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developmental embryology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621409/hefzibah-eyal-giladi-1925-2017-over-fifty-years-of-embryological-research-in-israel
#1
Oded Khaner
Hefzibah Eyal-Giladi was a creative and innovative pioneering scientist in the creation of the field of early chick embryo development. She had a sharp thinking and enthusiastic attitude, which enabled her to make a deep impression that was highly valued by the general scientific community. Notably, she was a highly successful female researcher in an era which was dominated by male scientists. Her unique personality and keen intellect enabled her to break these borders in a most successful manner. The experiments conducted by her personally, her students and her collaborators served to provide the basic knowledge and paradigms for future scientists in the field, also paving the way for discoveries in other vertebrate model systems...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620997/morphology-and-evolution-of-the-oral-shield-in-marsupial-neonates-including-the-newborn-monito-del-monte-dromiciops-gliroides-marsupialia-microbiotheria-pouch-young
#2
Nanette Y Schneider, Yamila Gurovich
Newborn marsupials can be arranged into three grades of developmental complexity based on their external form, as well as based on their organ systems and their cytology. The dasyurids are considered the least developed marsupials at birth, while didelphids and peramelids are intermediate, and macropods are the most developed. Currently there is still little information on caenolestid and microbiotherid development at birth. Developmental stages can be graded as G1, G2 and G3, with G1 being the least developed at birth, and G3 the most developed...
July 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612426/embryology-and-pathophysiology-of-the-chiari-i-and-ii-malformations-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Mohammadali M Shoja, Jaspreet Johal, W Jerry Oakes, R Shane Tubbs
Although the Chiari malformations are well-studied and described developmental anomalies, there remains some incongruity in regards to their underlying etiologies. A number of theories have been proposed with the purpose of accounting for the embryology and pathogenesis of the Chiari I and II malformations and their associated complications and clinical syndromes. The present review aims to review the pertinent literature for all of the main theories that have been proposed, and outline their validity and relevance to our contemporary understanding of these anomalies...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602826/an-alternative-didactic-functional-and-topographic-systematization-of-the-spinal-muscles
#4
Vivianne Izabelle de Araújo Baptista, William Paganini Mayer, Ricardo Eustáquio da Silva, Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcellos Fontes, Josemberg da Silva Baptista
Back muscles are commonly described in a topographically-oriented manner without necessarily following morphological criteria. In this manner, non-standard terms may be employed which convey incorrect morphological concepts and demanding more time from both faculty and students to transmit knowledge. We propose a classification system for spinal muscles incorporating morphological concepts with the goal of facilitating knowledge transfer and suggest the term "spinal muscles". Paraspinal muscles were systematically divided and classified in seven strata from anterior to posterior: vertebro-appendicular (VA), transversarium (Tr), deep post-transversarium (DPT), middle post-transversarium (MPT), superficial post-transversarium (SPT), deep spino-appendicular (DSA) and superficial spino-appendicular (SSA)...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592182/perioperative-and-anesthetic-considerations-in-atrioventricular-septal-defect
#5
Faith J Ross, Viviane G Nasr, Denise Joffe, Gregory J Latham
Atrioventricular septal defect results from a failure of normal endocardial cushion fusion during embryologic cardiac development. This developmental aberration results in defects in the atrial and/or ventricular septum and malformation of the atrioventricular valves. The pathophysiology of atrioventricular septal defect is variable, and ranges from mild left to right shunting similar to a simple atrial septal defect to complex single-ventricle heart disease. This review focuses on the spectrum of atrioventricular septal defect from partial to complete, without associated cardiac defects...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553657/cancer-is-to-embryology-as-mutation-is-to-genetics-hypothesis-of-the-cancer-as-embryological-phenomenon
#6
REVIEW
Jaime Cofre, Eliana Abdelhay
Despite numerous advances in cell biology, genetics, and developmental biology, cancer origin has been attributed to genetic mechanisms primarily involving mutations. Embryologists have expressed timidly cancer embryological origin with little success in leveraging the discussion that cancer could involve a set of conventional cellular processes used to build the embryo during morphogenesis. Thus, this "cancer process" allows the harmonious and coherent construction of the embryo structural base, and its implementation as the embryonic process involves joint regulation of differentiation, proliferation, cell invasion, and migration, enabling the human being recreation of every generation...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548230/molecular-basis-of-social-competence-in-medaka-fish
#7
REVIEW
Teruhiro Okuyama, Saori Yokoi, Hideaki Takeuchi
Oryzias latipes (Medaka) is an established vertebrate model for studying developmental genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology. The physiology, embryology, and genetics of this species have been extensively investigated for centuries. Medaka fish recently attracted attention in the field of social neuroscience. This review introduces recent advances in medaka behavioral studies, focusing on female mating preferences and male mate-guarding behaviors. The medaka female has the ability to discriminate male individuals and prefers to mate with socially familiar males (female mating preference)...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503544/update-on-foregut-molecular-embryology-and-role-of-regenerative-medicine-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Silvia Perin, Conor J McCann, Osvaldo Borrelli, Paolo De Coppi, Nikhil Thapar
Esophageal atresia (OA) represents one of the commonest and most severe developmental disorders of the foregut, the most proximal segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (esophagus and stomach) in embryological terms. Of intrigue is the common origin from this foregut of two very diverse functional entities, the digestive and respiratory systems. OA appears to result from incomplete separation of the ventral and dorsal parts of the foregut during development, resulting in disruption of esophageal anatomy and frequent association with tracheo-oesophageal fistula...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441729/the-influence-of-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticle-morphology-on-embryonic-development-in-a-zebrafish-exposure-model
#9
Shiuli Pujari-Palmer, Xi Lu, Marjam Karlsson Ott
Nanomaterials are used in many different industries such as cosmetics, food, clothing, and electronics. There is increasing concern that exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) during pregnancy can adversely affect fetal development. It is well known that the size, charge, and chemistry of a nanoparticle can modulate embryological development. The role that particle morphology plays on early development, however, is still widely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (HANP) morphology on embryological development in a zebrafish exposure model...
April 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392009/genitourinary-and-gastrointestinal-co-morbidities-in-children-the-role-of-neural-circuits-in-regulation-of-visceral-function
#10
REVIEW
A P Malykhina, K E Brodie, D T Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common problem in childhood. Lower urinary tract symptoms in children include overactive bladder, voiding postponement, stress incontinence, giggle incontinence, and dysfunctional voiding. Gastrointestinal co-morbidities, including constipation or fecal incontinence, are commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms in children, often reaching 22-34%. This review summarized the potential mechanisms underlying functional lower urinary and gastrointestinal co-morbidities in children...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364237/manipulating-gene-expression-in-the-chick-embryo
#11
Octavian Voiculescu, Claudio D Stern
The chick embryo is a well-established representative of amniote embryos, which has been used to make many discoveries, including many major concepts, which have moved our knowledge of developmental biology in hugely important ways. The chick has a relatively compact genome and is easily amenable to embryological manipulations and in vivo imaging. Morpholino gene manipulations have been used in a variety of contexts, and constitute a quick and versatile molecular tool. Here we describe methods to deliver morpholinos to chick embryos, allowing targeting of specific cell populations at defined developmental stages, using two stages as examples: the epiblast of the embryo in the first day of incubation, when the primary germ layers of the embryo are specified, and in ovo electroporation of the neural tube as an example of a later stage...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231580/pediatric-hangman-s-fracture-a-comprehensive-review
#12
Michael Montalbano, Christian Fisahn, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman, R Shane Tubbs
PURPOSE: Over 170 years ago, traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis or hangman's fracture was described. Most descriptions of this entity have focused on adult presentations. METHODS: We review the literature on pediatric cases of hangman's fracture emphasizing the embryological as well as presentation aspects. RESULTS: The majority of cervical spine fractures in children occur at C1 and C2 vertebrae. A normal anterolisthesis of C2 can be seen in younger children and can mimic the anterolisthesis seen after traumatic spondylolisthesis...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182631/zebrafish-atoh8-mutants-do-not-recapitulate-morpholino-phenotypes
#13
Elsie S Place, James C Smith
Atoh8 is a bHLH transcription factor expressed in pancreas, skeletal muscle, the nervous system, and cardiovascular tissues during embryological development. Although it has been implicated in the regulation of pancreatic and endothelial cell differentiation, the phenotypic consequences of Atoh8 loss are uncertain. Conclusions from knockout studies in the mouse differ widely depending on the targeting strategy used, while atoh8 knockdown by interfering morpholino oligonucleotides (morpholinos) in zebrafish has led to a range of developmental defects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177282/cilia-mediated-hedgehog-signaling-controls-form-and-function-in-the-mammalian-larynx
#14
Jacqueline M Tabler, Maggie M Rigney, Gordon J Berman, Swetha Gopalakrishnan, Eglantine Heude, Hadeel Adel Al-Lami, Basil Z Yannakoudiadkis, Rebecca D Fitch, Christopher Carter, Steven Vokes, Karen J Liu, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Se Roian Egnor, John B Wallingford
Acoustic communication is fundamental to social interactions among animals, including humans. In fact, deficits in voice impair the quality of life for a large and diverse population of patients. Understanding the molecular genetic mechanisms of development and function in the vocal apparatus is thus an important challenge with relevance both to the basic biology of animal communication and to biomedicine. However, surprisingly little is known about the developmental biology of the mammalian larynx. Here, we used genetic fate mapping to chart the embryological origins of the tissues in the mouse larynx, and we describe the developmental etiology of laryngeal defects in mice with disruptions in cilia-mediated Hedgehog signaling...
February 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157072/similar-synapse-elimination-motifs-at-successive-relays-in-the-same-efferent-pathway-during-development-in-mice
#15
Shu-Hsien Sheu, Juan Carlos Tapia, Shlomo Tsuriel, Jeff W Lichtman
In many parts of the nervous system, signals pass across multiple synaptic relays on their way to a destination, but little is known about how these relays form and the function they serve. To get some insight into this question we ask how the connectivity patterns are organized at two successive synaptic relays in a simple, cholinergic efferent pathway. We found that the organization at successive relays in the parasympathetic nervous system strongly resemble each other despite the different embryological origin and physiological properties of the pre- and postsynaptic cells...
February 3, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131856/embryology-meets-molecular-biology-deciphering-the-apical-ectodermal-ridge
#16
REVIEW
Jamie M Verheyden, Xin Sun
More than sixty years ago, while studying feather tracks on the shoulder of the chick embryo, Dr. John Saunders used Nile Blue dye to stain the tissue. There, he noticed a darkly stained line of cells that neatly rims the tip of the growing limb bud. Rather than ignoring this observation, he followed it up by removing this tissue and found that it led to a striking truncation of the limb skeletons. This landmark experiment marks the serendipitous discovery of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the quintessential embryonic structure that drives the outgrowth of the limb...
January 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117195/vomero-premaxillary-joint-a-marker-of-evolution-of-the-species
#17
S Botti, C Rumeau, P Gallet, R Jankowski
OBJECTIVE: According to evolutionary developmental (evo-devo) theory, the vomers are bones derived from the secondary palate. Growth of the palatine processes of the maxillae, including the precursors of vomer bones, results in midline fusion posteriorly to the primary palate, which forces the ascension of the vomer bones towards the primary nasal septum, formed by septal cartilage and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid. According to this hypothesis, the anterior border of the vomer articulates with the posterior surface of the premaxilla in the incisive canal (IC)...
January 20, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101121/embryology-of-the-vno-and-associated-structures-in-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-squamata-naticinae-a-3d-perspective
#18
Paweł Kaczmarek, Mateusz Hermyt, Weronika Rupik
BACKGROUND: Snakes are considered to be vomerolfaction specialists. They are members of one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, Squamata. The vomeronasal organ and the associated structures (such as the lacrimal duct, choanal groove, lamina transversalis anterior and cupola Jacobsoni) of adult lizards and snakes have received much anatomical, histological, physiological and behavioural attention. However, only limited embryological investigation into these structures, constrained to some anatomical or cellular studies and brief surveys, has been carried out thus far...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061351/new-insights-into-early-human-development-lessons-for-stem-cell-derivation-and-differentiation
#19
REVIEW
Janet Rossant, Patrick P L Tam
Pathways underlying mouse embryonic development have always informed efforts to derive, maintain, and drive differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. However, direct application of mouse embryology to the human system has not always been successful because of fundamental developmental differences between species. The naive pluripotent state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in particular, has been difficult to capture in human ESCs, and appears to be transitory in the human embryo itself. Further studies of human and non-human primate embryo development are needed to untangle the complexities of pluripotency networks across mammalian species...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059604/valentin-haecker-1864-1927-as-a-pioneer-of-phenogenetics-building-the-bridge-between-genotype-and-phenotype
#20
Uwe Hoßfeld, Elizabeth Watts, Georgy S Levit
Valentin Haecker is one of the forerunners of experimental biology, genetics, and developmental physiology. Haecker introduced the term Phänogenetik (phenogenetics) in 1918 in Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Eigenschaftsanalyse (Evolutionary Analysis of Characters), in which he described the earliest stages in the development of the phenotype. (1) His major objective in this publication was to integrate the 2 most important concepts of Mendelian genetics-phenotype and genotype-within a well-articulated theory. Haecker realized that a proper analysis of how the genotype gives rise to the phenotype requires the integration of knowledge of morphology, physiology, and experimental embryology...
April 3, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
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