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leucine metabolite

Jari E Kaikkonen, Peter Würtz, Emmi Suomela, Miia Lehtovirta, Antti J Kangas, Antti Jula, Vera Mikkilä, Jorma S A Viikari, Markus Juonala, Tapani Rönnemaa, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Mika Kähönen, Terho Lehtimäki, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Olli T Raitakari
: Non-alcoholic fatty liver is associated with obesity-related metabolic disturbances, but little is known about the metabolic perturbations preceding fatty liver disease. We performed comprehensive metabolic profiling to assess how circulating metabolites, such as lipoprotein lipids, fatty acids, amino acids and glycolysis-related metabolites, reflect the presence of and future risk for fatty liver in young adults. Sixty-eight lipids and metabolites were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in the population-based Young Finns Study from serum collected in 2001 (n=1,575), 2007 (n=1,509) and 2011 (n=2,002)...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Faten K Abd El-Hady, Walid Fayad, Carmine Iodice, Zeinab A El-Shahid, Mohamed S Abdel-Aziz, Egle Crudele, Giuseppina Tommonaro
Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge...
October 14, 2016: Current Microbiology
Kamini Dangat, Deepti Upadhyay, Anitha Kilari, Uma Sharma, Nisha Kemse, Savita Mehendale, Sanjay Lalwani, Girija Wagh, Sadhana Joshi, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the metabolic profile of milk on day 3 and at the 6th month of lactation in mothers with preeclampsia (PE) and normotensive mothers. STUDY DESIGN: Women with PE (n=29) and control women (n=31) were recruited for this study. Milk was collected on day 3 and at the 6th month of lactation. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to identify 25 milk metabolites (alpha-lactose, beta-lactose, oligosaccharides, myo-inositol, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, valine, acetone, citrate, creatine, phosphocreatine, acetate, choline, lactate, lipid, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine)...
October 12, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Kota Fukai, Sei Harada, Miho Iida, Ayako Kurihara, Ayano Takeuchi, Kazuyo Kuwabara, Daisuke Sugiyama, Tomonori Okamura, Miki Akiyama, Yuji Nishiwaki, Yuko Oguma, Asako Suzuki, Chizuru Suzuki, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Masahiro Sugimoto, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masaru Tomita, Toru Takebayashi
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study. METHODS: A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years) with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire...
2016: PloS One
Hafiz Mamoon Rehman, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Le Bao, Zahid Hussain Shah, Jae-Min Lee, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad, Gyuhwa Chung, Seung Hwan Yang
Family-1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.x; UGTs) are enzymes that glycosylate aglycones into glycoside-associated compounds with improved transport and water solubility. This glycosylation mechanism is vital to plant functions, such as regulation of hormonal homeostasis, growth and development, xenobiotic detoxification, stress response, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of soybean that identified 149 putative UGTs based on 44 conserved plant secondary product glycosyl-transferase (PSPG) motif amino acid sequences...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Laís Rosa Viana, Rafael Canevarolo, Anna Caroline Perina Luiz, Raquel Frias Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia)...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cancer
Sourav RoyChoudhury, Biswa Prasanna Mishra, Tila Khan, Ratna Chattopadhayay, Indrani Lodh, Chaitali Datta Ray, Gunja Bose, Himadri S Sarkar, Sudha Srivastava, Mamata V Joshi, Baidyanath Chakravarty, Koel Chaudhury
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most commonly occurring metabolic and endocrinological disorders affecting women of reproductive age. Metabolomics is an emerging field that holds promise in understanding disease pathophysiology. Recently, a few metabolomics based studies have been attempted in PCOS patients; however, none of them have included patients from the Indian population. The main objective of this study was to investigate the serum metabolomic profile of Indian women with PCOS and compare them with controls...
September 15, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
H Zhao, J Shen, D Djukovic, C Daniel-MacDougall, H Gu, X Wu, W-H Chow
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms linking metabolic profiles and weight gain are largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we used semi-targeted metabolomics to assay 156 metabolites selected from 25 key metabolic pathways in plasma samples from 300 non-smoking healthy women identified from Mano-A-Mano, the Mexican American Cohort study. The study subjects were randomly divided into two cohorts: training (N = 200) and testing (N = 100) cohorts...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
R Karlíková, J Široká, P Jahn, D Friedecký, A Gardlo, H Janečková, F Hrdinová, Z Drábková, T Adam
Atypical myopathy (AM) is a potentially fatal disease of grazing horses. It is reportedly caused by the ingestion of sycamore seeds containing toxic hypoglycin A. In order to study metabolic changes, serum and urine samples from nine horses with atypical myopathy and 12 control samples from clinically healthy horses were collected and then analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry; serum metabolic profiles as the disease progressed were also studied. Metabolic data were evaluated using unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Ricardo Berton, Miguel S Conceição, Cleiton A Libardi, Rafael R Canevarolo, Arthur F Gáspari, Mara Patrícia T Chacon-Mikahil, Ana C Zeri, Cláudia R Cavaglieri
This study analysed the time course of the global metabolic acute response after resistance exercise (RE), with the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. Ten young healthy males performed 4 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of one-repetition maximum in the leg press and knee extension exercises and had the serum metabolome assessed at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min post-RE. Measurements were also performed 1 h earlier and immediately before the exercises, as an attempt to characterise each participant's serum metabolome at rest...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Ryan M Clanton, Guoyao Wu, Gamal Akabani, Rodolfo Aramayo
Epilepsy is too complex to be considered as a disease; it is more of a syndrome, characterized by seizures, which can be caused by a diverse array of afflictions. As such, drug interventions that target a single biological pathway will only help the specific individuals where that drug's mechanism of action is relevant to their disorder. Most likely, this will not alleviate all forms of epilepsy nor the potential biological pathways causing the seizures, such as glucose/amino acid transport, mitochondrial dysfunction, or neuronal myelination...
September 28, 2016: Amino Acids
F-C Tang, C-C Chan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) are both associated with energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of BCAA supplementation on the PNC activity of male athletes in response to a bout of endurance running exercise. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twelve male athletes (20.3±1.4 years) participated in the study. Each of the athletes received 12 g of a BCAA supplement (leucine 54%, isoleucine 19% and valine 27%) per day during the study...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tingxiang Yan, Minghui Chen, Qian Shen, Ling Li, Xueqing Fu, Qifang Pan, Yueli Tang, Pu Shi, Zongyou Lv, Weimin Jiang, Ya-Nan Ma, Xiaolong Hao, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
Glandular trichomes are generally considered biofactories that produce valuable chemicals. Increasing glandular trichome density is a very suitable way to improve the productivity of these valuable metabolites, but little is known about the regulation of glandular trichome formation. Phytohormone jasmonate (JA) promotes glandular trichome initiation in various plants, but its mechanism is also unknown. By searching transcription factors regulated by JA in Artemisia annua, we identified a novel homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 1 (AaHD1), which positively controls both glandular and nonglandular trichome initiations...
September 23, 2016: New Phytologist
Lige Wu, Zixi Hu, Yingying Huang, Yating Yu, Wei Liang, Qinghui Zheng, Xianing Huang, Yong Huang, Xiaoling Lu, Yongxiang Zhao
Radiation therapy can be an effective way to kill cancer cells using ionizing radiation, but some tumors are resistant to radiation therapy and the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. It is therefore necessary to establish an appropriate working model to study and monitor radiation-mediated cancer therapy. In response to cellular stress, the metabolome is the integrated profiling of changes in all metabolites in cells, which can be used to investigate radiation tolerance mechanisms and identify targets for cancer radiation sensibilization...
2016: PloS One
José Tomás Matus
Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has become a widely used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
T C Geppert, A M Meyer, G A Perry, P J Gunn
In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, the source from which excess CP is derived and how it affects reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding excess metabolizable protein (MP) from feedstuffs differing in rumen degradability on ovulatory follicular dynamics, subsequent corpus luteum (CL) development, steroid hormone production and circulating amino acids (AA) in beef cows...
September 9, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jamie K Schnuck, Michele A Johnson, Lacey M Gould, Nicholas P Gannon, Roger A Vaughan
Leucine modulates synthetic and degradative pathways in muscle, possibly providing metabolic benefits for both athletes and diseased populations. Leucine has become popular among athletes for improving performance and body composition, however little is known about the metabolic effects of the commonly consumed leucine-derived metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB). Our work measured the effects of HMB on metabolic protein expression, mitochondrial content and metabolism, as well as lipid content in skeletal muscle cells...
October 2016: Lipids
Fredd Vergara, Amiu Shino, Jun Kikuchi
Cannibalism is known in many insect species, yet its impact on insect metabolism has not been investigated in detail. This study assessed the effects of cannibalism on the metabolism of fourth-instar larvae of the non-predatory insect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidotera: Noctuidea). Two groups of larvae were analyzed: one group fed with fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera (cannibal), the other group fed with an artificial plant diet. Water-soluble small organic compounds present in the larvae were analyzed using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and principal component analysis (PCA)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Bin Yuan, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Jie Wang, Bin Jiang, Xu Zhang, Maili Liu
It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR) soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the final soy sauce product...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Azam Yazdani, Akram Yazdani, Ahmad Samiei, Eric Boerwinkle
Untargeted metabolomics, measurement of large numbers of metabolites irrespective of their chemical or biologic characteristics, has proven useful for identifying novel biomarkers of health and disease. Of particular importance is the analysis of networks of metabolites, as opposed to the level of an individual metabolite. The aim of this study is to achieve causal inference among serum metabolites in an observational setting. A metabolomics causal network is identified using the genome granularity directed acyclic graph (GDAG) algorithm where information across the genome in a deeper level of granularity is extracted to create strong instrumental variables and identify causal relationships among metabolites in an upper level of granularity...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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