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leucine metabolite

Mari Ochiai, Midori Iida, Tetsuro Agusa, Kohki Takaguchi, Satoshi Fujiic, Kei Nomiyama, Hisato Iwata
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) have been detected in tissues of both wild animals and humans. Several previous studies have suggested adverse effects of OH-PCBs on the endocrine and nervous systems in mammals. However, there have been no studies on transcriptome analysis of the effects of OH-PCBs, and thus, the whole picture and mechanisms underlying the adverse effects induced by OH-PCBs are still poorly understood. We therefore investigated the mRNA expression profile in the liver of adult male Wistar rats treated with 4-hydroxy-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) to explore the genes responsive to OH-PCBs and to understand the potential effects of the chemical...
May 21, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Randal K Buddington, Scott C Howard, Harold W Lee, Karyl K Buddington
Growth after preterm birth is an important determinant of long-term outcomes. Yet, many preterm infants suffer ex utero growth retardation. We evaluated effects of leucine and the metabolite, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on growth of preterm pigs, a previously-validated translational model for preterm infants. After 48 h of parenteral nutrition preterm pigs were fed for 6 to 7 days isocaloric formulas with different levels of protein (50 or 100 g/L) with leucine (10 g/L, 76 mM) or HMB (at 1.1 g/L, 4 mM) added to stimulate protein synthesis or with alanine (6...
May 18, 2018: Nutrients
Laurice Bou Nemer, Haolin Shi, Bruce Richard Carr, Ruth Ann Word, Orhan Bukulmez
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an epidemic affecting more than one-third of adults in the United States. Obese women experience decreased fertility, explained in part by oocyte quality. Since follicular fluid (FF) provides an important microenvironment for oocyte growth, we sought to evaluate the effect of increased body weight on FF levels of 11 metabolic hormones and fatty acid metabolism. METHODS: The FF was collected from 25 women (10 normal weight, 10 overweight, and 5 obese) with diminished ovarian reserve undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) following a minimal stimulation protocol...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Carla Cozzolino, Guglielmo Rd Villani, Giulia Frisso, Emanuela Scolamiero, Lucia Albano, Giovanna Gallo, Roberta Romanelli, Margherita Ruoppolo
3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria is an organic aciduria resulting from deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (3-MCC), a biotin-dependent mitochondrial enzym carboxylating 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA during leucine catabolism. Its deficiency, due to mutations on MCCC1 and MCCC2 genes, leads to accumulation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA metabolites in blood and/or urine, primarily 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (C5-OH) in plasma and 3-methylcrotonyl-glycine (3-MCG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA) in the urine...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Fang Yi, Ling Wang, Mei Wang, Xue-Lian Yuan, Hua-Jing Wan, Jia-Yuan Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the combined effect of gestational age and birth weight on metabolites related to inherited metabolic diseases (IMD). METHODS: A total of 3 381 samples ruled out of IMD by follow-up were randomly selected from 38 931 newborns who participated in the neonatal IMD screening during 2014-2016. The 3 381 neonates were categorized into seven groups according to their gestational age and birth weight: extremely preterm appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) group (n=12), preterm small-for-gestational age (SGA) group (n=18), preterm AGA group (n=219), preterm large-for-gestational age (LGA) group (n=18), full-term SGA group (n=206), full-term AGA group (n=2 677), and full-term LGA group (n=231)...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
P A Karas, C Baguelin, G Pertile, E S Papadopoulou, S Nikolaki, V Storck, F Ferrari, M Trevisan, A Ferrarini, F Fornasier, S Vasileiadis, G Tsiamis, F Martin-Laurent, D G Karpouzas
The toxicity of pesticides on soil microorganisms is as an emerging area of concern. Novel and well-standardized tools could be now used to provide a robust assessment of the ecotoxicity of pesticides on soil microorganisms. We followed a tiered lab-to-field approach to assess the toxicity of three pesticides, widely used at EU level, (chlorpyrifos (CHL), isoproturon (IPU) and tebuconazole (TBZ)) on (i) the abundance of 11 microbial taxa and 8 functional microbial groups via q-PCR and (ii) the activity of enzymes involved in biogeochemical cycles via fluorometric analysis...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yuqin Xiong, Rui Yang, Xiaoxiao Sun, Huatian Yang, Haimin Chen
A variety of different symbiotic microbial communities are harbored on the surface of seaweeds, the interactions of which depend upon nutritional exchanges between the microbes and the hosts. Metabolomic profiling is able to provide a comprehensive and unbiased snapshot of the metabolites associated with seaweed-microbe interactions. In this study, the relationships between phycosphere bacteria and the red alga Pyropia haitanensis were investigated on a metabolomic basis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the pathways of the interactions between the seaweed and its associated phycospheric microbes were revealed...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Jin-Zhou Ye, Xiang-Min Lin, Zhi-Xue Cheng, Yu-Bin Su, Wan-Xin Li, Far-Man Ali, Jun Zheng, Bo Peng
We previously showed that glucose potentiated kanamycin to kill multidrug-resistant Edwardsiella piscicida through activation of the TCA cycle. However, whether other regulatory mechanism is involved requires further investigation. By quantitative proteomics technology, iTRAQ, we systematically mapped the altered proteins in the presence of glucose and identified 94 differentially expressed proteins. The analysis of the altered proteins by pathways, amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism were enriched. And the most significantly altered eight amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, glycine, serine and threonine were investigated for their potentiation of kanamycin to kill EIB202, where glycine, serine and threonine showed the strongest efficacy than the others...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Eva Baranovicova, Marian Grendar, Dagmar Kalenska, Anna Tomascova, Daniel Cierny, Jan Lehotsky
Cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death among adults in older age. Understanding mechanisms how organism responds to ischemia at global level is essential for the prevention and ischemic patient's treatment. In this study, we used a global cerebral ischemia induced by four-vessel occlusion as an established animal model for ischemic stroke to investigate metabolic changes after 24 h reperfusion, when transitions occur due to the onset of delayed neuronal death. We also focused on the endogenous phenomenon known as ischemic tolerance by the pre-ischemic treatment...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Titilayo D O Falade, Panagiotis K Chrysanthopoulos, Mark P Hodson, Yasmina Sultanbawa, Mary Fletcher, Ross Darnell, Sam Korie, Glen Fox
Aflatoxin contamination is associated with the development of aflatoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on food grains. This study was aimed at investigating metabolites produced during fungal development on maize and their correlation with aflatoxin levels. Maize cobs were harvested at R3 (milk), R4 (dough), and R5 (dent) stages of maturity. Individual kernels were inoculated in petri dishes with four doses of fungal spores. Fungal colonisation, metabolite profile, and aflatoxin levels were examined...
May 7, 2018: Toxins
Jiang Zhang, Gang Wang, Chang Zhao, Yunlong Bai, Shi Shu, Ziling Fan, Cheng Xia
BACKGROUND: As the milk production of dairy cows increases, the reproductive capacity gradually declines. Ovarian quiescence has become one of the concerns of the dairy industry. OBJECTIVE: To explore the different plasma metabolites levels between estrus and anestrus in energy balanced (EB) dairy cows. METHODS: Ten estrous and ten anestrus EB Holstein cows in early lactation were selected for the study. EB cows, 14 to 21 days post-partum (Holstein; parity 3...
May 7, 2018: Veterinary Quarterly
X W Zhao, Y X Qi, D W Huang, X C Pan, G L Cheng, H L Zhao, Y X Yang
Uptake of colostrum is of central importance for establishing a passive immunity transfer in neonatal calves. Studies of absorption and transmission of colostral immunoglobulins have been widely reported; however, changes in the serum in response to the absorption of colostral components in neonatal calves have not been completely characterized. Here, a nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the changes in metabolites in ingested colostrum, milk, and serum after neonatal calves were fed colostrum or milk...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Chao Wang, Ang Zhao, Li Fan, Bo Ma, Xue-Jun Shang, Qi Zhang
Objective: To explore the mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced damage to TM4 Sertoli cells in the mouse using metabolomics techniques based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). METHODS: We established the model of oxidative stress-induced damage to mouse TM4 Sertoli cells by treatment with H₂O₂. Then, we detected the survival rate and apoptosis rate of the TM4 cells by MTT and flow cytometry respectively, measured the concentration of ROS in the TM4 cells with the DCFH-DA fluorescent probe, and determined the levels of endogenous metabolites in the TM4 cells by GC-MS after H₂O₂ intervention...
June 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Jingjie Li, Lihuan Guan, Huizhen Zhang, Yue Gao, Jiahong Sun, Xiao Gong, Dongshun Li, Pan Chen, Xiaoyan Liang, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity and specificity of non-invasive diagnostic methods for endometriosis, especially at early stages, are not optimal. The clinical diagnostic indicator cancer antigen 125 (CA125) performs poorly in the diagnosis of minimal endometriosis, with a sensitivity of 24%. Therefore, it is urgent to explore novel diagnostic biomarkers. We evaluated the metabolomic profile variation of the eutopic endometrium between minimal-mild endometriosis patients and healthy women by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HRMS)...
April 30, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Natesh Singh, Gerhard F Ecker
The large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, or SLC7A5) is a sodium- and pH-independent transporter, which supplies essential amino acids (e.g., leucine, phenylalanine) to cells. It plays an important role at the Blood⁻Brain Barrier (BBB) where it facilitates the transport of thyroid hormones, pharmaceuticals (e.g., l-DOPA, gabapentin), and metabolites into the brain. Moreover, its expression is highly upregulated in various types of human cancer that are characterized by an intense demand for amino acids for growth and proliferation...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mainak Dutta, Brajesh Singh, Mamata Joshi, Debanjan Das, Elavarasan Subramani, Meenu Maan, Saikat Kumar Jana, Uma Sharma, Soumen Das, Swagata Dasgupta, Chaitali Datta Ray, Baidyanath Chakravarty, Koel Chaudhury
Endometriosis is a common benign gynecological disease, characterized by growth and proliferation of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus. With studies showing metabolic changes in various biofluids of endometriosis women, we have set upon to investigate whether endometrial tissue show differences in their metabolic profiles. 1 H NMR analysis was performed on eutopic endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis and controls. Analysis was performed on spectral data and on relative concentrations of metabolites obtained from spectra using multivariate and univariate data analysis...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shengming Sun, Zhongbao Guo, Hongtuo Fu, Xianping Ge, Jian Zhu, Zhimin Gu
Hypoxia represents a major physiological challenge for prawns and is a problem in aquaculture. Therefore, an understanding of the metabolic response mechanism of economically important prawn species to hypoxia and re-oxygenation is essential. However, little is known about the intrinsic mechanisms by which the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense copes with hypoxia at the metabolic level. In this study, we conducted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics studies and assays of energy metabolism-related parameters to investigate the metabolic mechanisms in the hepatopancreas of M...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cynthia Roy, Pierre-Yves Tremblay, Elhadji Assanour-Laouan-Sidi, Michel Lucas, Jean-Claude Forest, Yves Giguère, Pierre Ayotte
AIMS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects between 5 to 10 % of all pregnancies in Canada and can lead to adverse health outcomes in both the mother and fetus. Amino acids (AA) and acylcarnitines (AC) have been identified as early biomarkers of type 2 diabetes but their usefulness in screening for GDM has yet to be demonstrated. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study involving 50 controls and 50 GDM cases diagnosed between the 24th and 28th week of gestation...
April 4, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Jeong-Eun Park, HyeRin Lim, Jun Woo Kim, Kwang-Hee Shin
AIMS: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, and glycated hemoglobin are diagnostic markers for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is necessary to detect physiological changes in T2DM rapidly and stratify diabetic stage using other biomarkers. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to contribute to the development of objective and sensitive diagnostic indicators by integrating metabolite biomarkers derived from large-scale cohort studies. METHODS: We searched for metabolomics studies of T2DM cohort in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published within the last 10 years from January 2008 to February 2017...
April 4, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Xi Zhang, Qiuting Lin, Jiuxia Chen, Tingting Wei, Chen Li, Liangcai Zhao, Hongchang Gao, Hong Zheng
High glucose-induced cardiomyocyte death is a common symptom in advanced-stage diabetic patients, while its metabolic mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore metabolic changes in high glucose-induced cardiomyocytes and the heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics. We found that high glucose can promote cardiomyocyte death both in vitro and in vivo studies. Metabolomic results show that several metabolites exhibited inconsistent variations in vitro and in vivo...
April 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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