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leucine metabolite

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543565/lactate-supplementation-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injured-adults-by-primed-constant-infusion-of-sodium-l-lactate
#1
Stephanie M Wolahan, Howard C Mao, Courtney Real, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
Carbohydrate fuel augmentation following traumatic brain injury may be a viable treatment to improve recovery when cerebral oxidative metabolism of glucose is depressed. We performed a primed constant sodium L-lactate infusion in 11 moderate to severely brain injured adults. Blood was collected before and periodically during the infusion study. We quantified global cerebral uptake of glucose and lactate and other systemic metabolites associated with energy metabolism. Our hypothesis was that cerebral lactate uptake, as measured by the arteriovenous difference of lactate (AVDlac), would increase in severely injured TBI patients in the neurocritical care unit...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529327/metabolite-profiling-of-obese-individuals-before-and-after-a-one-year-weight-loss-program
#2
N Geidenstam, M Al-Majdoub, M Ekman, P Spégel, M Ridderstråle
OBJECTIVE: We and others have previously characterized changes in circulating metabolite levels following diet-induced weight loss. Our aim was to investigate if baseline metabolite levels and weight loss-induced changes in these are predictive of or associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) and metabolic risk traits. METHODS: Serum metabolites were analyzed with gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in 91 obese individuals at baseline and after participating in a one year non-surgical weight loss program...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503899/effects-of-maternal-treatment-with-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-metylbutyrate-and-2-oxoglutaric-acid-on-femur-development-in-offspring-of-minks-of-the-standard-dark-brown-type
#3
E Tomaszewska, P Dobrowolski, I Świetlicka, S Muszyński, K Kostro, A Jakubczak, I Taszkun, A Żmuda, K Rycerz, T Blicharski, J Jaworska-Adamu
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the diet, mother type and sex of the offspring on the mechanical and geometric parameters of long bones as well as bone tissue density in minks. Primiparous and multiparous dams were supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (a metabolite of leucine, at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg of body weight) and/or 2-oxoglutaric acid (a precursor of glutamine, at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg of body weight) during gestation. The diet did not influence bone tissue density and the length of the humerus...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493406/beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-and-muscle-wasting-conditions
#4
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492986/biosynthesis-and-bioactivity-of-glucosinolates-and-their-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#5
REVIEW
Pedro Joaquín Sánchez-Pujante, María Borja-Martínez, María Ángeles Pedreño, Lorena Almagro
Glucosinolates are biologically active compounds which are involved in plant defense reaction. The use of plant in vitro cultures and genetic engineering is a promising strategy for their sustainable production. Glucosinolates are a class of secondary metabolites found mainly in Brassicaceae, which contain nitrogen and sulfur in their structures. Glucosinolates are divided into three groups depending on the amino acid from which they are biosynthesized. Aliphatic glucosinolates are generally derived from leucine, valine, methionine, isoleucine and alanine while indole and aromatic glucosinolates are derived from tryptophan and phenylalanine or tyrosine, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492501/urinary-metabolomics-in-pediatric-obesity-and-nafld-identifies-metabolic-pathways-metabolites-related-to-dietary-habits-and-gut-liver-axis-perturbations
#6
Jacopo Troisi, Luca Pierri, Annamaria Landolfi, Francesca Marciano, Antonella Bisogno, Federica Belmonte, Carmen Palladino, Salvatore Guercio Nuzio, Pietro Campiglia, Pietro Vajro
To get insight into still elusive pathomechanisms of pediatric obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) we explored the interplay among GC-MS studied urinary metabolomic signature, gut liver axis (GLA) abnormalities, and food preferences (Kid-Med). Intestinal permeability (IP), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were investigated in forty children (mean age 9.8 years) categorized as normal weight (NW) or obese (body mass index <85th or >95th percentile, respectively) ± ultrasonographic bright liver and hypertransaminasemia (NAFLD)...
May 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482070/elevated-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-bcaa-levels-predict-deterioration-of-glycemic-control-in-adolescents
#7
Domenico Tricò, Hetty Prinsen, Cosimo Giannini, Robin de Graff, Christoph Juchem, Fangyong Li, Sonia Caprio, Nicola Santoro, Raimund I Herzog
Context: Traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are weak predictors of changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in youth. Objective: To identify early metabolic features of insulin resistance in youth and whether they predict deterioration of glycemic control. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted at the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic. Patients and Intervention: Concentrations of α-hydroxybutyrate, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) were measured by NMR spectroscopy in 78 non-diabetic adolescents during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475656/nmr-based-metabolomic-analysis-for-the-effects-of-creatine-supplementation-on-mouse-myoblast-cell-line-c2c12
#8
Wenqi Xu, Donghai Lin, Caihua Huang
Creatine (Cr) supplementation has drawn much attention from researchers owing to its widespread efficacy in sports, and more recently, in therapeutic fields. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic analysis to address the metabolic profile of aqueous extracts from the mouse myoblast cell line C2C12 exposed to 2 mM Cr for 24 h (the Cr-treated group). Results showed that Cr supplementation facilitated the proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts...
May 5, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473464/alterations-in-3-hydroxyisobutyrate-and-fgf21-metabolism-are-associated-with-protein-ingestion-induced-insulin-resistance
#9
Lydia-Ann L S Harris, Gordon I Smith, Bruce W Patterson, Raja S Ramaswamy, Adewole Okunade, Shannon C Kelly, Lane C Porter, Samuel Klein, Jun Yoshino, Bettina Mittendorfer
Systemic hyperaminoacidemia, induced by either intravenous amino acid infusion or protein ingestion, reduces insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Studies in mice suggest that the valine metabolite 3-hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), adiponectin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) may be involved in the amino acid-mediated insulin resistance. We therefore measured the rate of glucose disposal, and plasma 3-HIB, FGF21, adiponectin, and NEFA concentrations in 30 women during basal conditions and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure (HECP) with and without concomitant ingestion of protein (n=15) or an amount of leucine that matched the amount in the protein (n=15)...
May 4, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469704/development-of-a-core-clostridium-thermocellum-kinetic-metabolic-model-consistent-with-multiple-genetic-perturbations
#10
Satyakam Dash, Ali Khodayari, Jilai Zhou, Evert K Holwerda, Daniel G Olson, Lee R Lynd, Costas D Maranas
BACKGROUND: Clostridium thermocellum is a Gram-positive anaerobe with the ability to hydrolyze and metabolize cellulose into biofuels such as ethanol, making it an attractive candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). At present, metabolic engineering in C. thermocellum is hindered due to the incomplete description of its metabolic repertoire and regulation within a predictive metabolic model. Genome-scale metabolic (GSM) models augmented with kinetic models of metabolism have been shown to be effective at recapitulating perturbed metabolic phenotypes...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453535/plasma-amino-acids-and-metabolic-profiling-of-dairy-cows-in-response-to-a-bolus-duodenal-infusion-of-leucine
#11
Hassan Sadri, Dirk von Soosten, Ulrich Meyer, Jeannette Kluess, Sven Dänicke, Behnam Saremi, Helga Sauerwein
Leucine (Leu), one of the three branch chain amino acids, acts as a signaling molecule in the regulation of overall amino acid (AA) and protein metabolism. Leucine is also considered to be a potent stimulus for the secretion of insulin from pancreatice β-cells. Our objective was to study the effects of a duodenal bolus infusion of Leu on insulin and glucagon secretion, on plasma AA concentrations, and to do a metabolomic profiling of dairy cows as compared to infusions with either glucose or saline. Six duodenum-fistulated Holstein cows were studied in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 7 days, in which the treatments were applied at the end of each period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447460/effects-of-histidine-supplementation-on-global-serum-and-urine-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-and-serum-amino-acid-profiles-in-obese-women-from-a-randomized-controlled-study
#12
Shanshan Du, Shuhong Sun, Liyan Liu, Qiao Zhang, Fuchuan Guo, Chunlong Li, Rennan Feng, Changhao Sun
The aim of current study was to investigate the metabolic changes associated with histidine supplementation in serum and urine metabolic signatures and serum amino acid (AA) profiles. Serum and urine (1)H NMR-based metabolomics and serum AA profiles were employed in 32 and 37 obese women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) intervened with placebo or histidine for 12 weeks. Multivariable statistical analysis were conducted to define characteristic metabolites. In serum (1)H NMR metabolic profiles, increases in histidine, glutamine, aspartate, glycine, choline, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) were observed; meanwhile, decreases in cholesterol, triglycerides, fatty acids and unsaturated lipids, acetone, and α/β-glucose were exhibited after histidine supplement...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418859/serum-metabolomics-differentiating-pancreatic-cancer-from-new-onset-diabetes
#13
Xiangyi He, Jie Zhong, Shuwei Wang, Yufen Zhou, Lei Wang, Yongping Zhang, Yaozong Yuan
To establish a screening strategy for pancreatic cancer (PC) based on new-onset diabetic mellitus (NO-DM), serum metabolomics analysis and a search for the metabolic pathways associated with PC related DM were performed. Serum samples from patients with NO-DM (n = 30) and patients with pancreatic cancer and NO-DM were examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) of the most significant metabolites...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411543/the-disorder-metabolic-profiling-in-kidney-and-spleen-of-mice-induced-by-mycotoxins-deoxynivalenol-through-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#14
Jian Ji, Pei Zhu, Fangchao Cui, Fuwei Pi, Yinzhi Zhang, Xiulan Sun
Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics strategy was implemented for the metabolites detection in kidney and spleen samples of mice, which were treated with 2 mg kg(-1) deoxynivalenol (DON), through intragastric administration for three weeks, for studying the toxicity of DON on the metabolic profiling in kidney and spleen. The spectrum was deconvoluted, aligned and identified with MS DIAL, equipped with Fiehn library. And the data matrix was processed with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for selection of metabolites with VIP >1, t-test p value < 0...
March 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402211/metabolomic-study-of-chardonnay-grapevines-double-stressed-with-esca-associated-fungi-and-drought
#15
Marta R M Lima, Antoinette F Machado, Walter D Gubler
Esca is a complex grapevine trunk disease associated with fungal infection of the xylem. However, the inconstancy of external symptoms and the ability of esca-associated fungi to inhabit grapevines without causing apparent disease suggests that abiotic factors might be involved in the disease. Water stress has been proposed to be one of the factors influencing esca symptom manifestation but the specific role played by water stress on esca development is unknown. We conducted a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomic study aiming at unveiling drought-induced modifications in xylem sap composition that could contribute to esca-related infection progression...
June 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396157/coupled-brain-and-urine-spectroscopy-in-vivo-metabolomic-characterization-of-hmg-coa-lyase-deficiency-in-5-patients
#16
Dominique Roland, Patrice Jissendi-Tchofo, Gilbert Briand, Joseph Vamecq, Monique Fontaine, Vincent Ultré, Cécile Acquaviva-Bourdain, Karine Mention, Dries Dobbelaere
BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency is a rare inborn error of leucine metabolism and ketogenesis. Despite recurrent hypoglycemia and metabolic decompensations, most patients have a good clinical and neurological outcome contrasting with abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals and consistent abnormal brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) metabolite peaks. Identifying these metabolites could provide surrogate markers of the disease and improve understanding of MRI-clinical discrepancy and follow-up of affected patients...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393236/metabolomic-analysis-of-the-saliva-of-japanese-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Mitsuyoshi Ohshima, Keisuke Sugahara, Kiyohiro Kasahara, Akira Katakura
The aim of the present study was to characterize the metabolic systems in Japanese patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) metabolome analysis of saliva samples. A previous study showed variations among ethnicities and tumor sites in the saliva metabolome of patients with OSCC using CE-MS. In the present study, saliva was obtained from 22 Japanese patients with OSCC and from 21 healthy controls who visited the Department of Dentistry, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Dental Collage Ichikawa General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, and all samples were subject to comprehensive quantitative metabolome analysis using CE-MS...
April 6, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380376/sirt4-is-a-lysine-deacylase-that-controls-leucine-metabolism-and-insulin-secretion
#18
Kristin A Anderson, Frank K Huynh, Kelsey Fisher-Wellman, J Darren Stuart, Brett S Peterson, Jonathan D Douros, Gregory R Wagner, J Will Thompson, Andreas S Madsen, Michelle F Green, R Michael Sivley, Olga R Ilkayeva, Robert D Stevens, Donald S Backos, John A Capra, Christian A Olsen, Jonathan E Campbell, Deborah M Muoio, Paul A Grimsrud, Matthew D Hirschey
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacylases that regulate several aspects of metabolism and aging. In contrast to the other mammalian sirtuins, the primary enzymatic activity of mitochondrial sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) and its overall role in metabolic control have remained enigmatic. Using a combination of phylogenetics, structural biology, and enzymology, we show that SIRT4 removes three acyl moieties from lysine residues: methylglutaryl (MG)-, hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-, and 3-methylglutaconyl (MGc)-lysine...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371476/detection-of-the-recently-emerged-synthetic-cannabinoid-5f-mdmb-pica-in-legal-high-products-and-human-urine-samples
#19
Lukas Mogler, Florian Franz, Daniel Rentsch, Verena Angerer, Georg Weinfurtner, Mitchell Longworth, Samuel D Banister, Michael Kassiou, Bjoern Moosmann, Volker Auwärter
Indole or indazole-based synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) bearing substituents derived from valine or tert-leucine are frequently abused new psychoactive substances (NPS). The emergence of 5F-MDMB-PICA (methyl N-{[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]carbonyl}-3-methylvalinate) on the German drug market is a further example of a substance synthesized in the context of scientific research being misused by clandestine laboratories by adding it to 'legal high' products. In this work, we present the detection of 5F-MDMB-PICA in several legal high products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis...
March 31, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359851/characterization-of-a-protein-bound-polysaccharide-from-herba-epimedii-and-its-metabolic-mechanism-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#20
Aiping Chi, Zhimei Shen, Wenfei Zhu, Yuliang Sun, Yijiang Kang, Fei Guo
OBJECTIVES: Herba Epimedii is one of the famous Traditional Chinese Medicines used to treat the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The polysaccharides are the main active components in H. epimedii. The aim of this study is to discover the therapeutic effect and metabolic mechanism of H. epimedii polysaccharides against CFS. METHODS: The polysaccharide conjugates named HEP2-a were isolated from the leaves of H. epimedii using a water extraction method, and the general physicochemical properties of HEP2-a were analysed...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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