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developmental embryology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101121/embryology-of-the-vno-and-associated-structures-in-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-squamata-naticinae-a-3d-perspective
#1
Paweł Kaczmarek, Mateusz Hermyt, Weronika Rupik
BACKGROUND: Snakes are considered to be vomerolfaction specialists. They are members of one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, Squamata. The vomeronasal organ and the associated structures (such as the lacrimal duct, choanal groove, lamina transversalis anterior and cupola Jacobsoni) of adult lizards and snakes have received much anatomical, histological, physiological and behavioural attention. However, only limited embryological investigation into these structures, constrained to some anatomical or cellular studies and brief surveys, has been carried out thus far...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061351/new-insights-into-early-human-development-lessons-for-stem-cell-derivation-and-differentiation
#2
REVIEW
Janet Rossant, Patrick P L Tam
Pathways underlying mouse embryonic development have always informed efforts to derive, maintain, and drive differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. However, direct application of mouse embryology to the human system has not always been successful because of fundamental developmental differences between species. The naive pluripotent state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in particular, has been difficult to capture in human ESCs, and appears to be transitory in the human embryo itself. Further studies of human and non-human primate embryo development are needed to untangle the complexities of pluripotency networks across mammalian species...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059604/valentin-haecker-1864-1927-as-a-pioneer-of-phenogenetics-building-the-bridge-between-genotype-and-phenotype
#3
Uwe Hoßfeld, Elizabeth Watts, Georgy S Levit
Valentin Haecker is one of the forerunners of experimental biology, genetics, and developmental physiology. Haecker introduced the term Phänogenetik (phenogenetics) in 1918 in Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Eigenschaftsanalyse (Evolutionary Analysis of Characters), in which he described the earliest stages in the development of the phenotype. (1) His major objective in this publication was to integrate the two most important concepts of Mendelian genetics-phenotype and genotype-within a well-articulated theory...
January 6, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049837/dinosaur-incubation-periods-directly-determined-from-growth-line-counts-in-embryonic-teeth-show-reptilian-grade-development
#4
Gregory M Erickson, Darla K Zelenitsky, David Ian Kay, Mark A Norell
Birds stand out from other egg-laying amniotes by producing relatively small numbers of large eggs with very short incubation periods (average 11-85 d). This aspect promotes high survivorship by limiting exposure to predation and environmental perturbation, allows for larger more fit young, and facilitates rapid attainment of adult size. Birds are living dinosaurs; their rapid development has been considered to reflect the primitive dinosaurian condition. Here, nonavian dinosaurian incubation periods in both small and large ornithischian taxa are empirically determined through growth-line counts in embryonic teeth...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031323/inter-observer-and-intra-observer-agreement-between-embryologists-during-selection-of-a-single-day-5-embryo-for-transfer-a-multicenter-study
#5
Ashleigh Storr, Christos A Venetis, Simon Cooke, Suha Kilani, William Ledger
STUDY QUESTION: What is the inter-observer and intra-observer agreement between embryologists when selecting a single Day 5 embryo for transfer? SUMMARY ANSWER: The inter-observer and intra-observer agreement between embryologists when selecting a single Day 5 embryo for transfer was generally good, although not optimal, even among experienced embryologists. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous research on the morphological assessment of early stage (two pronuclei to Day 3) embryos has shown varying levels of inter-observer and intra-observer agreement...
December 28, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994123/the-origins-scaling-and-loss-of-tetrapod-digits
#6
REVIEW
Aditya Saxena, Matthew Towers, Kimberly L Cooper
Many of the great morphologists of the nineteenth century marvelled at similarities between the limbs of diverse species, and Charles Darwin noted these homologies as significant supporting evidence for descent with modification from a common ancestor. Sir Richard Owen also took great care to highlight each of the elements of the forelimb and hindlimb in a multitude of species with focused attention on the homology between the hoof of the horse and the middle digit of man. The ensuing decades brought about a convergence of palaeontology, experimental embryology and molecular biology to lend further support to the homologies of tetrapod limbs and their developmental origins...
February 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975275/establishment-of-the-vertebrate-germ-layers
#7
Wei-Chia Tseng, Mumingjiang Munisha, Juan B Gutierrez, Scott T Dougan
The process of germ layer formation is a universal feature of animal development. The germ layers separate the cells that produce the internal organs and tissues from those that produce the nervous system and outer tissues. Their discovery in the early nineteenth century transformed embryology from a purely descriptive field into a rigorous scientific discipline, in which hypotheses could be tested by observation and experimentation. By systematically addressing the questions of how the germ layers are formed and how they generate overall body plan, scientists have made fundamental contributions to the fields of evolution, cell signaling, morphogenesis, and stem cell biology...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941807/self-organized-amniogenesis-by-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-a-biomimetic-implantation-like-niche
#8
Yue Shao, Kenichiro Taniguchi, Katherine Gurdziel, Ryan F Townshend, Xufeng Xue, Koh Meng Aw Yong, Jianming Sang, Jason R Spence, Deborah L Gumucio, Jianping Fu
Amniogenesis-the development of amnion-is a critical developmental milestone for early human embryogenesis and successful pregnancy. However, human amniogenesis is poorly understood due to limited accessibility to peri-implantation embryos and a lack of in vitro models. Here we report an efficient biomaterial system to generate human amnion-like tissue in vitro through self-organized development of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in a bioengineered niche mimicking the in vivo implantation environment...
December 12, 2016: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939770/evolutionary-developmental-transition-from-median-to-paired-morphology-of-vertebrate-fins-perspectives-from-twin-tail-goldfish
#9
REVIEW
Gembu Abe, Kinya G Ota
Vertebrate morphology has been evolutionarily modified by natural and/or artificial selection. The morphological variation of goldfish is a representative example. In particular, the twin-tail strain of ornamental goldfish shows highly diverged anal and caudal fin morphology: bifurcated anal and caudal fins. Recent molecular developmental genetics research revealed that a stop codon mutation in one of the two recently duplicated chordin genes is important for the highly diverged fin morphology of twin-tail goldfish...
December 7, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861942/the-ectopic-accessory-parotid-system-with-congenital-cheek-fistula-an-overview-and-current-update
#10
REVIEW
Mainak Dutta
OBJECTIVE: This review attempts to provide a comprehensive, updated overview of the ectopic accessory parotid system (EAPS) from clinical and developmental perspectives and investigates its eligibility to be included in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS). REVIEW METHODS: Results of the keyword-based search in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, LILACS, and Cochrane Library were subjected to the given inclusion and exclusion criteria that corroborated with the definition of EAPS...
November 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859990/prospects-for-improving-neovascularisation-of-the-ischaemic-heart-lessons-from-development
#11
Nicola Smart
Neovascularisation of the ischaemic myocardium post-infarction is necessary to restore blood flow to vulnerable cardiomyocytes and will be indispensable for prospective regenerative strategies, to perfuse newly formed myocardium. Therapeutic attempts to enhance new vessel formation have, to date, yielded modest clinical benefits and innovative approaches are now needed. Intrinsic mechanisms are initiated by the heart in an attempt to rebuild injured vessels but these are poorly understood. Insight into the underlying mechanisms may reveal targets for therapeutically augmenting this low-level neovascular response...
November 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765265/on-the-shoulders-of-hubrecht-from-embryos-to-stem-cells
#12
Catherine Rabouille, Jacqueline Deschamps
One hundred years of the Hubrecht Institute were celebrated in May 2016 with the organization of a one-day symposium "From embryos to stem cells" on the Uithof Campus, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Nine distinguished speakers were invited. They all represent a research branch originating from the passion of Institute founder, Ambrosius Hubrecht, for embryology:, regulation of gene expression, genome structure and function, embryonic and adult stem cells, nuclear reprogramming, and understanding cancer and other diseases using model organisms...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756203/mice-lacking-the-conserved-transcription-factor-grainyhead-like-3-grhl3-display-increased-apposition-of-the-frontal-and-parietal-bones-during-embryonic-development
#13
Stephen J Goldie, Benedicta D Arhatari, Peter Anderson, Alana Auden, Darren D Partridge, Stephen M Jane, Sebastian Dworkin
BACKGROUND: Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. Therefore, the identification of novel genes which contribute to normal skull patterning, morphology and premature suture apposition is imperative, in order to fully understand the genetic regulation of cranial development...
October 18, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755577/evidence-for-karyotype-polymorphism-in-the-free-living-flatworm-macrostomum-lignano-a-model-organism-for-evolutionary-and-developmental-biology
#14
Kira S Zadesenets, Dita B Vizoso, Aline Schlatter, Irina D Konopatskaia, Eugene Berezikov, Lukas Schärer, Nikolay B Rubtsov
Over the past decade, the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano has been successfully used in many areas of biology, including embryology, stem cells, sexual selection, bioadhesion and aging. The increased use of this powerful laboratory model, including the establishment of genomic resources and tools, makes it essential to have a detailed description of the chromosome organization of this species, previously suggested to have a karyotype with 2n = 8 and one pair of large and three pairs of small metacentric chromosomes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741560/a-staging-table-of-post-ovipositional-development-for-the-south-american-collared-lizard-tropidurus-torquatus-squamata-tropiduridae
#15
Tainã Rapp Py-Daniel, Anderson Kennedy Soares De-Lima, Fabiano Campos Lima, Aline Pic-Taylor, Osmindo Rodrigues Pires Junior, Antonio Sebben
The mouse, chicken, African clawed frog, and zebrafish are considered ¨model organisms¨ due to their extensive embryological and genetic characterization. However, they are far from representative of known diversity, impairing phylogenetic analyses of developmental patterns. Since squamates have historically received limited attention in developmental studies, we here describe the developmental sequence for Tropidurus torquatus, and provide the first post-ovipositional developmental series for the lizard family Tropiduridae...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720247/time-lapse-embryo-imaging-and-morphokinetic-profiling-towards-a-general-characterisation-of-embryogenesis
#16
REVIEW
A A Mandawala, S C Harvey, T K Roy, K E Fowler
In vitro fertilisation is an effective method of assisted reproductive technology in both humans and certain non-human animal species. In most species, specifically, in humans and livestock, high in vitro fertilisation success rates are achieved via the transfer of embryos with the highest implantation and subsequent developmental potential. In order to reduce the risk of multiple gestation, which could be a result of the transfer of several embryos per cycle, restrictive transfer policies and methods to improve single embryo selection have been implemented...
November 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680736/the-grass-isn-t-always-greener-the-effects-of-cannabis-on-embryological-development
#17
REVIEW
Joseph Friedrich, Dara Khatib, Keon Parsa, Ariana Santopietro, G Ian Gallicano
With the increasing publicity of marijuana due to recent legislation, it is pertinent that the effects of fetal exposure to the drug are assessed. While in utero cannabis exposure has been associated with early pregnancy failure, birth defects and developmental delay, the mechanisms of such outcomes are largely unexplained. Furthermore, the use of cannabinoids in cancer treatment via growth inhibition and apoptosis may indicate how cannabis exposure likely harms a growing fetus. Cannabinoid signaling is required for proper pre-implantation development, embryo transport to the uterus, and uterine receptivity during implantation...
September 29, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680547/chemosensory-epithelial-cells-in-the-urethra-sentinels-of-the-urinary-tract
#18
REVIEW
Klaus Deckmann, Wolfgang Kummer
A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra...
December 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660767/fetal-type-variants-of-the-posterior-cerebral-artery-and-concurrent-infarction-in-the-major-arterial-territories-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere
#19
Stephen L Lambert, Frank J Williams, Zhora Z Oganisyan, Lionel A Branch, Edward C Mader
Fetal-type or fetal posterior cerebral artery (FPCA) is a variant of cerebrovascular anatomy in which the distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory is perfused by a branch of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In the presence of FPCA, thromboembolism in the anterior circulation may result in paradoxical PCA territory infarction with or without concomitant infarction in the territories of the middle (MCA) or the anterior (ACA) cerebral artery. We describe 2 cases of FPCA and concurrent acute infarction in the PCA and ICA territories-right PCA and MCA in Patient 1 and left PCA, MCA, and ACA in Patient 2...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649924/greater-growth-of-proximal-metatarsals-in-bird-embryos-and-the-evolution-of-hallux-position-in-the-grasping-foot
#20
João Francisco Botelho, Daniel Smith-Paredes, Sergio Soto-Acuña, Daniel Núñez-León, Verónica Palma, Alexander O Vargas
In early theropod dinosaurs-the ancestors of birds-the hallux (digit 1) had an elevated position within the foot and had lost the proximal portion of its metatarsal. It no longer articulated with the ankle, but was attached at about mid-length of metatarsal 2 (mt2). In adult birds, the hallux is articulated closer to the distal end of mt2 at ground level with the other digits. However, on chick embryonic day 7, its position is as in early theropods at half-length of mt2. The adult distal location is acquired during embryonic days 8-10...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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