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Leonardo Miziara Barboza Ferreira, Suzy Sayuri Sassamoto Kurokawa, Jovan Duran Alonso, Douglas Lopes Cassimiro, Ana Luiza Ribeiro de Souza, Mariana Fonseca, Victor Hugo Vitorino Sarmento, Luis Octavio Regasini, Clóvis Augusto Ribeiro
Supra-amphiphiles are a new class of building blocks that are fabricated by means of non-covalent forces. In this work, we studied the formation of supra-amphiphiles by combining hydrophilic meglumine (MEG) with hydrophobic maleated castor oils (MACO). Spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that ionic interactions are the main driving force in the fabrication of these materials. Subsequently, supra-amphiphile/water systems were examined for their structure and water behavior by polarized optical microscopy (POM), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
October 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Feng Zhou, Ke-Hua Gu, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Meng-Yao Zhang, Sheng Zhou, Zhihao Shen, Xing-He Fan
By making use of the host-guest interactions between the host molecule tris-o-phenylenedioxycyclotriphosphazene (TPP) and the rod-coil block copolymer (BCP) poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(octyl 4'-octyloxy-2-vinylbiphenyl-4-carboxylate) (PEO-b-PVBP), the supramolecular rod-rod block copolymer P(EO@TPP)-b-PVBP was constructed. It consists of a crystalline segment P(EO@TPP) with a hexagonal crystalline structure and a columnar nematic liquid-crystalline segment (PVBP). As the PVBP segments arrange themselves as columnar nematic phases, the crystalline structure of the inclusion complex P(EO@TPP), which has a smaller diameter, is destroyed...
October 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Juan Liu, Guang Hong, Yu-Han Wu, Kosei Endo, Jian-Min Han, Hiroyuki Kumamoto, Takeshi Wada, Hidemi Kato, Ping Gao, Keiichi Sasaki
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the surface characteristics and initial bioactivity of ceria-stabilized zirconia/alumina nanocomposite (NANOZR) with those of yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) and pure titanium (CpTi) following the use of three surface modification methods; polishing, sandblasting/acid-etching (SB-E) and electrochemical deoxidation (ECD). Physical properties including surface morphology, chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, surface wettability, surface roughness, and hardness were measured...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Xiaolin Wang, Qiao Yang, Yixue Cao, Haibin Hao, Junhan Zhou, Jingcheng Hao
The gelation behavior of cationic surfactants with different counterions, Br(-) , [FeCl3 Br](-) , and [CeCl3 Br](-) , in imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) and protic ethylammonium nitrate was investigated. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy observations revealed the lamellar phases of metallosurfactant ionogels. The characteristics of imidazolium ILs, including the size and type, have effects on metallosurfactant ionogel properties, such as transformation temperatures, interlayer spacing, and mechanical strength...
October 26, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Janosch Häberli, Philipp Henle, Yves P Acklin, Ivan Zderic, Boyko Gueorguiev
BACKGROUND: Dynamic augmentation of anterior cruciate ligament tears seems to reduce anteroposterior knee translation close to the pre-injury level. The aim of the present study is to biomechanically investigate the course of translation during a simulated early post-operative phase. It is hypothesized that anteroposterior translation is maintained at the immediate post-operative level over a simulated rehabilitation period of 50'000 gait cycles. METHODS: Eight fresh-frozen human cadaveric knee joints from donors with a mean age of 35...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Fangzuo Li, Zhiguo Liu, Tianxi Sun
Energy-dispersive small-angle X-ray scattering (ED-SAXS) with an innovative design of cone collimation based on an ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) had been explored. Using this new cone collimation system, scattering angle 2θ has a theoretical minimum angle related to the mean half-opening angle of the hollow cone beam of 1.42 mrad, and with the usable X-ray energy ranging from 4 to 30 keV, the resulting observable scattering vector q is down to a minimum value of about 0...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
R Šmíd, A Hänsel, L Pravdová, J Sobota, O Číp, N Bhattacharya
In this work we present a design of an external optical cavity based on Fabry-Perot etalons applied to a 100 MHz Er-doped fiber optical frequency comb working at 1560 nm to increase its repetition frequency. A Fabry-Perot cavity is constructed based on a transportable cage system with two silver mirrors in plano-concave geometry including the mode-matching lenses, fiber coupled collimation package and detection unit. The system enables full 3D angle mirror tilting and x-y off axis movement as well as distance between the mirrors...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
D L Bones, J C Gómez Martín, C J Empson, J D Carrillo Sánchez, A D James, T P Conroy, J M C Plane
On entering the Earth's atmosphere, micrometeoroids partially or completely ablate, leaving behind layers of metallic atoms and ions. The relative concentration of the various metal layers is not well explained by current models of ablation. Furthermore, estimates of the total flux of cosmic dust and meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere vary over two orders of magnitude. To better constrain these estimates and to better model the metal layers in the mesosphere, an experimental Meteoric Ablation Simulator (MASI) has been developed...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Chandrashekhar V Kulkarni, Anan Yaghmur, Miloš Steinhart, Manfred Kriechbaum, Michael Rappolt
We present the first report on the effect of hydrostatic pressure on colloidally stabilized lipid nanoparticles enveloping inverse non-lamellar self-assemblies in their interiors. These internal self-assemblies were systematically tuned into bicontinuous cubic (Pn3m and Im3m), micellar cubic (Fd3m), hexagonal (H2), and inverse micellar (L2) phases by regulating the lipid-oil ratio while the hydrostatic pressure was varied from atmospheric pressure to 1200 bar, and back to the atmospheric pressure. The pressure effect on these lipid nanoparticles was compared with their equilibrium bulk, non-dispersed counterparts, i...
October 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Lee DeVille, Bard Ermentrout
We consider the existence of non-synchronized fixed points to the Kuramoto model defined on sparse networks: specifically, networks where each vertex has degree exactly three. We show that "most" such networks support multiple attracting phase-locked solutions that are not synchronized and study the depth and width of the basins of attraction of these phase-locked solutions. We also show that it is common in "large enough" graphs to find phase-locked solutions where one or more of the links have angle difference greater than π/2...
September 2016: Chaos
Karin Törne, Andreas Örnberg, Jonas Weissenrieder
: During implantation load-bearing devices experience stress that may influence its mechanical and corrosion profile and potentially lead to premature rupture. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the Mg-Al alloy AZ61 and Zn was studied in simulated body fluid (m-SBF) and whole blood by slow strain rate (SSR) testing in combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and further ex-situ analysis including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
October 22, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Michael Agthe, Tomás S Plivelic, Ana Maria Labrador, Lennart Bergström, German Salazar-Alvarez
Mesocrystals composed of crystallographically-aligned nanocrystals are present in biominerals and assembled materials which show strongly directional properties of importance for mechanical protection and functional devices. Mesocrystals are commonly formed by complex biomineralisation processes and can also be generated by assembly of anisotropic nanocrystals. Here, we follow the evaporation-induced assembly of maghemite nanocubes into mesocrystals in real-time in levitating drops. Analysis of time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering data and ex-situ scanning electron microscopy together with interparticle potential calculations show that the substrate-free, particle-mediated crystallization process proceeds in two stages involving the formation and rapid transformation of a dense, structurally disordered phase into ordered mesocrystals...
October 25, 2016: Nano Letters
Arturo Carranza, María Guadalupe Pérez-García, Kunlin Song, George M Jeha, Zhenyu Diao, Rongying Jin, Nina Bogdanchikova, J Félix Armando Soltero, Mauricio Terrones, Qinglin Wu, John Anthony Pojman, Josue David Mota-Morales
We report an alternative green strategy based on deep-eutectic solvents (DES) to deliver multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for a bottom-up approach that allowing the selective interfacial functionalization of nonaqueous poly(high internal phase emulsions), poly(HIPEs). The formation and polymerization of methacrylic and styrenic HIPEs were possible through the stabilization with nitrogen doped carbon nanotube (CNX) and surfactant mixtures using a urea-choline chloride DES as a delivering phase. Subtle changes in CNX concentration (less than 0...
October 25, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mark Wilson
The study of the structure and dynamics of network-forming materials is reviewed. Experimental techniques used to extract key structural information are briefly considered. Strategies for building simulation models, based on both targeting key (experimentally-accessible) materials and on systematically controlling key model parameters, are discussed. As an example of the first class of materials, a key target system, SiO2, is used to highlight how the changing structure with applied pressure can be effectively modelled (in three dimensions) and used to link to both experimental results and simple structural models...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Wen-Xia Li, Ying Cao, Meng-Chen Zou, Ying Huang, Ping Hu, Xiang-Rong Luo, Ya Jiang, Yao-Ming Xue, Fang Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate foot biomechanics characteristic of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This study was conducted among 303 patients with type 2 diabetes. The whole foot was divided into 10 regions, namely the first toe (T1); the second to fifth toes (T2-5); the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals (M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5, respectively); midfoot (MF), and the heel medial (HM). Foot arch index, foot angle and maximum peak pressure (MPP) of the 10 regions were measured using a Footscan gait system...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Tobias Stauber, Heinerich Kohler
The charge susceptibility of twisted bilayer graphene is investigated in the Dirac cone, respectively random-phase approximation. For small enough twist angles Θ≦2(o) we find weakly Landau damped interband plasmons, i.~e., collective excitonic modes which exist in the undoped material, with an almost constant energy dispersion. In this regime, the loss function can be described as a Fano resonance and we argue that these excitations arise from the interaction of quasi-localised states with the incident light field...
October 24, 2016: Nano Letters
E Auvinet, F Multon, V Manning, J Meunier, J P Cobb
Gait asymmetry information is a key point in disease screening and follow-up. Constant Relative Phase (CRP) has been used to quantify within-stride asymmetry index, which requires noise-free and accurate motion capture, which is difficult to obtain in clinical settings. This study explores a new index, the Longitudinal Asymmetry Index (ILong) which is derived using data from a low-cost depth camera (Kinect). ILong is based on depth images averaged over several gait cycles, rather than derived joint positions or angles...
August 24, 2016: Gait & Posture
Ingo Hoffmann, Miriam Simon, Anja Hörmann, Thorsten Gravert, Peggy Heunemann, Sarah E Rogers, Michael Gradzielski
Nanoemulsions are metastable emulsions with droplet sizes between 20 and 100 nm with a wide range of applications e.g. in polymerization, in pharmaceutical and cos- metic formulations and as drug delivery systems. Even though they are not in ther- modynamic equilibrium, they can be metastable over relatively long times and have the advantage that they can be formed easily by low energy input methods. In par- ticular, the phase inversion concentration method (PIC) allows to form nanoemulsions simply by diluting a suitable mixture of oil and surfactants with water...
October 24, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Qinglei Zhang, Xiaolong Lu, Qingzhao Zhang, Lei Zhang, Suoding Li, Shaobin Liu
In this study, Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) with compound addtive. The compound additive was made with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and Poly ethylene glycol (PEG). The results showed that the modified PVDF membrane had better separation performance than virgin PVDF membrane. The UF flux of modified PVDF membrane can reach 684 L·h(-1)·m(-2) and lysozyme (LZM) passage is 72.6% while virgin PVDF membrane is 313 L·h(-1)·m(-2) and 53...
October 19, 2016: Membranes
Takao Matsumoto, Yeong-Gi So, Yuji Kohno, Hidetaka Sawada, Ryo Ishikawa, Yuichi Ikuhara, Naoya Shibata
The interactions between magnetic skyrmions and structural defects, such as edges, dislocations, and grain boundaries (GBs), which are all considered as topological defects, will be important issues when magnetic skyrmions are utilized for future memory device applications. To investigate such interactions, simultaneous visualization of magnetic skyrmions and structural defects at high spatial resolution, which is not feasible by conventional techniques, is essential. Here, taking advantages of aberration-corrected differential phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy, we investigate the interaction of magnetic skyrmions with a small-angle GB in a thin film of FeGe1-xSix...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
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