Tim Schol, Valeria Agamennone, Anna Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Matty P Berg, Bram Brouwer, Nico M van Straalen, Dick Roelofs
Beta-lactam biosynthesis was thought to occur only in fungi and bacteria, but we recently reported the presence of isopenicillin N synthase in a soil-dwelling animal, Folsomia candida. However, it has remained unclear whether this gene is part of a larger beta-lactam biosynthesis pathway and how widespread the occurrence of penicillin biosynthesis is among animals. Here, we analyzed the distribution of beta-lactam biosynthesis genes throughout the animal kingdom and identified a beta-lactam gene cluster in the genome of F...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314902/potential-factors-enabling-human-body-colonization-by-animal-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subsp-equisimilis-strains
#14
Marcin Ciszewski, Eligia M Szewczyk
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a pyogenic, Lancefield C or G streptococcal pathogen. Until recently, it has been considered as an exclusive animal pathogen. Nowadays, it is responsible for both animal infections in wild animals, pets, and livestock and human infections often clinically similar to the ones caused by group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). The risk of zoonotic infection is the most significant in people having regular contact with animals, such as veterinarians, cattlemen, and farmers...
March 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302951/generation-of-small-colony-variants-in-biofilms-by-escherichia-coli-harboring-a-conjugative-f-plasmid
#15
Yosuke Tashiro, Hiroaki Eida, Satoshi Ishii, Hiroyuki Futamata, Satoshi Okabe
A conjugative F plasmid induces mature biofilm formation by Escherichia coli by promoting F-pili-mediated cell-cell interactions and increasing the expression of biofilm-related genes. We herein demonstrated another function for the F plasmid in E. coli biofilms; it contributes to the emergence of genetic and phenotypic variations by spontaneous mutations. Small colony variants (SCVs) were more frequently generated in a continuous flow-cell biofilm than in the planktonic state of E. coli harboring the F plasmid...
March 8, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293553/pcr-primer-design-for-16s-rrnas-for-experimental-horizontal-gene-transfer-test-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Kentaro Miyazaki, Mitsuharu Sato, Miyuki Tsukuda
We recently demonstrated that the Escherichia coli ribosome is robust enough to accommodate foreign 16S rRNAs from diverse gamma- and betaproteobacteria bacteria (Kitahara et al., 2012). Therein, we used the common universal primers Bac8f and UN1541r to obtain a nearly full-length gene. However, we noticed that these primers overlap variable sites at 19[A/C] and 1527[U/C] in Bac8f and UN1541r, respectively, and thus, the amplicon could contain mutations. This is problematic, particularly for the former site, because the 19th nucleotide pairs with the 916th nucleotide, which is a part of the "central pseudoknot" and is critical for function...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290510/acquisition-of-the-capsule-locus-by-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-neisseria-meningitidis-is-often-accompanied-by-the-loss-of-udp-galnac-synthesis
#17
Stephanie N Bartley, Shakeel Mowlaboccus, Christopher A Mullally, Keith A Stubbs, Alice Vrielink, Martin C J Maiden, Odile B Harrison, Timothy T Perkins, Charlene M Kahler
Pathogenic meningococci have acquired a 24 kb capsule synthesis island (cps) by horizontal gene transfer which consists of a synthetic locus and associated capsule transport genes flanked by repetitive Regions D and D'. Regions D and D' contain an intact gene encoding a UDP-galactose epimerase (galE1) and a truncated remnant (galE2), respectively. In this study, GalE protein alleles were shown to be either mono-functional, synthesising UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal), or bi-functional, synthesising UDP-Gal and UDP-galactosamine (UDP-GalNAc)...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289083/growth-tradeoffs-accompany-the-emergence-of-glycolytic-metabolism-in-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1
#18
Lon M Chubiz, Christopher J Marx
Bacteria increase metabolic capacity via acquisition of genetic material or by mutation to genes already present in the genome. Here, we explore the mechanisms and tradeoffs involved when Shewanella oneidensis, a bacterium that typically consumes small organic and amino acids, rapidly evolves to expand its metabolic capacity to catabolize glucose after a short period of adaptation to a glucose-rich environment. Using whole-genome sequencing and genetic approaches, we discovered that deletions in a region including the transcriptional repressor (nagR) that regulates expression of genes associated with catabolism of N-acetylglucosamine is the common basis for evolved glucose metabolism across populations...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283023/genome-analysis-following-a-national-increase-in-scarlet-fever-in-england-2014
#19
Victoria Chalker, Aleksey Jironkin, Juliana Coelho, Ali Al-Shahib, Steve Platt, Georgia Kapatai, Roger Daniel, Chenchal Dhami, Marisa Laranjeira, Timothy Chambers, Rebecca Guy, Theresa Lamagni, Timothy Harrison, Meera Chand, Alan P Johnson, Anthony Underwood
BACKGROUND: During a substantial elevation in scarlet fever (SF) notifications in 2014 a national genomic study was undertaken of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococci, GAS) isolates from patients with SF with comparison to isolates from patients with invasive disease (iGAS) to test the hypotheses that the increase in SF was due to either the introduction of one or more new/emerging strains in the population in England or the transmission of a known genetic element through the population of GAS by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) resulting in infections with an increased likelihood of causing SF...
March 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280483/outer-plexiform-layer-structures-are-not-altered-following-aav-mediated-gene-transfer-in-healthy-rat-retina
#20
Bert C Giers, Daniela Klein, Alexandra Mendes-Madeira, Carolina Isiegas, Birgit Lorenz, Silke Haverkamp, Knut Stieger
Ocular gene therapy approaches have been developed for a variety of different diseases. In particular, clinical gene therapy trials for RPE65 mutations, X-linked retinoschisis, and choroideremia have been conducted at different centers in recent years, showing that adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is safe, but limitations exist as to the therapeutic benefit and long-term duration of the treatment. The technique of vector delivery to retinal cells relies on subretinal injection of the vector solution, causing a transient retinal detachment...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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