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A C Ellis, M Patterson, T Dudenbostel, D Calhoun, B Gower
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vascular endothelial function declines with advancing age, due in part to increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and this age-related vascular dysfunction has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a dietary supplement containing β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), glutamine and arginine on endothelial-dependent vasodilation of older adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 31 community-dwelling men and women aged 65-87 years were randomly assigned to two groups...
February 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Rafael Salto, Jose D Vílchez, María D Girón, Elena Cabrera, Nefertiti Campos, Manuel Manzano, Ricardo Rueda, Jose M López-Pedrosa
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to enhance cell survival, differentiation and protein turnover in muscle, mainly activating phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinases/ extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathways. Since these two pathways are related to neuronal survival and differentiation, in this study, we have investigated the neurotrophic effects of HMB in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells. In Neuro2a cells, HMB promotes differentiation to neurites independent from any effects on proliferation...
2015: PloS One
Francisco J Albert, Jaime Morente-Sánchez, Francisco B Ortega, Manuel J Castillo, Ángel Gutiérrez
INTRODUCTION: although -hydroxy--methylbutyrate (HMB) is generally marketed as a supplement for increasing muscle mass and strength, it is still not fully understood how and in which particular sports and conditions HMB can be more effective. AIMS: the primary purpose of this review is to update and summarize the current knowledge about the usefulness of HMB and to organize this information by different sports with specific reference to sports with high wear and tear phenomena as soccer, rugby or football...
2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Paul C Henning, Bong-Sup Park, Jeong-Su Kim
OBJECTIVES: Soldiers lose muscle and bone density during sustained operations. We investigated the impact of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on bone properties, muscle mass, and markers of skeletal muscle regeneration under simulated military sustained operations. METHODS: Male mice were divided into four groups (10/group): (1) ALT = ad libitum + trained (1h/d for 3 d/wk); (2) ALTH = ALT + HMB (0.5 g/kg BW/d); (3) C = caloric restricted (-30%) + trained (6h/d, 6d/wk); and (4) CH = C + HMB...
June 2014: Military Medicine
A Wong, A Chew, C M Wang, L Ong, S H Zhang, S Young
OBJECTIVE: To compare pressure ulcer healing rates in patients supplemented with a specialised amino acid mixture containing (beta)-hydroxy (beta)-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine and glutamine, and standard oral nutritional supplements versus patients supplemented with oral nutritional supplements and a placebo mixture. METHOD: Twenty-three inpatients with stage II, III or IV pressure ulcers in an acute care hospital were randomised to recieve (A) a HMB, arginine and glutamine mixture twice daily alongside oral nutritional supplements (n=11) or (B) standard nutritional care alongside oral nutritional supplements (n=12) for 2 weeks...
May 2014: Journal of Wound Care
Takayuki Imai, Kazuto Matsuura, Yukinori Asada, Shun Sagai, Katsunori Katagiri, Eiichi Ishida, Daisuke Saito, Rei Sadayasu, Hitoshi Wada, Shigeru Saijo
OBJECTIVE: This prospective randomized Phase II study was designed to evaluate the preventive effect of an oral nutrition supplement composed of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine and glutamine (beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate/arginine/glutamine) on radiation dermatitis in head and neck cancer patients. METHODS: Forty patients with histologically proven head and neck cancer, treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy involving cisplatin were recruited. They were randomly assigned to the beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate/arginine/glutamine supplement treatment group (Group A) or the control group that received no supplement (Group B)...
May 2014: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Antje Bruckbauer, Michael B Zemel
The AMPK-Sirt1 pathway is an important regulator of energy metabolism and therefore a potential target for prevention and therapy of metabolic diseases. We recently demonstrated leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) to synergize with low-dose resveratrol (200 nM) to activate sirtuin signaling and stimulate energy metabolism. Here we show that leucine exerts a direct effect on Sirt1 kinetics, reducing its Km for NAD(+) by >50% and enabling low doses of resveratrol to further activate the enzyme (p = 0...
2014: PloS One
K Honda
The larval osmeterial secretions of sixPapilio species examined displayed a remarkable qualitative change at the fourth larval ecdysis. The secretions of 4th (penultimate) instar larvae ofP. machaon, P. memnon, P. helenus, P. bianor, andP. maackii principally comprised mono- and/or sesquiterpenoids. The compounds identified from these species included α-pinene, sabinene, β-myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, (Z)-β-ocimene, (E)-β-ocimene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, (E)-β-farnesene, β-selinene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, germacrene-A, germacrene-B, caryophyllene oxide, methyl 3-hydroxy-n-butyrate, and acetic acid...
November 1981: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Everson A Nunes, Luiz M Gonçalves-Neto, Francielle B D Ferreira, Cristiane dos Santos, Luiz C Fernandes, Antonio C Boschero, Philip C Calder, Alex Rafacho
Glucocorticoid (GC) excess alters glucose homeostasis and promotes modifications in murinometric and anthropometric parameters in rodents and humans, respectively. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, has been proposed as a nutritional strategy for preventing muscle wasting, but few data regarding its effects on glucose homeostasis are available. Here, we analyzed whether the effects of GC excess on glucose homeostasis may be attenuated or exacerbated by the concomitant ingestion of HMB...
November 2013: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Kousuke Akiyama, Tomoko Mineno, Masafumi Okawa, Junei Kinjo, Hiroyuki Miyashita, Hitoshi Yoshimitsu, Toshihiro Nohara, Masateru Ono
Treatment of the ether-insoluble resin glycoside (convolvulin) fraction from seeds of Quamoclit pennata (Convolvulaceae) with indium(III) chloride in methanol provided three oligoglycosides of hydroxy fatty acid (glycosidic acid) methyl esters and two methyl glycosides, which were partially acylated by a glycosidic acid, 7S-hydroxydecanoic acid 7-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside (quamoclinic acid B) and/or two organic acids, (E)-2-methylbut-2-enoic (tiglic) acid and/or 3R-hydroxy-2R-methylbutyric (nilic) acid. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical conversions...
2013: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Jeffrey R Stout, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, David H Fukuda, Kristina L Kendall, Jordan R Moon, Jay R Hoffman, Jacob M Wilson, Jeffery S Oliver, Vikkie A Mustad
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests CaHMB may impact muscle mass and/or strength in older adults, yet no long-term studies have compared its effectiveness in sedentary and resistance training conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 24 weeks of CaHMB supplementation and resistance training (3 d wk(-1)) or CaHMB supplementation only in ≥65 yr old adults. METHODS: This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, trial occurred in two phases under ad libitum conditions...
November 2013: Experimental Gerontology
D J Wilkinson, T Hossain, D S Hill, B E Phillips, H Crossland, J Williams, P Loughna, T A Churchward-Venne, L Breen, S M Phillips, T Etheridge, J A Rathmacher, K Smith, N J Szewczyk, P J Atherton
Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is contingent upon the dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover. Of all nutrients, the single amino acid leucine (Leu) possesses the most marked anabolic characteristics in acting as a trigger element for the initiation of protein synthesis. While the mechanisms by which Leu is 'sensed' have been the subject of great scrutiny, as a branched-chain amino acid, Leu can be catabolized within muscle, thus posing the possibility that metabolites of Leu could be involved in mediating the anabolic effect(s) of Leu...
June 1, 2013: Journal of Physiology
Jacob M Wilson, Peter J Fitschen, Bill Campbell, Gabriel J Wilson, Nelo Zanchi, Lem Taylor, Colin Wilborn, Douglas S Kalman, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Hector L Lopez, Richard B Kreider, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jose Antonio
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as a nutritional supplement. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. HMB can be used to enhance recovery by attenuating exercise induced skeletal muscle damage in trained and untrained populations. 2. If consuming HMB, an athlete will benefit from consuming the supplement in close proximity to their workout...
2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Jacob M Wilson, Ryan P Lowery, Jordan M Joy, Joe A Walters, Shawn M Baier, John C Fuller, Jeffrey R Stout, Layne E Norton, Eric M Sikorski, Stephanie M C Wilson, Nevine M Duncan, Nelo E Zanchi, John Rathmacher
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo...
August 28, 2013: British Journal of Nutrition
Jeong-Su Kim, Young-Min Park, Sang-Rok Lee, Ihssan S Masad, Andy V Khamoui, Edward Jo, Bong-Sup Park, Bahram H Arjmandi, Lynn B Panton, Won Jun Lee, Samuel C Grant
Older women exhibit blunted skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) compared to other age and gender cohorts that is partially due to an impaired regenerative capacity. In the present study, we examined whether β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) provision to aged female rodents would enhance regenerative mechanisms and facilitate RT-induced myofiber growth. Nineteen-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: HMB (0.48 g/kg/d; n = 6), non-HMB (n = 6), and control (n = 4)...
November 2012: Molecules and Cells
Jacob M Wilson, Samuel C Grant, Sang-Rok Lee, Ihssan S Masad, Young-Min Park, Paul C Henning, Jeffery R Stout, Jeremy P Loenneke, Bahram H Arjmandi, Lynn B Panton, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of 16 wk. of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) administration on age-related changes in functionality and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) determined myofiber dimensions. METHODS: Twelve young (44 wk.), 6 middle-aged (60 wk.), 10 old (86 wk.), and 5 very old (102 wk.) male Fisher-344 rat's body composition and grip strength were assessed at baseline. Following, 6 young, 6 middle-aged, 5 old and 5 very old rats were sacrificed for baseline myofiber dimensions and gene transcript factor expression in the soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS)...
2012: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Miroslav Kovarik, Tomas Muthny, Ludek Sispera, Milan Holecek
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite that may have a positive effect in protein catabolic conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that HMB treatment could attenuate the sepsis-induced protein catabolic state. The aims of our study were to elucidate the effect of HMB in healthy and septic animals and to evaluate the differences in the action of HMB in different muscle types. Intact and septic (5 mg endotoxin/kg i.p.) rats were administered with HMB (0.5 g/kg/day) or saline. After 24 h, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were isolated and used for determination of total and myofibrillar proteolysis, protein synthesis, leucine oxidation, activity of cathepsins B and L, chymotrypsin-like activity, and expression of α-subunits of proteasome...
December 2010: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Jacob M Wilson, Jeong-Su Kim, Sang-Rok Lee, John A Rathmacher, Brett Dalmau, J Derek Kingsley, Heather Koch, Anssi H Manninen, Raz Saadat, Lynn B Panton
BACKGROUND: While chronic β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation (≥ 2 wk) lowers exercise induced muscle damage, its acute or timing effects have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and timing effects of oral HMB supplementation on serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), muscle soreness, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: Sixteen non-resistance trained men (22 ± 2 yrs) were assigned to HMB-Pre or HMB-Post groups...
2009: Nutrition & Metabolism
Everson Araújo Nunes, Diogo Kuczera, Gleisson Alisson Pereira Brito, Sandro J R Bonatto, Ricardo Key Yamazaki, Ricardo Antonio Tanhoffer, Rogéria Campus Mund, Marcelo Kryczyk, Luiz Claudio Fernandes
Cancer cachexia syndrome contributes to wasting and weight loss leading to inefficacy of anticancer therapy. In this study, the anticatabolic agent beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) was supplemented to adult Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats during 8 weeks aiming to determine if tumor burden could be reduced. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to nontumor and tumor-bearing groups and fed regular chow or regular chow plus HMB supplemented (76 mg/kg body weight). Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation induced a lower tumor weight and tumor cell proliferation ex vivo, totally prevented glycemia reduction, as well as blunted the increase in the serum lactate concentrations and also preserved glycogen stores in tumor-bearing rats...
July 2008: Nutrition Research
M Holecek, T Muthny, M Kovarik, L Sispera
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite with protein anabolic effect. The aim of the study was to examine the role of exogenous HMB on leucine and protein metabolism in whole body and selected tissues. Rats were administered by HMB (0.1 g/kg b.w.) or by saline. The parameters of whole-body protein metabolism were evaluated 24 h later using L-[1-14C]leucine and L-[3,4,5-3H]phenylalanine. Changes in proteasome dependent proteolysis and protein synthesis were determined according the "chymotrypsin-like" enzyme activity and labeled leucine and phenylalanine incorporation into the protein...
January 2009: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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