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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#1
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155711/monitoring-astrocyte-reactivity-and-proliferation-in-vitro-under-ischemic-like-conditions
#2
Yancy Ferrer-Acosta, Maxine N Gonzalez-Vega, David E Rivera-Aponte, Solianne M Martinez-Jimenez, Antonio H Martins
Ischemic stroke is a complex brain injury caused by a thrombus or embolus obstructing blood flow to parts of the brain. This leads to deprivation of oxygen and glucose, which causes energy failure and neuronal death. After an ischemic stroke insult, astrocytes become reactive and proliferate around the injury site as it develops. Under this scenario, it is difficult to study the specific contribution of astrocytes to the brain region exposed to ischemia. Therefore, this article introduces a methodology to study primary astrocyte reactivity and proliferation under an in vitro model of an ischemia-like environment, called oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154076/multiple-intracerebroventricular-injections-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-delay-motor-neurons-loss-but-not-disease-progression-of-sod1g93a-mice
#3
Francesca Sironi, Antonio Vallarola, Martina Bruna Violatto, Laura Talamini, Mattia Freschi, Roberta De Gioia, Chiara Capelli, Azzurra Agostini, Davide Moscatelli, Massimo Tortarolo, Paolo Bigini, Martino Introna, Caterina Bendotti
Stem cell therapy is considered a promising approach in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seem to be the most effective in ALS animal models. The umbilical cord (UC) is a source of highly proliferating fetal MSCs, more easily collectable than other MSCs. Recently we demonstrated that human (h) UC-MSCs, double labeled with fluorescent nanoparticles and Hoechst-33258 and transplanted intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into SOD1G93A transgenic mice, partially migrated into the spinal cord after a single injection...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154037/sex-and-age-specific-modulation-of-brain-gaba-levels-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Upasana Roy, Lara Stute, Corinna Höfling, Maike Hartlage-Rübsamen, Jörg Matysik, Steffen Roβner, A Alia
Age and sex are risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the neurotransmitter systems, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in AD pathogenesis but the relevance of sex-specific GABAergic dysfunction during AD progression remains unknown. In the present study, we utilized state-of-the-art high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance to systematically monitor the brain region-, age-, and sex-specific modulation of GABA levels in wild-type and Tg2576 mice with amyloid pathology...
October 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153610/tdp-43-proteolysis-is-associated-with-astrocyte-reactivity-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rodents
#5
Chih-Yuan Huang, Yi-Che Lee, Ping-Chia Li, Po-Chou Liliang, Kang Lu, Kuo-Wei Wang, Li-Ching Chang, Li-Yen Shiu, Ming-Feng Chen, Yuan-Ting Sun, Hao-Kuang Wang
The aggregation and deposition of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in neurons and astrocytes is characteristic in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nevertheless, the exact role of TDP-43 in astrocytes is unknown. Recently, TDP-43 was identified in neurons but not astrocytes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. In the present study, we evaluated TDP-43 expression and proteolysis in astrocytes in a rat model of TBI...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146293/andrographolide-a-promising-therapeutic-agent-negatively-regulates-glial-cell-derived-neurodegeneration-of-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampus-and-working-memory-impairment
#6
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141671/inhibiting-the-microglia-activation-improves-the-spatial-memory-and-adult-neurogenesis-in-rat-hippocampus-during-48%C3%A2-h-of-sleep-deprivation
#7
Meetu Wadhwa, Amit Prabhakar, Koushik Ray, Koustav Roy, Punita Kumari, Prabhash Kumar Jha, Krishna Kishore, Sanjeev Kumar, Usha Panjwani
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to cognitive impairment. Neuroinflammation could be a significant contributing factor in the same. An increase in regional brain pro-inflammatory cytokines induces cognitive deficits, however, the magnitude of the effect under SD is not apparent. It is plausible that microglia activation could be involved in the SD-induced cognitive impairment by modulation of neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and brain-derived neuronal factor (BDNF) level...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140741/comparative-in-vitro-study-of-11-c-methionine-and-11-c-deuterodeprenyl-uptake-in-three-human-glioma-cell-lines
#8
Elena Vasilskis, Ingrid Kreimerman, Silvia Olivera, Eduardo Savio, Henry Engler
AIM: To compare the uptake of (11)C-deuterodeprenyl ((11)C-DED) and (11)C-methionine ((11)C-MET) in three human glioma cell lines and study the relationship with glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) expression. (11)C-DED is used in positron emission tomography imaging as a marker of astrocytosis in various central nervous system pathologies. It binds irreversibly to MAO B, a glial dimeric enzyme with increased activity in some neurological pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Binding and internalization studies of (11)C-MET and (11)C-DED were performed in astrocytoma grade III, glioblastoma grade IV, and radio-resistant glioblastoma grade IV cells...
November 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138397/author-correction-reactive-astrocytes-function-as-phagocytes-after-brain-ischemia-via-abca1-mediated-pathway
#9
Yosuke M Morizawa, Yuri Hirayama, Nobuhiko Ohno, Shinsuke Shibata, Eiji Shigetomi, Yang Sui, Junichi Nabekura, Koichi Sato, Fumikazu Okajima, Hirohide Takebayashi, Hideyuki Okano, Schuichi Koizumi
The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Nobuhiko Ohno, which was incorrectly given as Noubuhiko Ohno. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132391/nadph-oxidases-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Karim Belarbi, Elodie Cuvelier, Alain Destée, Bernard Gressier, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement neurodegenerative disease associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Oxidative stress, a condition that occurs due to imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant status, is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are multi-subunit enzymatic complexes that generate reactive oxygen species as their primary function. Increased immunoreactivities for the NADPH oxidases catalytic subunits Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 have been reported in the brain of PD patients...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131016/focal-transplantation-of-aberrant-glial-cells-carrying-the-sod1g93a-mutation-into-rat-spinal-cord-induces-extensive-gliosis
#11
Sofía Ibarburu, Emiliano Trias, Natalia Lago, Hugo Peluffo, Romina Barreto-Núñez, Valentina Varela, Joseph S Beckman, Luis Barbeito
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the potential of aberrant glial cells (AbAs) isolated from the spinal cord of adult SOD1G93A symptomatic rats to induce gliosis and neuronal damage following focal transplantation into the lumbar spinal cord of wild-type rats. METHODS: AbAs were obtained from the spinal cords of SOD1G93A symptomatic rats. One hundred thousand cells were injected using a glass micropipette into the lumbar spinal cords (L3-L5) of syngeneic wild-type adult rats...
November 1, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126932/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enhances-the-therapeutic-potential-of-neonatal-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-post-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Hussein Ghazale, Naify Ramadan, Sara Mantash, Kazem Zibara, Sally El-Sitt, Hala Darwish, Farah Chamaa, Rose Mary Boustany, Stefania Mondello, Wassim Abou-Kheir, Jihane Soueid, Firas Kobeissy
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide with 1.5 million people inflicted yearly. Several neurotherapeutic interventions have been proposed including drug administration as well as cellular therapy involving neural stem cells (NSCs). Among the proposed drugs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, exhibiting neuroprotective properties. In this study, we utilized an innovative intervention of neonatal NSCs transplantation in combination with DHA injections in order to ameliorate brain damage and promote functional recovery in an experimental model of TBI...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126445/ykl-40-in-the-brain-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-neurodegenerative-dementias
#13
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Waqas Tahir, Eirini Kanata, Daniela Diaz-Lucena, Konstantinos Xanthopoulos, Eleni Kovatsi, Catharina Pleschka, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Matthias Schmitz, Duru Ozbay, Susana Correia, Ângela Correia, Ira Milosevic, Olivier Andréoletti, Natalia Fernández-Borges, Ina M Vorberg, Markus Glatzel, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Juan Maria Torres, Susanne Krasemann, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Isidro Ferrer, Inga Zerr
BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (also known as Chitinase 3-like 1) is a glycoprotein produced by inflammatory, cancer and stem cells. Its physiological role is not completely understood but YKL-40 is elevated in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammatory processes. Yet the precise characterization of YKL-40 in dementia cases is missing. METHODS: In the present study, we comparatively analysed YKL-40 levels in the brain and CSF samples from neurodegenerative dementias of different aetiologies characterized by the presence of cortical pathology and disease-specific neuroinflammatory signatures...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124566/zinc-potentiates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-nitric-oxide-production-in-cultured-primary-rat-astrocytes
#14
Mitsuaki Moriyama, Shunsuke Fujitsuka, Kenji Kawabe, Katsura Takano, Yoichi Nakamura
Zn(2+) plays a crucial role in the CNS where it accumulates in synaptic vesicles and is released during neurotransmission. Synaptically released Zn(2+) is taken up by neurons and astrocytes. The majority of previous work has focused on neuronal damage caused by excess Zn(2+). However, its effect on astrocyte function is not well understood. We examined the effect of extracellularly applied Zn(2+) on nitric oxide (NO) production in primary cultured rat astrocytes, which were experimentally activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
November 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123083/identification-of-a-peptide-recognizing-cerebrovascular-changes-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Aman P Mann, Pablo Scodeller, Sazid Hussain, Gary B Braun, Tarmo Mölder, Kadri Toome, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Tambet Teesalu, Stuart A Lipton, Erkki Ruoslahti
Cerebrovascular changes occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using in vivo phage display, we searched for molecular markers of the neurovascular unit, including endothelial cells and astrocytes, in mouse models of AD. We identified a cyclic peptide, CDAGRKQKC (DAG), that accumulates in the hippocampus of hAPP-J20 mice at different ages. Intravenously injected DAG peptide homes to neurovascular unit endothelial cells and to reactive astrocytes in mouse models of AD. We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a matricellular protein that is highly expressed in the brain of individuals with AD and in mouse models, as the target of the DAG peptide...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120167/understanding-the-inflammatory-tissue-reaction-to-brain-implants-to-improve-neurochemical-sensing-performance
#16
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neurochemical sensing probes are a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tool that can be used to study neurodegenerative diseases involving deficiencies in neurotransmitter signaling. However, implantation of these biosensors can elicit a harmful tissue response that alters the neurochemical environment within the brain. Transmission of chemical messengers via neurons is impeded by a barrier-forming glial scar that occurs within weeks after insertion followed by progressive neurodegeneration, attenuating signal sensitivity...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119608/synthetic-aav-crispr-vectors-for-blocking-hiv-1-expression-in-persistently-infected-astrocytes
#17
Christine Kunze, Kathleen Börner, Eike Kienle, Tanja Orschmann, Ejona Rusha, Martha Schneider, Milena Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Micha Drukker, Sabrina Desbordes, Dirk Grimm, Ruth Brack-Werner
Astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, perform key functions and are involved in several neurodegenerative diseases. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can persist in astrocytes, contributing to the HIV burden and neurological dysfunctions in infected individuals. While a comprehensive approach to HIV cure must include the targeting of HIV-1 in astrocytes, dedicated tools for this purpose are still lacking. Here we report a novel Adeno-associated virus-based vector (AAV9P1) with a synthetic surface peptide for transduction of astrocytes...
November 9, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115482/reactive-astrocytes-increase-the-expression-of-p%C3%A2-gp-and-mrp1-via-tnf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-and-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#18
Xueying Wang, Shaoping Huang, Yongsheng Jiang, Yu Liu, Tingting Song, Dan Li, Lin Yang
To understand multidrug resistance gene expression in reactive astrocytes, the present study involved stimulated astrocytes with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and determined gene expression by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Stimulation induced P‑glycoprotein (gp) and multidrug resistance‑associated protein (MRP0) 1 expression, which peaked by 24 h. Interestingly, the expression of P‑gp and Mrp1 correlated with cell proliferation. Therefore, reactivation of astrocytes may increase P‑gp and Mrp1 expression through TNF‑α and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113734/cellular-responses-of-human-astrocytoma-cells-to-dust-from-the-acheson-process-an-in-vitro-study
#19
Yke Jildouw Arnoldussen, Torunn Kringlen Ervik, Balazs Berlinger, Ida Kero, Sergey Shaposhnikov, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Silicon carbide (SiC) is largely used in various products such as diesel particulate filters and solar panels. It is produced through the Acheson process where aerosolized fractions of SiC and other by-products are generated in the work environment and may potentially affect the workers' health. In this study, dust was collected directly on a filter in a furnace hall over a time period of 24h. The collected dust was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and found to contain a high content of graphite particles, and carbon and silicon containing particles...
November 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110266/reparative-effects-of-poloxamer-p188-in-astrocytes-exposed-to-controlled-microcavitation
#20
Johnwesly Kanagaraj, Bo Chen, Shu Xiao, Michael Cho
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a neurological dysfunction that can result from a sudden exposure to shockwave and lead to adverse health consequences. Currently, there are no preventive measures that specifically target bTBI. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain such injuries, including the generation of microcavitation (e.g., microbubbles) in the brain that subsequently collapses with high pressure. This study was designed to explore and elucidate potential therapeutic effects of surfactants (poloxamers P188) to partially repair the damaged brain tissue due to bTBI...
November 6, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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