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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345956/measuring-three-dimensional-strain-and-structural-defects-in-a-single-ingaas-nanowire-using-coherent-x-ray-multi-angle-bragg-projection-ptychography
#1
Megan O Hill, Irene Calvo-Almazan, Mark Allain, Martin Holt, Andrew Ulvestad, Julian Treu, Gregor Koblmueller, Chunyi Huang, Xiaojing Huang, Hanfei Yan, E Nazarestski, Yong S Chu, G Brian Stephenson, Virginie Chamard, Lincoln Lauhon, Stephan O Hruszkewycz
III-As nanowires are candidates for near infrared light emitters and detectors that can be directly integrated onto silicon. However, nanoscale to microscale variations in structure, composition, and strain within a given nanowire, as well as variations between nanowires, pose challenges to correlating microstructure with device performance. In this work, we utilize coherent nano-focused x-rays to characterize stacking defects and strain in a single InGaAs nanowire supported on Si. By reconstructing diffraction patterns from the 2-1-10 Bragg peak, we show that the lattice orientation varies along the length of the wire, while the strain field along the cross-section is largely unaffected, leaving the band structure unperturbed...
January 18, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345710/small-degree-of-anisotropic-wetting-on-self-similar-hierarchical-wrinkled-surfaces
#2
Gaojian Lin, Qiuting Zhang, Cunjing Lv, Yichao Tang, Jie Yin
We studied the wetting behavior of multiscale self-similar hierarchical wrinkled surfaces. The hierarchical surface was fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates by manipulating the sequential strain release and combined plasma/ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment. The generated structured surface shows an independently controlled dual-scale roughness with level-1 small-wavelength wrinkles (wavelength of 700-1500 nm and amplitude of 50-500 nm) resting on level-2 large-wavelength wrinkles (wavelength of 15-35 μm and amplitude of 3...
January 18, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344540/standing-height-as-a-prevention-measure-for-overuse-injuries-of-the-back-in-alpine-ski-racing-a-kinematic-and-kinetic-study-of-giant-slalom
#3
Jörg Spörri, Josef Kröll, Benedikt Fasel, Kamiar Aminian, Erich Müller
Background: In alpine ski racing, typical loading patterns of the back include a combined occurrence of spinal bending, torsion, and high peak loads. These factors are known to be associated with high spinal disc loading and have been suggested to be attributable to different types of spine deterioration. However, little is known about the effect of standing height (ie, the distance between the bottom of the running surface of the ski and the ski boot sole) on the aforementioned back loading patterns...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343709/experimental-and-numerical-investigation-on-dragonfly-wing-and-body-motion-during-voluntary-take-off
#4
Qiushi Li, Mengzong Zheng, Tianyu Pan, Guanting Su
We present a detailed analysis of the voluntary take-off procedure of a dragonfly. The motions of the body and wings are recorded using two high-speed cameras at Beihang University. The experimental results show that the dragonfly becomes airborne after approximately one wingbeat and then leaves the ground. During this process, the maximum vertical acceleration could reach 20 m/s2. Evidence also shows that acceleration is generated only by the aerodynamic force induced by the flapping of wings. The dragonfly voluntary take-off procedure is divided into four phases with distinctive features...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342905/closed-form-algorithm-for-3-d-near-field-ofdm-signal-localization-under-uniform-circular-array
#5
Xiaolong Su, Zhen Liu, Xin Chen, Xizhang Wei
Due to its widespread application in communications, radar, etc., the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal has become increasingly urgent in the field of localization. Under uniform circular array (UCA) and near-field conditions, this paper presents a closed-form algorithm based on phase difference for estimating the three-dimensional (3-D) location (azimuth angle, elevation angle, and range) of the OFDM signal. In the algorithm, considering that it is difficult to distinguish the frequency of the OFDM signal's subcarriers and the phase-based method is always affected by errors of the frequency estimation, this paper employs sparse representation (SR) to obtain the super-resolution frequencies and the corresponding phases of subcarriers...
January 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341696/coherent-beam-beam-instability-in-collisions-with-a-large-crossing-angle
#6
K Ohmi, N Kuroo, K Oide, D Zhou, F Zimmermann
In recent years the "crab-waist collision" scheme [P. Raimondi, Proceedings of 2nd SuperB Workshop, Frascati, 2006.; M. Zobov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 174801 (2010)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.174801] has become popular for circular e^{+} e^{-} colliders. The designs of several future colliders are based on this scheme. So far the beam-beam effects for collisions under a large crossing angle with or without crab waist were mostly studied using weak-strong simulations. We present here strong-strong simulations showing a novel strong coherent head-tail instability, which can limit the performance of proposed future colliders...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340416/self-assembly-of-cationic-gemini-surfactants-alkanediyl-bis-dimethyldodecyl-ammonium-bromide-in-cyclohexane-effects-of-spacer-length-on-their-association-into-reverse-lyotropic-liquid-crystalline-or-reverse-vesicles
#7
Shenglu Deng, Jianxi Zhao
Herein, homogeneous solutions of cationic gemini surfactants, alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide), referred to as 12-s-12 where s = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, in cyclohexane have been prepared with the help of sodium hexanoate (SH) or sodium laurate (SL). These surfactants self-assembled in cyclohexane to form various aggregating structures, which were characterised by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) together with polarised microscopy observations. The results showed that 12-2-12/SH, where the gemini had the shortest spacer among this series, formed an inverse micellar cubic liquid crystalline phase of the Fd3m structure...
January 17, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339288/hyaluronic-acid-in-pluronic-f-127-f-108-hydrogels-for-postoperative-pain-in-arthroplasties-influence-on-physico-chemical-properties-and-structural-requirements-for-sustained-drug-release
#8
M H M Nascimento, M K K D Franco, F Yokaichyia, E de Paula, C B Lombello, D R de Araujo
In this study, we reported the hyaluronic acid (HA) on supramolecular structure of Pluronic F-127 (PLF-127) and/or Pluronic F-108 (PLF-127) hydrogels, as well as their effects on release mechanisms, looking forward their application as lidocaine (LDC) drug-delivery systems in arthroplastic surgeries. We have studied the HA-micelle interaction using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), the micellization and sol-gel transition processes by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Rheology., of PL-based hydrogels and...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338197/modification-of-vapor-phase-concentrations-in-mos2-growth-using-a-nio-foam-barrier
#9
Yee-Fun Lim, Kumar Priyadarshi, Fabio Bussolotti, Pranjal Kumar Gogoi, Xiaoyang Cui, Ming Yang, Jisheng Pan, Shi Wun Tong, Shijie Wang, Stephen J Pennycook, Kuan Eng Johnson Goh, Andrew T S Wee, Swee Liang Wong, Dongzhi Chi
Single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted significant attention due to its unique electronic and physical properties with much effort invested towards obtaining large area high quality monolayer MoS2 films. In this work, we demonstrate a reactive barrier-based approach to achieve growth of highly homogeneous single layer MoS2 on sapphire through the use of a nickel oxide foam barrier during chemical vapor deposition. Due to the reactivity of the NiO barrier with MoO3, the concentration of precursors reaching the substrate and thus nucleation density is effectively reduced, allowing grain sizes of up to 170 µm and continuous monolayers on the centimeter length scale being obtained...
January 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337185/proliposome-tablets-manufactured-using-a-slurry-driven-lipid-enriched-powders-development-characterization-and-stability-evaluation
#10
Iftikhar Khan, Sakib Yousaf, Sneha Subramanian, Mohamed Albed Alhnan, Waqar Ahmed, Abdelbary Elhissi
Proliposome powders were prepared via a slurry method using sorbitol or D-mannitol as carbohydrate carriers in 1:10 or 1:15 w/w lipid phase to carrier ratios. Soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and cholesterol were employed as a lipid phase and Beclometasone dipropionate (BDP) was incorporated as a model drug. Direct compaction using a Minipress was applied on the lipid-enriched powder in order to manufacture proliposome tablets. Sorbitol-based proliposome tablets in a 1:15 w/w ratio were found to be the best formulation as it exhibited excellent powder flowability with an angle of repose of 25...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337113/volta-phase-plate-data-collection-facilitates-image-processing-and-cryo-em-structure-determination
#11
Ottilie von Loeffelholz, Gabor Papai, Radostin Danev, Alexander G Myasnikov, S Kundhavai Natchiar, Isabelle Hazemann, Jean-François Ménétret, Bruno P Klaholz
A current bottleneck in structure determination of macromolecular complexes by cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is the large amount of data needed to obtain high-resolution 3D reconstructions, including through sorting into different conformations and compositions with advanced image processing. Additionally, it may be difficult to visualize small ligands that bind in sub-stoichiometric levels. Volta phase plates (VPP) introduce a phase shift in the contrast transfer and drastically increase the contrast of the recorded low-dose cryo-EM images while preserving high frequency information...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337009/coherence-and-interlimb-force-control-effects-of-visual-gain
#12
Nyeonju Kang, James H Cauraugh
Neural coupling across hemispheres and homologous muscles often appears during bimanual motor control. Force coupling in a specific frequency domain may indicate specific bimanual force coordination patterns. This study investigated coherence on pairs of bimanual isometric index finger force while manipulating visual gain and task asymmetry conditions. We used two visual gain conditions (low and high gain = 8 and 512 pixels/N), and created task asymmetry by manipulating coefficient ratios imposed on the left and right index finger forces (0...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336877/sin-quadratic-model-for-chest-tomosynthesis-respiratory-signal-analysis-and-its-application-in-four-dimensional-chest-tomosynthesis-reconstruction
#13
Xi Tao, Hua Zhang, Genggeng Qin, Jianhua Ma, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen
Chest tomosynthesis (CTS) is a newly developed imaging technique which provides pseudo-3D volume anatomical information of thorax from limited-angle projections and contains much less of superimposed anatomy than the chest X-ray radiography. One of the relatively common problems in CTS is the patient respiratory motion during image acquisition, which negatively impacts the detectability. In this work, we propose a sin-quadratic model to analyze the respiratory motion during CTS scan, which is a real time method where the respiratory signal is generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm from projection radiographs...
January 11, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336598/quantitative-mr-evaluation-of-chronic-pancreatitis-extracellular-volume-fraction-and-mr-relaxometry
#14
Temel Tirkes, Chen Lin, Enming Cui, Yu Deng, Paul R Territo, Kumaresan Sandrasegaran, Fatih Akisik
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if extracellular volume fraction and T1 mapping can be used to diagnose chronic pancreatitis (CP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This HIPAA-compliant study analyzed 143 consecutive patients with and without CP who underwent MR imaging between May 2016 and February 2017. Patients were selected for the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria that considered history and clinical and laboratory findings. Eligible patients (n = 119) were grouped as normal (n = 60) or with mild (n = 22), moderate (n = 27), or severe (n = 10) CP on the basis of MRCP findings using the Cambridge classification as the reference standard...
January 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335457/an-equation-of-state-meter-of-quantum-chromodynamics-transition-from-deep-learning
#15
Long-Gang Pang, Kai Zhou, Nan Su, Hannah Petersen, Horst Stöcker, Xin-Nian Wang
A primordial state of matter consisting of free quarks and gluons that existed in the early universe a few microseconds after the Big Bang is also expected to form in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Determining the equation of state (EoS) of such a primordial matter is the ultimate goal of high-energy heavy-ion experiments. Here we use supervised learning with a deep convolutional neural network to identify the EoS employed in the relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of heavy ion collisions. High-level correlations of particle spectra in transverse momentum and azimuthal angle learned by the network act as an effective EoS-meter in deciphering the nature of the phase transition in quantum chromodynamics...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335182/microstructures-and-performances-of-pegylated-polysulfone-membranes-from-an-in-situ-synthesized-solution-via-vapor-induced-phase-separation-approach
#16
Li-Jing Zhu, Hai-Ming Song, Gang Wang, Zhi-Xiang Zeng, Cun-Ting Zhao, Qun-Ji Xue, Xiao-Ping Guo
In situ pegylated (PEGylated) microporous membranes have been extensively reported using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymers as blending additives. Alternatively, free standing PEGylated polysulfone (PSf) membranes with excellent hydrophilicity and antifouling ability were directly fabricated from polysulfone/poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PSf/PEGMA) solutions after in situ cross-linking polymerization without any treatment via vapor induced phase separation (VIPS) process for the first time...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332381/the-significant-role-of-mg-stoichiometry-in-designing-high-thermoelectric-performance-for-mg3-sb-bi-2-based-n-type-zintls
#17
Jing Shuai, Binghui Ge, Jun Mao, Shaowei Song, Yumei Wang, Zhifeng Ren
Complex structures with versatile chemistry provide considerable chemical tunability of the transport properties. Good thermoelectric materials are generally extrinsically doped semiconductors with optimal carrier concentrations, while charged intrinsic defects (e.g., vacancies, interstitials) can also adjust the carriers, even in the compounds with no apparent deviation from a stoichiometric nominal composition. Here we report that in Zintl compounds Mg3+xSb1.5Bi0.5, the carrier concentration can be tuned from p-type to n-type by simply altering the initial Mg concentration...
January 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332230/a-cardioid-oscillator-with-asymmetric-time-ratio-for-establishing-cpg-models
#18
Q Fu, D H Wang, L Xu, G Yuan
Nonlinear oscillators are usually utilized by bionic scientists for establishing central pattern generator models for imitating rhythmic motions by bionic scientists. In the natural word, many rhythmic motions possess asymmetric time ratios, which means that the forward and the backward motions of an oscillating process sustain different times within one period. In order to model rhythmic motions with asymmetric time ratios, nonlinear oscillators with asymmetric forward and backward trajectories within one period should be studied...
January 13, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331777/comparing-the-antifouling-effects-of-activated-carbon-and-tio2-in-ultrafiltration-membrane-development
#19
Qianyu Liu, Shaobin Huang, Yongqing Zhang, Shuaifei Zhao
We use activated carbon (AC) and titanium oxide (TiO2) nanomaterials as the additives to prepare four polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based ultrafiltration membranes by nonsolvent induced phase separation. The surface properties (pore size, porosity, hydrophilicity and roughness) of the membranes are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy. The chemical properties of the membranes are evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection and X-ray diffraction...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330426/glucose-independent-segmental-phase-angles-from-multi-frequency-bioimpedance-analysis-to-discriminate-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Min-Ho Jun, Soochan Kim, Boncho Ku, JungHee Cho, Kahye Kim, Ho-Ryong Yoo, Jaeuk U Kim
We investigated segmental phase angles (PAs) in the four limbs using a multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis (MF-BIA) technique for noninvasively diagnosing diabetes mellitus. We conducted a meal tolerance test (MTT) for 45 diabetic and 45 control subjects stratified by age, sex and body mass index (BMI). HbA1c and the waist-to-hip-circumference ratio (WHR) were measured before meal intake, and we measured the glucose levels and MF-BIA PAs 5 times for 2 hours after meal intake. We employed a t-test to examine the statistical significance and the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to test the classification accuracy using segmental PAs at 5, 50, and 250 kHz...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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