keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

reactive astrocyte

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093709/molecular-genetic-and-epigenetic-basis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Zohreh Hojati
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of spinal cord and brain. The initial event in MS occurs when activated CD4(+) T cells in periphery exacerbates immune responses by stimulating immune cells such as B cells, CD8(+) cells, mast cells, granulocytes and monocytes. These proinflammatory cells pass blood brain barrier by secreting proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and INF-γ which activate adhesion factors. APCs (antigen-presenting cells) reactivate CD4(+) T cells after infiltrating the CNS and CD4(+) T cells produce cytokines and chemokines...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093569/translational-evaluation-of-translocator-protein-as-a-marker-of-neuroinflammation-in-schizophrenia
#2
T Notter, J M Coughlin, T Gschwind, U Weber-Stadlbauer, Y Wang, M Kassiou, A C Vernon, D Benke, M G Pomper, A Sawa, U Meyer
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with radiotracers that target translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has become a popular approach to assess putative neuroinflammatory processes and associated microglia activation in psychotic illnesses. It remains unclear, however, whether TSPO imaging can accurately capture low-grade inflammatory processes such as those present in schizophrenia and related disorders. Therefore, we evaluated the validity of TSPO as a disease-relevant marker of inflammation using a translational approach, which combined neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative mouse models with PET imaging in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and matched controls...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092615/immunoreactivity-of-arcuate-nucleus-astrocytes-in-rats-after-intragastric-administration-of-habanero-peppers-capsicum-chinese-jacq
#3
K Rycerz, A Krawczyk, J Jaworska-Adamu, M Gołyński, K Lutnicki, I Balicki
Habanero pepper fruits contain capsaicin (CAP) characterised by a spicy taste. Astrocytes express vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), which interacts with cannabinoids including CAP. Only a few studies revealed that CAP leads to alterations of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) structures. The aim of this study was to analyse the GFAP (GFAP-IR) and S100β (S100β-IR) immunoreactive astrocytes of ARC in adult rats after intragastric administration of habanero pepper fruits. Adult, Wistar rats received a peanut oil - control group (C) - and oil suspension of habanero pepper fruits at a dose of 0...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092084/iron-availability-compromises-not-only-oligodendrocytes-but-also-astrocytes-and-microglial-cells
#4
Maria Victoria Rosato-Siri, Leandro Marziali, María Eugenia Guitart, Maria Elvira Badaracco, Mariana Puntel, Fernando Pitossi, Jorge Correale, Juana Maria Pasquini
When disrupted, iron homeostasis negatively impacts oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and impairs myelination. To better understand myelin formation and OLG maturation, in vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency (ID) not only on OLG maturation but also on astrocytes (AST) and microglial cells (MG). In vivo experiments in an ID model were carried out to describe maturational events during OLG and AST development and the reactive profile of MG during myelination when iron availability is lower than normal...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089558/startle-suppression-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-an-increase-in-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-reactive-gliosis-and-neuronal-loss-in-the-caudal-pontine-reticular-nucleus
#5
Swamini P Sinha, Pelin Avcu, Kevin M Spiegler, Sreeya Komaravolu, Kevin Kim, Tara Cominski, Richard J Servatius, Kevin C H Pang
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can produce somatic symptoms such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, sleep disturbances and sensorimotor dysfunction. Sensorimotor function can be measured by tests such as the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), an evolutionarily conserved defensive response to a brief yet sharp acoustic stimulus. mTBI produces a long-lasting suppression of ASR in rodents and humans; however, the mechanism of this suppression is unknown. The present study examined whether inflammatory processes in the brainstem (particularly the caudal pontine reticular nucleus, PnC) could account for the suppression of ASR after mTBI, because the PnC is an essential nucleus of the ASR circuit...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086932/spontaneous-ischaemic-stroke-lesions-in-a-dog-brain-neuropathological-characterisation-and-comparison-to-human-ischaemic-stroke
#6
Barbara Blicher Thomsen, Hanne Gredal, Martin Wirenfeldt, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Bettina Hjelm Clausen, Anders Elm Larsen, Bente Finsen, Mette Berendt, Kate Lykke Lambertsen
BACKGROUND: Dogs develop spontaneous ischaemic stroke with a clinical picture closely resembling human ischaemic stroke patients. Animal stroke models have been developed, but it has proved difficult to translate results obtained from such models into successful therapeutic strategies in human stroke patients. In order to face this apparent translational gap within stroke research, dogs with ischaemic stroke constitute an opportunity to study the neuropathology of ischaemic stroke in an animal species...
January 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081460/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-silica-nps-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-rho-kinase-jnk-signaling-pathways
#7
Xin Liu, Baiyan Sui, Jiao Sun
Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) has been extensively exploited in biomedical fields and mostly designed to enter the circulatory system, however, few studies focused on the potential adverse effects of SiO2-NPs exposure on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that serves as a critical barrier between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral circulation. This study attempts to provide an understanding of whether and how SiO2-NPs disrupts the BBB in vitro and in vivo. Through a human BBB model, we found that SiO2-NPs could induce tight junction loss and cytoskeleton arrangement, and increase inflammatory response and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs), which further activates astrocytes to amplify the generation of VEGF and increase the aquaporin-4 expression, and thus causing BBB disruption through a complex immunoregulatory loop between BMECs and astrocytes under SiO2-NPs exposure...
January 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076568/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-retinoblastoma-cell-phenotype-using-neuronal-and-glial-cell-markers
#8
María Eugenia Orellana, Rubens Belfort, Emilia Antecka, Miguel Noel Burnier
Purpose: The cellular origin of retinoblastoma is uncertain as constituent tumor cells heterogeneously express markers of both immature and mature retinal cells. An immunohistochemical analysis of cellular origin may yield valuable insights into disease progression and treatment options. This study aimed to determine the cellular origin of retinoblastoma in a large case series and correlate these findings with histopathological prognostic factors. Methods: Thirty-nine retinoblastoma cases were histopathologically diagnosed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the immature neural cell marker SRY-box containing gene 2 (SOX-2), the mature neuronal cell marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and the mature glial cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069688/up-regulation-of-cb2-receptors-in-reactive-astrocytes-in-canine-degenerative-myelopathy-a-disease-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
María Fernández-Trapero, Francisco Espejo-Porras, Carmen Rodríguez-Cueto, Joan R Coates, Carmen Pérez-Díaz, Eva de Lago, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Targeting the CB2 receptor afforded neuroprotection in SOD1(G93A) mutant mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The neuroprotective effects of CB2 receptors were facilitated by their up-regulation in the spinal cord in SOD1(G93A) mutant mice. Herein, we have investigated whether a similar CB2 receptor up-regulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, are evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM), caused from mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1)...
January 9, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066629/orchestration-of-the-crosstalk-between-astrocytes-and-cancer-cells-affects-the-treatment-and-prognosis-of-lung-cancer-sufferers-with-brain-metastasis
#10
COMMENT
Wangshu Dai, Hongcheng Zhu, Guangzong Chen, Hao Gu, Yihang Gu, Xinchen Sun, Xiaoning Zeng
Brain metastasis is an inauspicious consequence of lung cancer. However, the majority of cancer cells that seep into the brain died of unknown causes, only a few survived and developed into metastatic brain tumor. Communication between cancer cells and host tissue is viewed as an essential event during metastasis, but little is known about the accurate control of this processes. Within the lesion of brain metastasis, abundant activated astrocytes are observed with lung cancer cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the astrocyte network served a protective role in the central nervous system (CNS) and most malignant cells that seep into the brain perish were rejected by astrocytes...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059863/spatiotemporal-expression-of-ski-after-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Kaisheng Zhou, Wei Nan, Dongliang Feng, Zhigang Yi, Yandong Zhu, Zaiyun Long, Sen Li, Haihong Zhang, Yamin Wu
Ski is an evolutionarily conserved protein and widely participates in the regulation of various pathological and physiological processes such as wound healing, liver regeneration, development of the embryonic nervous system, muscle differentiation, and progression of many kinds of tumors. However, the distribution and function of Ski in central nervous system lesion and disease remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of Ski in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats...
January 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057555/reactive-astrogliosis-in-stroke-contributions-of-astrocytes-to-recovery-of-neurological-function
#12
REVIEW
Neil R Sims, Wai Ping Yew
Alterations in neuronal connectivity, particularly in the "peri-infarct" tissue adjacent to the region of ischemic damage, are important contributors to the spontaneous recovery of function that commonly follows stroke. Peri-infarct astrocytes undergo reactive astrogliosis and play key roles in modulating the adaptive responses in neurons. This reactive astrogliosis shares many features with that induced by other forms of damage to the central nervous system but also differs in details that potentially influence neurological recovery...
January 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057539/effects-of-ibuprofen-on-cognition-and-nmda-receptor-subunit-expression-across-aging
#13
Alejandra Márquez Loza, Valerie Elias, Carmen P Wong, Emily Ho, Michelle Bermudez, Kathy R Magnusson
Age-related declines in long- and short-term memory show relationships to decreases in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression, which may involve inflammation. This study was designed to determine effects of an anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, on cognitive function and NMDA receptor expression across aging. Male C57BL/6 mice (ages 5, 14, 20, and 26months) were fed ibuprofen (375ppm) in NIH31 diet or diet alone for 6weeks prior to testing. Behavioral testing using the Morris water maze showed that older mice performed significantly worse than younger in spatial long-term memory, reversal, and short-term memory tasks...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057519/col4a1-mutation-generates-vascular-abnormalities-correlated-with-neuronal-damage-in-a-mouse-model-of-hanac-syndrome
#14
Alix Trouillet, Henri Lorach, Elisabeth Dubus, Brahim El Mathari, Ivana Ivkovic, Julie Dégardin, Manuel Simonutti, Michel Paques, Xavier Guillonneau, Florian Sennlaub, José-Alain Sahel, Pierre Ronco, Emmanuelle Plaisier, Serge Picaud
: The HANAC syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene coding for collagen4a1, a major component of blood vessel basement membranes. Ocular symptoms include an increase in blood vessel tortuosity and occasional hemorrhages. To examine how vascular defects can affect neuronal function, we analyzed the retinal phenotype of a HANAC mouse model. Heterozygous mutant mice displayed both a thinning of the basement membrane in retinal blood vessels and in Bruch's membrane resulting in vascular leakage...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049023/aspartame-and-the-hippocampus-revealing-a-bi-directional-dose-time-dependent-behavioural-and-morphological-shift-in-mice
#15
Adejoke Y Onaolapo, Olakunle J Onaolapo, Polycarp U Nwoha
Changes, in behaviour, oxidative markers of stress and hippocampal morphology were evaluated following aspartame administration. Mice, (20-22g each) were given vehicle (10ml/kg) or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg) daily for 28days. They were tested in the Y-maze, radial-arm maze and elevated plus-maze (EPM) after the first and last dose of vehicle or aspartame; and then sacrificed. Hippocampal slices were analysed for aspartic acid, nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); and processed for general histology and neuritic plaques...
December 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044156/development-of-a-reversible-fluorescent-probe-for-reactive-sulfur-species-sulfane-sulfur-and-its-biological-application
#16
Yoko Takano, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Kazuhito Shimamoto, Ryo Miyamoto, Toru Komatsu, Tasuku Ueno, Takuya Terai, Hideo Kimura, Tetsuo Nagano, Yasuteru Urano
We report a reversible off/on fluorescent probe for monitoring concentration changes of sulfane sulfur by utilizing the unique ability of sulfane sulfur to bind reversibly to other sulfur atoms and the intramolecular spirocyclization reaction of xanthene dyes. It reversibly visualized sulfane sulfur in living A549 cells and primary-cultured hippocampal astrocytes.
January 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040794/native-oligodendrocytes-in-astrocytomas-might-inhibit-tumor-proliferation-by-wif1-expression
#17
Martin Asslaber, Silvia Schauer, Margit Gogg-Kamerer, Eva Bernhart, Franz Quehenberger, Johannes Haybaeck
Malignant astrocytoma remains incurable and rapidly fatal despite multimodal therapy. In particular, accelerated tumor cell heterogeneity often overcomes therapeutic effects of molecular protein targeting. This study aimed at identifying a gene with therapeutic potential that was consistently downregulated with astrocytoma progression. Analysis of the "Rembrandt" gene expression data revealed Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) gene as the most promising candidate with tumor suppressor function. Consequently, 288 randomly selected tissue regions of astrocytoma specimens were investigated immunohistochemically with the aid of image analysis...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036289/expression-of-pannexin-1-and-2-in-cortical-lesions-from-intractable-epilepsy-patients-with-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#18
Song Li, Zhenle Zang, Jiaojiang He, Xin Chen, Sixun Yu, Yuchun Pei, Zhi Hou, Ning An, Hui Yang, Chunqing Zhang, Shiyong Liu
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of intractable epilepsy in children however the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of FCD and FCD induced epilepsy remain unclear. Increasing evidence suggests that the large-pore ion channels, pannexin 1 (Panx1) and 2 (Panx2), are involved in epilepsy and brain development. In this study, we investigated the expression of Panx1 and Panx2 in surgical samples from patients with FCD type Ia (FCDIa), type IIa (FCDIIa), and type IIb (FCDIIb) and in age-matched autopsy control samples...
December 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028152/pharmacologic-inhibition-of-hsp90-to-prevent-glt-1-degradation-as-an-effective-therapy-for-epilepsy
#19
Longze Sha, Xueqin Wang, Jing Li, Xinze Shi, Liwen Wu, Yan Shen, Qi Xu
The glutamate transporter GLT-1 is critical for the maintenance of low interstitial glutamate concentrations. Loss of GLT-1 is commonly observed in neurological disorders, including temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Despite the hypothesis that targeting the mechanisms of GLT-1 deficiency may be a novel strategy for treating drug-resistant epilepsy, the underlying molecular cascade remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Hsp90β is up-regulated in reactive astrocytes of the epileptic hippocampus in patients with TLE and mouse models of epilepsy...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013092/overexpression-of-mitofusin2-decreased-the-reactive-astrocytes-proliferation-in-vitro-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation
#20
Yulong Shi, Chengla Yi, Xiao Li, Jiangpeng Wang, Fangyuan Zhou, Xiaoqian Chen
Glia scar is a hallmark in late-stage of brain stroke disease, which hinder axonal regeneration and neuronal repair. Mitofusin2 (Mfn2) is a newly found cellular proliferation inhibitor. This study is to elucidate the role of Mfn2 in reactive astrocytes induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation(OGD/R) model in vitro. Up-expression in EdU staining and protein level of GFAP, PCNA and CyclinD1, demonstrates the distinct activation and proliferation of astrocytes after the stimulation of OGD/R. Meanwhile, Mfn2 was proved to be down-regulated both in gene and protein levels...
December 22, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
keyword
keyword
74140
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"