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developmental embryology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659814/the-first-whole-transcriptomic-exploration-of-pre-oviposited-early-chicken-embryos-using-single-and-bulked-embryonic-rna-sequencing
#1
Young Sun Hwang, Minseok Seo, Hee Jung Choi, Sang Kyung Kim, Heebal Kim, Jae Yong Han
Background: The chicken is a valuable model organism, especially in evolutionary and embryology research because its embryonic development occurs in the egg. However, despite its scientific importance, no transcriptome data have been generated for deciphering the early developmental stages of the chicken because of practical and technical constraints in accessing pre-oviposited embryos. Findings: Here, we determine the entire transcriptome of pre-oviposited avian embryos, including oocyte, zygote, and intrauterine embryos from Eyal-giladi and Kochav stage I (EGK...
April 1, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652578/mr-imaging-of-the-fetal-face-comprehensive-review
#2
Murali Nagarajan, Kedar G Sharbidre, Sudeep H Bhabad, Sharon E Byrd
The human face is a complex anatomic structure with an equally complex embryologic development. Derangement of the developmental process can result in various structural anomalies, which range from a mainly cosmetic deformity, such as cleft lip, to potentially life-threatening conditions such as arhinia. These anomalies (a) can occur as isolated anomalies; (b) can be associated with intracranial, spinal, or dental anomalies; or (c) can be a part of various syndromes, thus serving as diagnostic clues in such cases...
April 13, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652537/subphenotyping-and-classification-of-cleft-lip-and-alveolus-in-adult-unoperated-patients-a-new-embryological-approach
#3
Christl Vermeij-Keers, Anna M Rozendaal, Antonius J M Luijsterburg, Benny S Latief, Costas Lekkas, Lea Kragt, Edwin M Ongkosuwito
OBJECTIVE: Previously, a new embryological classification was introduced subdividing oral clefts into fusion and/or differentiation defects. This subdivision was used to classify all subphenotypes of cleft lip with or without alveolus (CL±A). Subsequently, it was investigated whether further morphological grading of incomplete CLs is clinically relevant, and which alveolar part is deficient in fusion/differentiation defects. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Three hundred fifty adult unoperated Indonesian cleft patients presented themselves for operation...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643813/skull-development-ossification-pattern-and-adult-shape-in-the-emerging-lizard-model-organism-pogona-vitticeps-a-comparative-analysis-with-other-squamates
#4
Joni Ollonen, Filipe O Da Silva, Kristin Mahlow, Nicolas Di-Poï
The rise of the Evo-Devo field and the development of multidisciplinary research tools at various levels of biological organization have led to a growing interest in researching for new non-model organisms. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are particularly important for understanding fundamental questions about the evolution of vertebrates because of their high diversity and evolutionary innovations and adaptations that portrait a striking body plan change that reached its extreme in snakes. Yet, little is known about the intricate connection between phenotype and genotype in squamates, partly due to limited developmental knowledge and incomplete characterization of embryonic development...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616743/the-chick-limb-embryology-genetics-and-teratology
#5
Megan G Davey, Matthew Towers, Neil Vargesson, Cheryll Tickle
The chick embryo has a long history in investigations of vertebrate limb development because of the ease with which its limbs can be experimentally manipulated. Early studies elucidated the fundamental embryology of the limb and identified the key signalling regions that govern its development. The chick limb became a leading model for exploring the concept of positional information and understanding how patterns of differentiated cells and tissues develop in vertebrate embryos. When developmentally important molecules began to be identified, experiments in chick limbs were crucial for bridging embryology and molecular biology...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616720/chick-muscle-development
#6
Martin Scaal, Christophe Marcelle
Striated muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body of vertebrates and it forms, together with the skeleton, the locomotory system required both for movement and the creation of the specific body shape of a species. Research on the embryonic development of muscles has a long tradition both in classical embryology and in molecular developmental biology. While the gene networks regulating muscle development have been discovered mostly in the mouse through genetics, our knowledge on cell lineages, muscle morphogenesis and tissue interactions regulating their formation is to a large extent based on the use of the avian model...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616717/the-chick-model-system-a-distinguished-past-and-a-great-future
#7
Claudio Stern
When I was asked by the Chief Editor of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. to consider editing a Special Issue about "the chick", I was first hesitant, because I had already edited such an issue for another journal in 2004 (Mech. Dev. volume 121), when the sequence of the chick genome was first released (Stern, 2004, 2005). But at the same time I was surprised that this journal, well known for its Special Issues of which many have become important historical and literary land-marks to the developmental biology literature, had not yet produced a volume on what is probably the oldest developmental model system...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616497/malformed-vertebrae-a-clinical-and-imaging-review
#8
REVIEW
Apeksha Chaturvedi, Nina B Klionsky, Umakanthan Nadarajah, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Steven P Meyers
A variety of structural developmental anomalies affect the vertebral column. Malformed vertebrae can arise secondary to errors of vertebral formation, fusion and/or segmentation and developmental variation. Malformations can be simple with little or no clinical consequence, or complex with serious structural and neurologic implications. These anomalies can occasionally mimic acute trauma (bipartite atlas versus Jefferson fracture, butterfly vertebra versus burst fracture), or predispose the affected individual to myelopathy...
April 3, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587601/experimental-evidence-that-preaxial-polydactyly-and-forearm-radial-deficiencies-may-share-a-common-developmental-origin
#9
Wee L Lam, Julia D H Oh, Edward J Johnson, Sandra Poyatos Pertinez, Chloe Stephens, Megan G Davey
Preaxial polydactyly is a congenital hand anomaly predominantly of sporadic occurrence, which is frequently associated with abnormalities of the Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway. In experimentally induced preaxial polydactyly, radial aplasia is also frequently observed. To determine if there is a correlation between preaxial polydactyly and radial aplasia, we induced ectopic Sonic hedgehog signalling during chicken limb development with application of a smoothened-agonist (SAG) or retinoic acid. Application of SAG caused malformations in 71% limbs including preaxial polydactyly (62%) and forearm abnormalities (43%)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571046/the-contributions-of-dr-kathleen-k-sulik-to-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-research-and-prevention
#10
REVIEW
Scott E Parnell, Edward P Riley, Kenneth R Warren, Kathleen T Mitchell, Michael E Charness
Dr. Kathleen Sulik (Kathy) has spent 35 years studying fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Beginning with her landmark 1981 Science paper describing the early gestational window when alcohol can cause the craniofacial malformations characteristic of FAS, Kathy has contributed a vast amount of research furthering our knowledge of FASD. After her seminal work that definitively demonstrated that alcohol is the causative factor in FAS, she and her lab went on to explore and define the stage-dependent effects of early gestational alcohol exposure on the face and brain in numerous different ways throughout her career...
March 20, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530880/polycomb-group-pc-g-proteins-and-pax6-cooperate-to-inhibit-in-vivo-reprogramming-of-the-developing-drosophila-eye
#11
Jinjin Zhu, Alison Ordway, Lena Weber, Kasun Buddika, Justin P Kumar
How different cells and tissues commit and determine their fates has been a central question in developmental biology since the seminal embryological experiments conducted by Wilhelm Roux and Hans Driesch in sea urchins and frogs. Here, we demonstrate that Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain Drosophila eye specification by suppressing the activation of alternative fate choices. The loss of PcG in the developing eye results in a cellular reprogramming event in which the eye is redirected to a wing fate. This fate transformation occurs with either the individual loss of Pc or the simultaneous reduction of PhoRC and Pax6...
March 12, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519998/hcn2-rescues-brain-defects-by-enforcing-endogenous-voltage-pre-patterns
#12
Vaibhav P Pai, Alexis Pietak, Valerie Willocq, Bin Ye, Nian-Qing Shi, Michael Levin
Endogenous bioelectrical signaling coordinates cell behaviors toward correct anatomical outcomes. Lack of a model explaining spatialized dynamics of bioelectric states has hindered the understanding of the etiology of some birth defects and the development of predictive interventions. Nicotine, a known neuroteratogen, induces serious defects in brain patterning and learning. Our bio-realistic computational model explains nicotine's effects via the disruption of endogenous bioelectrical gradients and predicts that exogenous HCN2 ion channels would restore the endogenous bioelectric prepatterns necessary for brain patterning...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447907/wilhelm-his-lasting-insights-into-hindbrain-and-cranial-ganglia-development-and-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Joel C Glover, Karen L Elliott, Albert Erives, Victor V Chizhikov, Bernd Fritzsch
Wilhelm His (1831-1904) provided lasting insights into the development of the central and peripheral nervous system using innovative technologies such as the microtome, which he invented. 150 years after his resurrection of the classical germ layer theory of Wolff, von Baer and Remak, his description of the developmental origin of cranial and spinal ganglia from a distinct cell population, now known as the neural crest, has stood the test of time and more recently sparked tremendous advances regarding the molecular development of these important cells...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361568/integrated-analysis-of-single-cell-embryo-data-yields-a-unified-transcriptome-signature-for-the-human-pre-implantation-epiblast
#14
Giuliano G Stirparo, Thorsten Boroviak, Ge Guo, Jennifer Nichols, Austin Smith, Paul Bertone
Single-cell profiling techniques create opportunities to delineate cell fate progression in mammalian development. Recent studies have provided transcriptome data from human pre-implantation embryos, in total comprising nearly 2000 individual cells. Interpretation of these data is confounded by biological factors, such as variable embryo staging and cell-type ambiguity, as well as technical challenges in the collective analysis of datasets produced with different sample preparation and sequencing protocols...
February 7, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345006/embryology-of-the-craniocervical-junction-and-posterior-cranial-fossa-part-i-development-of-the-upper-vertebrae-and-skull
#15
Mohammadali M Shoja, Rebecca Ramdhan, Chad J Jensen, Joshua J Chern, W Jerry Oakes, R Shane Tubbs
Although the embryology of the posterior cranial fossa can have life altering effects on a patient, a comprehensive review on this topic is difficult to find in the peer-reviewed medical literature. Therefore, this review article, using standard search engines, seemed timely. The embryology of the posterior cranial fossa is complex and relies on a unique timing of various neurovascular and bony elements. Derailment of these developmental processes can lead to a wide range of malformations such as the Chiari malformations...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344994/embryology-of-the-craniocervical-junction-and-posterior-cranial-fossa-part-ii-embryogenesis-of-the-hindbrain
#16
Mohammadali M Shoja, Rebecca Ramdhan, Chad J Jensen, Joshua J Chern, W Jerry Oakes, R Shane Tubbs
Although pathology of the hindbrain and its derivatives can have life altering effects on a patient, a comprehensive review on its embryology is difficult to find in the peer-reviewed medical literature. Therefore, this review article, using standard search engines, seemed timely. The embryology of the hindbrain is complex and relies on a unique timing of various neurovascular and bony elements. Derailment of these developmental processes can lead to a wide range of malformations such as the Chiari malformations...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343922/periureteral-inferior-vena-caval-venous-ring-presenting-as-urinary-obstruction
#17
Suprava Naik, Arashdeep Singh, Sudipta Mohakud, Nerbadyswari Deep
The embryological development of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is complex, and thus the vena cava may undergo a large number of congenital anomalies. Periureteric venous ring is a rare developmental anomaly of IVC where the right ureter passes through a slit-like opening in a partially duplicated infrarenal IVC, resulting in dilatation of upper urinary tract. Split-bolus multidetector computed tomography technique is useful in detecting such vascular anomaly causing ureteric obstruction as it can clearly show the vascular and ureteric phase in a single acquisition...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318938/pitt-hopkins-syndrome-a-review-of-current-literature-clinical-approach-and-23-patient-case-series
#18
Kimberly Goodspeed, Cassandra Newsom, Mary Ann Morris, Craig Powell, Patricia Evans, Sailaja Golla
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a rare, genetic disorder caused by a molecular variant of TCF4 which is involved in embryologic neuronal differentiation. PTHS is characterized by syndromic facies, psychomotor delay, and intellectual disability. Other associated features include early-onset myopia, seizures, constipation, and hyperventilation-apneic spells. Many also meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Here the authors present a series of 23 PTHS patients with molecularly confirmed TCF4 variants and describe 3 unique individuals...
March 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284160/developmental-biology-the-stem-cell-of-biological-disciplines
#19
Scott F Gilbert
Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280877/choanal-atresia-and-craniosynostosis-development-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Kate M Lesciotto, Yann Heuzé, Ethylin Wang Jabs, Joseph M Bernstein, Joan T Richtsmeier
A number of textbooks, review articles, and case reports highlight the potential comorbidity of choanal atresia in craniosynostosis patients. However, the lack of a precise definition of choanal atresia within the current craniosynostosis literature and widely varying methods of detection and diagnosis have produced uncertainty regarding the true coincidence of these conditions. The authors review the anatomy and embryologic basis of the human choanae, provide an overview of choanal atresia, and analyze the available literature that links choanal atresia and craniosynostosis...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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