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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142117/long-necks-enhance-and-constrain-foraging-capacity-in-aquatic-vertebrates
#1
Rory P Wilson, Agustina Gómez-Laich, Juan-Emilio Sala, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Mark D Holton, Flavio Quintana
Highly specialized diving birds display substantial dichotomy in neck length with, for example, cormorants and anhingas having extreme necks, while penguins and auks have minimized necks. We attached acceleration loggers to Imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps and Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, both foraging in waters over the Patagonian Shelf, to examine the difference in movement between their respective heads and bodies in an attempt to explain this dichotomy. The penguins had head and body attitudes and movements that broadly concurred throughout all phases of their dives...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141615/kinematic-characterization-of-clinically-observed-aberrant-movement-patterns-in-patients-with-non-specific-low-back-pain-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Peemongkon Wattananon, David Ebaugh, Scott A Biely, Susan S Smith, Gregory E Hicks, Sheri P Silfies
BACKGROUND: Clinical observation of aberrant movement patterns during active forward bending is one criterion used to identify patients with non-specific low back pain suspected to have movement coordination impairment. The purpose of this study was to describe and quantify kinematic patterns of the pelvis and trunk using a dynamics systems approach, and determine agreement between clinical observation and kinematic classification. METHOD: Ninety-eight subjects performed repeated forward bending with clinical observation and kinematic data simultaneously collected...
November 15, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140350/performance-optimization-of-hollow-core-fiber-photothermal-gas-sensors
#3
Yuechuan Lin, Wei Jin, Fan Yang, Yanzhen Tan, Hoi Lut Ho
We report performance optimization of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) photothermal (PT) gas sensors. The PT phase modulation efficiency of a C2H2 filled HC-PBF (HC-1550-02) is found independent of the pump modulation frequency for up to ∼330  kHz, but starts to drop quickly to 10% of the maximum value at a couple of megahertz. With a 1.1 m long HC-PBF gas cell with angle-cleaved single-mode fiber/HC-PBF joints to reduce reflection and a modified 3×3 Sagnac interferometer with balanced detection for phase demodulation, a noise equivalent concentration of ∼67  ppbC2H2 is achieved with a 1 s time constant, and it goes down to ∼18  ppb with 145 s integration time...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140070/effect-of-amidogen-functionalization-on-quantum-spin-hall-effect-in-bi-sb-111-films
#4
Sheng-Shi Li, Wei-Xiao Ji, Shu-Jun Hu, Chang-Wen Zhang, Shi-Shen Yan
Knowledge about chemical functionalization is of fundamental importance to design novel two-dimensional topological insulators. Despite theoretical predictions of quantum spin Hall effect (QSH) insulator via chemical functionalization, it is quite challenging to obtain a high-quality sample, in which the toxicity is also an important factor that cannot be ignored. Herein, using first-principles calculations, we predict an intrinsic QSH effect in amidogen-functionalized Bi/Sb(111) films (SbNH2 and BiNH2), characterized by nontrivial Z2 invariant and helical edge states...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137731/combined-effects-of-phase-shift-and-power-distribution-on-efficiency-of-dual-high-frequency-sonochemistry
#5
Nicholas B Waldo, Chad D Vecitis
In an effort to increase the efficiency of sonochemical reactors, this study investigates a single-source, dual-high-frequency ultrasound reactor. Experiments were conducted with a variety of piezoelectric crystals and reactor components, and for each reactor design a range of power distributions and phase shifts between the two frequencies were evaluated. Certain dual-frequency configurations produced up to a threefold increase in sonochemical efficiency, while others yeilded no improvement over a single frequency...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137075/influence-of-neck-postural-changes-on-cervical-spine-motion-and-angle-during-swallowing
#6
Jun Young Kim, Jae Taek Hong, Joo Seon Oh, Ashish Jain, Il Sup Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Jun Sung Kim
Occipitocervical (OC) fixation in a neck retraction position could be dangerous due to the risk of postoperative dysphagia. No previous study has demonstrated an association between the cervical posture change and cervical spine motion/angle during swallowing. So, we aimed to analyze the influence of neck posture on the cervical spine motion and angle change during swallowing.Thirty-seven asymptomatic volunteers were recruited for participation this study. A videoflurographic swallowing study was performed in the neutral and retracted neck posture...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136475/thru-thickness-vertically-ordered-lamellar-block-copolymer-thin-films-on-unmodified-quartz-with-cold-zone-annealing
#7
Monali N Basutkar, Saumil Samant, Joseph Strzalka, Kevin G Yager, Gurpreet Singh, Alamgir Karim
Template-free directed self-assembly of ultrathin (~10's nm) lamellar block copolymer (l-BCP) films of high-interfacial area into vertically oriented nanodomains holds much technological relevance for fabrication of next-generation devices from nanoelectronics to nanomembranes due to domain interconnectivity and high interfacial area. We report for the first time, the formation of full thru-thickness vertically oriented lamellar domains in 100 nm thin polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) films on quartz substrate, achieved without any PMMA-block wetting layer formation, quartz surface modification (templating chemical, topographical) or system modifications (added surfactant, top-layer coat)...
November 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136474/characterization-of-the-sub-micrometer-hierarchy-levels-in-the-twist-bend-nematic-phase-with-nanometric-helices-via-photopolymerization-explanation-for-the-sign-reversal-in-the-polar-response
#8
Vitaly P Panov, Sithara P Sreenilayam, Yuri Panarin, Jagdish K Vij, Chris Welch, Georg H Mehl
Photo-polymerization of a reactive mesogen mixed with a mesogenic dimer, shown to exhibit the twist-bend nematic phase NTB, reveals the complex structure of the self-deformation patterns observed in planar cells. The polymerized reactive mesogen retains the structure formed by liquid crystalline molecules in the twist bend phase, thus enabling observation by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Hierarchical ordering scales from tens of nanometers to micrometers are imaged in detail. Submicron features, anticipated from earlier X-ray experiments, are visualized directly...
November 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136473/structural-investigation-of-bulk-and-dispersed-inverse-lyotropic-hexagonal-liquid-crystalline-phases-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-monoglyceride
#9
Anan Yaghmur, Sabah Al-Hosayni, Heinz Amenitsch, Stefan Salentinig
Recent studies demonstrated the potential therapeutic use of newly synthesized omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) monoglycerides owing to their beneficial health effects in various disorders including cancer and inflammation diseases. To date, the research was mainly focused on exploring the biological effects of these functional lipids. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the hydration-mediated self assembly of these lipids that leads to the formation of nanostructures, which are attractive for use as vehicles for the delivery of drugs and functional foods...
November 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136380/synchrotron-based-high-angle-resolution-and-high-lateral-resolution-x-ray-diffraction-reveals-lead-white-pigment-qualities-in-old-masters-paintings
#10
Victor Gonzalez, Gilles Wallez, Thomas Calligaro, Marine Cotte, Wout De Nolf, Myriam Eveno, Elisabeth Ravaud, Michel Menu
Micro-samples collected on 28 major paintings by Old European Masters dating from the Middle Ages to the late 19th c. were analyzed using Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction. Two complementary analytical configurations were used at beamlines ID22 (high-angle resolution) and ID21 (high lateral resolution), in order to highlight markers of the different grades of the lead white pigments (mixture of cerussite PbCO3 and hydrocerussite Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2). Rietveld analysis and crystalline phases mapping at the micro-scale revealed the composition and microstructure of the pigments, shedding light on the preparation recipes and pigment choices of the artists through History...
November 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136282/principal-component-reconstruction-pcr-for-cine-cbct-with-motion-learning-from-2d-fluoroscopy
#11
Hao Gao, Yawei Zhang, Lei Ren, Fang-Fang Yin
PURPOSE: This work aims to generate cine CT images (i.e., 4D images with high temporal resolution) based on a novel principal component reconstruction (PCR) technique with motion learning from 2D fluoroscopic training images. METHODS: In the proposed PCR method, the matrix factorization is utilized as an explicit low-rank regularization of 4D images that are represented as a product of spatial principal components and temporal motion coefficients. The key hypothesis of PCR is that temporal coefficients from 4D images can be reasonably approximated by temporal coefficients learned from 2D fluoroscopic training projections...
November 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133813/rcs-diversity-of-electromagnetic-wave-carrying-orbital-angular-momentum
#12
Chao Zhang, Dong Chen, Xuefeng Jiang
An electromagnetic (EM) wave with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has a helical wave front, which is different from that of the plane wave. The phase gradient can be found perpendicular to the direction of propagation and proportional to the number of OAM modes. Herein, we study the backscattering property of the EM wave with different OAM modes, i.e., the radar cross section (RCS) of the target is measured and evaluated with different OAM waves. As indicated by the experimental results, different OAM waves have the same RCS fluctuation for the simple target, e...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132829/the-lipolytic-degradation-of-highly-structured-cubic-micellar-nanoparticles-of-soy-phosphatidylcholine-and-glycerol-dioleate-by-phospholipase-a2-and-triacylglycerol-lipase
#13
Maria Wadsäter, Justas Barauskas, Fredrik Tiberg, Tommy Nylander
The effects of different lipolytic enzymes on the structure of lipid liquid crystalline nano-particles (LCNP) have been investigated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and synchrotron small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD). Here we used highly structured cubic micellar (Fd3m) nanoparticles of 50/50 (wt%/wt%) soy phosphatidyl choline (SPC)/glycerol dioleate (GDO) as substrate. Two types of lipolytic enzymes were used, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that catalysis degradation of the phospholipid component, SPC, and porcine pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) that facilitate the hydrolysis of the diglyceride, GDO...
November 10, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132737/discordance-between-bioelectrical-impedance-vector-analysis-and-the-new-espen-definition-of-malnutrition-for-the-diagnosis-of-hospital-malnutrition
#14
Edgar Dehesa-López, Jesús Israel Martínez-Felix, Arturo Ruiz-Ramos, Ximena Atilano-Carsi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: No universally accepted diagnostic criteria for malnutrition are available to date. The aim was to assess the concordance for the diagnosis of hospital malnutrition between the bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and the new definition of malnutrition proposed by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). METHODS: A total of 140 adult hospitalized patients were included. The malnutrition risk was assessed by the Nutritional Risk Screening...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131571/nanostructure-of-fully-injectable-hydrazone-thiosuccinimide-interpenetrating-polymer-network-hydrogels-assessed-by-small-angle-neutron-scattering-and-dstorm-single-molecule-fluorescence-microscopy
#15
Trevor Gilbert, Richard J Alsop, Mouhanad Babi, Jose Moran-Mirabal, Maikel C Rheinstadter, Todd Hoare
Herein, we comprehensively investigate the internal morphology of fully injectable IPNs prepared via co-extrusion of functionalized precursor polymer solutions based on thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and non-thermoresponsive poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) by reactive mixing using kinetically orthogonal hydrazone and thiosuccinimide cross-linking mechanisms. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS), probing both the full IPN as well as the individual constituent networks of the IPN using index matching, suggests a partially mixed internal structure characterized by PNIPAM-rich domains entrapped in a clustered PVP-rich phase...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131216/detection-of-the-electronic-structure-of-iron-iii-oxo-oligomers-forming-in-aqueous-solutions
#16
Robert Seidel, Katrin Kraffert, Anke Kabelitz, Marvin N Pohl, Ralph Kraehnert, Franziska Emmerling, Bernd Winter
The nature of the small iron-oxo oligomers in iron-(iii) aqueous solutions has a determining effect on the chemical processes that govern the formation of nanoparticles in aqueous phase. Here we report on a liquid-jet photoelectron-spectroscopy experiment for the investigation of the electronic structure of the occurring iron-oxo oligomers in FeCl3 aqueous solutions. The only iron species in the as-prepared 0.75 M solution are Fe(3+) monomers. Addition of NaOH initiates Fe(3+) hydrolysis which is followed by the formation of iron-oxo oligomers...
November 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131200/impact-of-the-scattering-phase-function-on-the-bulk-reflectance-of-a-turbid-medium-with-large-scale-inhomogeneities
#17
V V Marinyuk, S V Sheberstov
We study the total bulk reflectance of a turbid medium with large (as compared to the light wavelength) inhomogeneities at grazing angles of light incidence. To model highly forward scattering in the medium, we take advantage of the Reynolds-McCormick scattering phase function. Using the scaling analysis for the small-angle radiative transfer equation, we derive simple analytical formulas for the total reflectance. For grazing incidence angles, we find a range of values of the medium transport coefficients where the total reflectance proves to be a universal function of a single parameter, which is expressed in terms of the incidence angle, the absorption coefficient, and the transport scattering one...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131171/application-of-spatially-modulated-near-infrared-structured-light-to-study-changes-in-optical-properties-of-mouse-brain-tissue-during-heatstress
#18
Oren Shaul, Michal Fanrazi-Kahana, Omri Meitav, Gad A Pinhasi, David Abookasis
Heat stress (HS) is a medical emergency defined by abnormally elevated body temperature that causes biochemical, physiological, and hematological changes. The goal of the present research was to detect variations in optical properties (absorption, reduced scattering, and refractive index coefficients) of mouse brain tissue during HS by using near-infrared (NIR) spatial light modulation. NIR spatial patterns with different spatial phases were used to differentiate the effects of tissue scattering from those of absorption...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130711/combined-assessment-of-nutritional-status-in-patients-with-peritoneal-dialysis-using-bioelectrical-impedance-vectors-and-malnutrition-inflammation-score
#19
Elia Muñoz-Pérez, María De Los Ángeles Espinosa-Cuevas, Paola Vanessa Miranda-Alatriste, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Ximena Atilano-Carsi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a common syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease, related to changes in hydration status, decreased food intake and inflammation. There are several tools for the assessment and diagnosis of such alterations. Bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) assess the state of nutrition and hydration, but not the inflammatory component, while the malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) comprises the inflammatory and nutritional factors, but not the state of hydration...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130090/arrested-and-temporarily-arrested-states-in-a-protein-polymer-mixture-studied-by-usaxs-and-vsans
#20
Stefano Da Vela, Christian Exner, Richard Santiago Schäufele, Johannes Möller, Zhendong Fu, Fajun Zhang, Frank Schreiber
We investigate the transition of the phase separation kinetics from a complete to an arrested liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in mixtures of bovine γ-globulin with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The solutions feature LLPS with upper critical solution temperature phase behavior. At higher PEG concentrations or low temperatures, non-equilibrium, gel-like states are found. The kinetics is followed during off-critical quenches by ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and very-small angle neutron scattering (VSANS)...
November 13, 2017: Soft Matter
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