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Phase angle

Lei Zhao, Jiangtao Cheng
Besides the Wenzel state, liquid droplets on micro/nanostructured surfaces can stay in the Cassie state and consequently exhibit intriguing characteristics such as a large contact angle, small contact angle hysteresis and exceptional mobility. Here we report molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the wetting dynamics of Cassie-state water droplets on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces with an emphasis on the genesis of the contact line friction (CLF). From an ab initio perspective, CLF can be ascribed to the collective effect of solid-liquid retarding and viscous damping...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Yunrui Duan, Jie Li, Tao Li, Xingfan Zhang, Zhichao Wang, Hui Li
Confinement presents the opportunity for novel structural transition scenarios not observed in three-dimensional systems. Here, we report a comprehensive molecular dynamic (MD) study of the structural phase transition induced by density for an ordinary metal copper (Cu) confined between two parallel panel walls. At 4.19 g cm-3 < ρ < 4.66 g cm-3, a notable structural phase transition occurs between the triangle unit cell structure and quasi-square unit cell structure upon densification. Both the bond order parameter (BOP) and angular distribution function (ADF) can provide evidence for the transition...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mathias Samson, Tony Monnet, Anthony Bernard, Patrick Lacouture, Laurent David
Tethered swimming is a method often used to measure or enhance the physical and technical resources of swimmers. Although it is highlighted that the technique used in tethered swimming is probably different from that used in free conditions, there are few comparative studies on this subject. The current study aims to compare fully tethered and free swimming based on kinematic hand parameters (orientation, velocity and acceleration of the hand, sweepback and angle of attack), which are known to act directly on the generation of propulsive forces...
March 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Waheed Khan, Qun Wang, Xin Jin
We report the first results of functional properties of nitrogenized silver-permalloy thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalic ester {PETE (C10 H₈O₄)n } flexible substrates by magnetron sputtering. These new soft magnetic thin films have magnetization that is comparable to pure Ni81 Fe19 permalloy films. Two target compositions (Ni76 Fe19 Ag₅ and Ni72 Fe18 Ag10 ) were used to study the effect of compositional variation and sputtering parameters, including nitrogen flow rate on the phase evolution and surface properties...
March 17, 2018: Materials
Karl N Blodgett, Xiao Zhu, Patrick S Walsh, Dewei Sun, Jaeyeon Lee, Soo Hyuk Choi, Timothy S Zwier
The folding propensities of a capped, cyclically constrained, mixed <i>α</i>/<i>β</i>-diastereomer pair, (<i>SRSS</i>) Ac-Ala-<i>β</I><sub>ACHC</sub>-Ala-NHBn (hereafter <i>RS</i>) and (<i>SSRS</i>) Ac-Ala-<i>β</I><sub>ACHC</sub>-Ala-NHBn (<i>SR</i>), have been studied in a molecular beam using single-conformation spectroscopic techniques. These <i>α</i>/<i>β</i>-tripeptides contain a cyclohexane ring across each C<sub><i>α</i></sub>-C<sub><i>β</i></sub> bond, at which positions their stereochemistries differ...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Andrew J Clulow, Malinda Salim, Adrian Hawley, Elliot P Gilbert, Ben Boyd
Efforts to develop orally-administered drugs tend to place an exceptional focus on aqueous solubility as this is an essential criterion for their absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract. In this work we examine the solid state behaviour and solubility of OZ439, a promising single-dose cure for malaria being developed as the highly water-soluble mesylate salt. The aqueous phase behaviour of the OZ439 mesylate salt was determined using a combination of small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS, respectively)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Shahram Emami, Khosro Adibkia, Mohammad Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammadreza Siahi-Shadbad
This study explores the preparation and investigation of dissolution properties of piroxicam cocrystals. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the capability of resorcinol (RES), methylparaben (MPB), and vanillin (VAN) to form cocrystals with piroxicam (PRX). Generation of cocrystals was attempted by liquid assisted grinding and slurry methods. Cocrystals were characterized by thermal methods, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Apparent solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), and powder dissolution profile of cocrystals were compared with anhydrous piroxicam, piroxicam monohydrate (PRXMH), and previously reported piroxicam-succinic acid cocrystal...
March 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Simon Drescher, Christian Otto, Sindy Müller, Vasil M Garamus, Christopher J Garvey, Susanne Grünert, Anke Lischka, Annette Meister, Alfred Blume, Bodo Dobner
In the present work, we describe the synthesis and the temperature-dependent aggregation behavior of a new class of asymmetrical glycerol diether bolalipid. These bolalipids are composed of a membrane-spanning alkyl chain with 32 carbon atoms (C32) in the sn-3 position, a methyl-branched C16 alkyl chain in the sn-2 position, and a zwitterionic phosphocholine headgroup in the sn-1 position of a glycerol moiety. The long C32 alkyl chain is terminated either by a second phos-phocholine (PC-Gly(2C16Me)C32-PC) or by a phosphodimethylethanolamine headgroup (PC-Gly(2C16Me)C32-Me2PE)...
March 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
K van Gruijthuijsen, M Obiols-Rabasa, P Schurtenberger, W G Bouwman, A Stradner
Short-range attractive colloids show well-defined phase behaviour in the absence of repulsions, and highly intriguing equilibrium gelation in the presence of long-range repulsions. We present the state diagram of short-range attractive colloids with repulsions that range from fully screened to intermediately ranged, i.e. longer-ranged than the attractions, but shorter ranged than the colloid size. We demonstrate that although the macroscopic phase behaviour does not change perceptibly, there is a dramatic increase of inhomogeneities once the repulsions become longer-ranged than the attractions...
March 20, 2018: Soft Matter
Henrik Gabold, Zhongyue Luan, Neelima Paul, Matthias Opel, Peter Müller-Buschbaum, Matt Law, Amitesh Paul
We report on synthesis and investigation of nanocrystalline cobalt-iron-pyrites with an emphasis on nanocrystal structure, morphology and magnetic behavior. The nanocrystals (NCs) were 5-25 nm in diameter as characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With an increase in Fe fraction, X-ray diffraction and small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS) showed a systematic decrease in lattice constant, primary grain/NC size (15 to 7 nm), and nanoparticle (NP) size (70 to 20 nm), respectively...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Linda Ye, Mingu Kang, Junwei Liu, Felix von Cube, Christina R Wicker, Takehito Suzuki, Chris Jozwiak, Aaron Bostwick, Eli Rotenberg, David C Bell, Liang Fu, Riccardo Comin, Joseph G Checkelsky
The kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles that is known to host exotic quantum magnetic states. Theoretical work has predicted that kagome lattices may also host Dirac electronic states that could lead to topological and Chern insulating phases, but these states have so far not been detected in experiments. Here we study the d-electron kagome metal Fe3 Sn2 , which is designed to support bulk massive Dirac fermions in the presence of ferromagnetic order. We observe a temperature-independent intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity that persists above room temperature, which is suggestive of prominent Berry curvature from the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking electronic bands of the kagome plane...
March 19, 2018: Nature
Hui-Jie Chen, Na Li, Ye Luo, Yong-Liang Jiang, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Yuxing Chen, Qiong Li
The second messenger c-di-GMP plays a key role in bacterial growth, survival and pathogenesis, thus its intracellular homeostasis should be finely maintained. Mycobacterium smegmatis encodes a GAF domain containing bifunctional enzyme DcpA that catalyzes the synthesis and hydrolysis of c-di-GMP . Here we found that M. smegmatis DcpA catalyzes the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP at a higher velocity, compared to the synthetic activity, resulting in a sum reaction from the ultimate substrate GTP to the final product pGpG...
March 19, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Michel J Bekker, Riemer J K Vegter, Jan W van der Scheer, Johanneke Hartog, Sonja de Groot, Wiebe de Vries, Ursina Arnet, Lucas H V van der Woude, Dirkjan H E J Veeger
BACKGROUND: Altered scapular kinematics have been associated with shoulder pain and functional limitations. To understand kinematics in persons with spinal cord injury during manual handrim wheelchair propulsion, a description of normal scapular behaviour in able-bodied persons during this specific task is a prerequisite for accurate interpretation. The primary aim of this study is to describe scapular kinematics in able-bodied persons during manual wheelchair propulsion. METHODS: Sixteen able-bodied, novice wheelchair users without shoulder complaints participated in the study...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Stefano Uccella, Maria Cristina Mele, Lorena Quagliozzi, Emanuele Rinninella, Camilla Nero, Serena Cappuccio, Marco Cintoni, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Scambia, Anna Fagotti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients' altered body composition (measured with bioimpedentiometry), due to a poor nutritional status, predicts the incidence of no residual disease at primary debulking and the risk of complications in patients with newly-diagnosed advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: Data regarding patients with newly-diagnosed stage IIIC-IV EOC undergoing elective nutritional assessment between December 2016 and March 2017, were prospectively collected...
March 14, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Xiangyu Zhang, He Sui, Deyuan Zhang, Xinggang Jiang
High-speed ultrasonic vibration cutting (HUVC) has been proven to be significantly effective when turning Ti-6Al-4V alloy in recent researches. Despite of breaking through the cutting speed restriction of the ultrasonic vibration cutting (UVC) method, HUVC can also achieve the reduction of cutting force and the improvements in surface quality and cutting efficiency in the high-speed machining field. These benefits all result from the separation effect that occurs during the HUVC process. Despite the fact that the influences of vibration and cutting parameters have been discussed in previous researches, the separation analysis of HUVC should be conducted in detail in real cutting situations, and the tool geometry parameters should also be considered...
March 14, 2018: Ultrasonics
H Fan, S Li, M Lu, G Yin, X Yang, T Lan, L Dai, X Chen, J Li, Y Zhang, A Sirajuddin, P Kellman, A E Arai, S Zhao
AIM: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic agreement with a head-to-head comparison of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images acquired by the motion-corrected (MOCO) balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) phase sensitivity inversion recovery (PSIR) and conventional segmented fast low angle shot (FLASH) PSIR methods15,16 in a patient cohort with a wide spectrum of cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 59 consecutive patients, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the normal myocardium (NM), LGE, and blood pool (BP) were pair-wise compared between the two different sequences...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Radiology
V Sofonea, T Biciuşcă, S Busuioc, Victor E Ambruş, G Gonnella, A Lamura
Aiming to study the bubble cavitation problem in quiescent and sheared liquids, a third-order isothermal lattice Boltzmann model that describes a two-dimensional (2D) fluid obeying the van der Waals equation of state, is introduced. The evolution equations for the distribution functions in this off-lattice model with 16 velocities are solved using the corner-transport-upwind (CTU) numerical scheme on large square lattices (up to 6144×6144 nodes). The numerical viscosity and the regularization of the model are discussed for first- and second-order CTU schemes finding that the latter choice allows to obtain a very accurate phase diagram of a nonideal fluid...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Marlena Whinton, Timothy C Hughes, Shuhua Peng, Michael A Brook
Bicontinuous microemulsions exhibit domain structures on the nanoscale (<20 nm). Normally, such fine details are lost during the conversion from a fluid microemulsion to solid elastomeric materials, as a consequence of interfacial destabilization via polymerization of either the oil phase, or of monomers in the aqueous phase. Very little is known about the polymerization of silicone microemulsions and the morphological changes that occur upon transition from a nanostructured liquid to a solid ma-trix. Silicone microemulsions polymerized by free radical (aqueous phase) and condensation (silicone phase) processes, respective-ly, were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
March 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Rafael Leite Rubim, Margarida Abrantes Barros, Thomas Missègue, Kévin Bougis, Laurence Navailles, Frédéric Nallet
Since the discovery of graphene oxide (GO), the most accessible of the precursors of graphene, this material has been widely studied for applications in science and technology. In this work, we describe a procedure to obtain GO dispersions in water at high concentrations, these highly dehydrated dispersions being in addition fully redispersible by dilution. With the availability of such concentrated samples, it was possible to investigate the structure of hydrated GO sheets in a previously unexplored range of concentrations, and to evidence a structural phase transition...
March 15, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Christopher L Jones, Derek G Kamper
Finger-thumb coordination is crucial to manual dexterity but remains incompletely understood, particularly following neurological injury such as stroke. While being controlled independently, the index finger and thumb especially must work in concert to perform a variety of tasks requiring lateral or palmar pinch. The impact of stroke on this functionally critical sensorimotor control during dynamic tasks has been largely unexplored. In this study, we explored finger-thumb coupling during close-open pinching motions in stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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