Read by QxMD icon Read

reactive astrocyte

Gang Bao, Chuankun Li, Lei Qi, Ning Wang, Baixiang He
Tetrandrine (TET) is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, which is isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of TET on oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/reoxygenation (OGSD/R)-induced injury in rat spinal cord astrocytes, which mimics hypoxic/ischemic conditions in vivo. MTT and LDH assays indicated that cell viability was distinctly reduced and LDH leakage was elevated after OGSD/R exposure, which were dose-dependently reversed by pretreatment with TET (0...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Michelle Hook, Sarah Woller, Eric Bancroft, Miriam Aceves, Mary Katherine Funk, John Hartman, Sandra M Garraway
Opioids and NSAIDs are commonly used to manage pain in the early phase of spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite its analgesic efficacy, however, our studies suggest that intrathecal (i.t.) morphine undermines locomotor recovery and increases lesion size in a rodent model of SCI. Similarly, intravenous (i.v.) morphine attenuates locomotor recovery. The current study explores whether i.v. morphine also increases lesion size after a spinal contusion (T12) injury, and quantifies the cell types that are affected by early opioid administration...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Shigeo Ohba, Joydeep Mukherjee, Tor-Christian Johannessen, Andrew Mancini, Tracy T Chow, Matthew Wood, Lindsey Jones, Tali Mazor, Roxanne E Marshall, Pavithra Viswanath, Kyle M Walsh, Arie Perry, Robert J A Bell, Joanna J Phillips, Joseph F Costello, Sabrina M Ronen, Russell O Pieper
Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene IDH1 are common in lower-grade glioma where they result in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), disrupted patterns of histone methylation and gliomagenesis. IDH1 mutations also co-segregate with mutations in the ATRX gene and the TERT promoter, suggesting that IDH mutation may drive the creation or selection of telomere-stabilizing events as part of immortalization/transformation process. To determine if and how this may occur, we investigated the phenotype of pRb/p53-deficient human astrocytes engineered with IDH1 wild-type (WT) or R132H mutant (IDH1mut) genes as they progressed through their lifespan...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Research
Ke-Wei Tian, Fan Zhang, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS), and results in CNS inflammation and damage to myelin. In this study, we examined the possible synergistic effects of C16, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2) in alleviating inflammation in an acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We employed multiple histological, morphological and iconographic assays to examine the effect of those drugs on disease onset, clinical scores and behavioral deficits...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Céline Marban, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Amina Ait-Ammar, Faiza Fahmi, Hala El Mekdad, Fadoua Daouad, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
One of the top research priorities of the international AIDS society by the action "Towards an HIV Cure" is the purge or the decrease of the pool of all latently infected cells. This strategy is based on reactivation of latently reservoirs (the shock) followed by an intensifying combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to kill them (the kill). The central nervous system (CNS) has potential latently infected cells, i.e., perivascular macrophages, microglial cells, and astrocytes that will need to be eliminated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Marie-Laure Specq, Mélisande Bourgoin-Heck, Nathalie Samson, François Corbin, Christian Gestreau, Maxime Richer, Hazim Kadhim, Jean-Paul Praud
Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) occurs in 90% of preterm newborns. Moderate HB can induce acute neurological disorders while severe HB has been linked to a higher incidence of apneas of prematurity. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that even moderate HB disrupts cardiorespiratory control in preterm lambs. Two groups of preterm lambs (born 14 days prior to term), namely control (n = 6) and HB (n = 5), were studied. At day 5 of life, moderate HB (150-250 μmol/L) was induced during 17 h in the HB group after which cardiorespiratory control as well as laryngeal and pulmonary chemoreflexes were assessed during baseline recordings and during hypoxia...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Mohammad T Abu-Rub, Ben Newland, Michelle Naughton, Wenxin Wang, Siobhan McMahon, Abhay Pandit
Reactive astrocytosis and the subsequent glial scar is ubiquitous to injuries of the central nervous system, especially spinal cord injury (SCI) and primarily serves to protect against further damage, but is also a prominent inhibitor of regeneration. Manipulating the glial scar by targeting chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) has been the focus of much study as a means to improve axon regeneration and subsequently functional recovery. In this study we investigate the ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivered by a non-viral polymer vector to silence the rate-limiting enzyme involved in CSPG synthesis...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Yeon-Hui Jeong, Jin-Sun Park, Dong-Hyun Kim, Hee-Sun Kim
Lonchocarpine is a phenylpropanoid compound isolated from Abrus precatorius that has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiepileptic activities. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of lonchocarpine in brain glial cells and analyzed its molecular mechanisms. We found that lonchocarpine suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death in hydrogen peroxide-treated primary astrocytes. In addition, lonchocarpine increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which are all under the control of Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling...
October 17, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jacqueline R Rivas, Sara J Ireland, Rati Chkheidze, William H Rounds, Joseph Lim, Jordan Johnson, Denise M O Ramirez, Ann J Ligocki, Ding Chen, Alyssa A Guzman, Mark Woodhall, Patrick C Wilson, Eric Meffre, Charles White, Benjamin M Greenberg, Patrick Waters, Lindsay G Cowell, Ann M Stowe, Nancy L Monson
Plasmablasts are a highly differentiated, antibody secreting B cell subset whose prevalence correlates with disease activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). For most patients experiencing partial transverse myelitis (PTM), plasmablasts are elevated in the blood at the first clinical presentation of disease (known as a clinically isolated syndrome or CIS). In this study we found that many of these peripheral plasmablasts are autoreactive and recognize primarily gray matter targets in brain tissue. These plasmablasts express antibodies that over-utilize immunoglobulin heavy chain V-region subgroup 4 (VH4) genes, and the highly mutated VH4+ plasmablast antibodies recognize intracellular antigens of neurons and astrocytes...
October 11, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Therese S Salameh, Gul N Shah, Tulin O Price, Melvin R Hayden, William A Banks
All forms of diabetes mellitus are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting in the development of a number of microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Diabetes is also associated with changes in brain microvasculature, leading to dysfunctions and ultimately disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These changes are correlated with a decline in cognitive function. In diabetes, BBB damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This occurs because of the increased oxidative metabolism of glucose caused by hyperglycemia...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
J Sandström, E Eggermann, I Charvet, A Roux, N Toni, C Greggio, A Broyer, F Monnet-Tschudi, L Stoppini
Alternative models for more rapid compound safety testing are of increasing demand. With emerging techniques using human pluripotent stem cells, the possibility of generating human in vitro models has gained interest, as factors related to species differences could be potentially eliminated. When studying potential neurotoxic effects of a compound it is of crucial importance to have both neurons and glial cells. We have successfully developed a protocol for generating in vitro 3D human neural tissues, using neural progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells...
October 8, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Mitsuharu Endo, Guljahan Ubulkasim, Chiho Kobayashi, Reiko Onishi, Atsu Aiba, Yasuhiro Minami
Ror2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays crucial roles in developmental morphogenesis and tissue-/organo-genesis. In the developing brain, Ror2 is expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) and involved in the regulation of their stemness. However, it remains largely unknown about its role in the adult brain. In this study, we show that Ror2 is up-regulated in reactive astrocytes in the neocortices within 3 days following stab-wound injury. Intriguingly, Ror2-expressing astrocytes were detected primarily at the area surrounding the injury site, where astrocytes express Nestin, a marker of NPCs, and proliferate in response to injury...
October 11, 2016: Glia
Ivan Vorisek, Michael Syka, Lydia Vargova
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) is an important diagnostic tool in Huntington disease (HD), a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. To clarify the nature of diffusivity changes in HD, we compared the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCW ) acquired by DW-MR with extracellular space volume fraction α and tortuosity λ, measured by the iontophoretic method in the R6/2 mouse model of HD and in wild-type controls (WT). In anisotropic globus pallidus (GP), diffusion measurements were performed in the mediolateral (x), rostrocaudal (y), and ventrodorsal (z) axes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Andrés Trostchansky, Homero Rubbo
Nitrated derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids (nitro-fatty acids) are being formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes and tissue, triggering signaling cascades via covalent and reversible post-translational modifications of nucleophilic amino acids in transcriptional regulatory proteins. Arachidonic acid (AA) represents a precursor of potent signaling molecules, i.e., prostaglandins and thromboxanes through enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative pathways. Arachidonic acid can be nitrated by reactive nitrogen species leading to the formation of nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA)...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Warin Krityakiarana, Kamonrapat Sompup, Nopporn Jongkamonwiwat, Sujira Mukda, Fernando Gomez Pinilla, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
The present work aimed at analyzing the effects of melatonin on scar formation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Upregulation of reactive astrocyte under SCI pathological conditions has been presented in several studies. It has been proved that the crucial factor in triggering this upregulation is proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, scar formation is an important barrier to axonal regeneration through the lesion area. Melatonin plays an important role in reducing inflammation, but its effects on scar formation in the injured spinal cord remain unknown...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Marija Adzic, Ivana Stevanovic, Natasa Josipovic, Danijela Laketa, Irena Lavrnja, Ivana M Bjelobaba, Iva Bozic, Marija Jovanovic, Milena Milosevic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic
It is widely accepted that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a universal danger-associated molecular pattern with several known mechanisms for immune cell activation. In the central nervous system, ATP activates microglia and astrocytes and induces a neuroinflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to describe responses of isolated astrocytes to increasing concentrations of ATP (5 µM to 1 mM), which were intended to mimic graded intensity of the extracellular stimulus. The results show that ATP induces graded activation response of astrocytes in terms of the cell proliferation, stellation, shape remodeling, and underlying actin and GFAP filament rearrangement, although the changes occurred without an apparent increase in GFAP and actin protein expression...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ane Wyssenbach, Tania Quintela, Francisco Llavero, Jose L Zugaza, Carlos Matute, Elena Alberdi
Astrogliosis is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may constitute a primary pathogenic component of that disorder. Elucidation of signaling cascades inducing astrogliosis should help characterizing the function of astrocytes and identifying novel molecular targets to modulate AD progression. Here, we describe a novel mechanism by which soluble amyloid-β modulates β1-integrin activity and triggers NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent astrogliosis in vitro and in vivo. Amyloid-β oligomers activate a PI3K/classical PKC/Rac1/NOX pathway which is initiated by β1-integrin in cultured astrocytes...
October 5, 2016: Aging Cell
Paras R Patel, Huanan Zhang, Matthew T Robbins, Justin B Nofar, Shaun P Marshall, Michael J Kobylarek, Takashi D Y Kozai, Nicholas A Kotov, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"