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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777753/characterization-of-impaired-cerebrovascular-structure-in-app-ps1-mouse-brains
#1
Kee-Chan Ahn, Cameron R Learman, Gary L Dunbar, Panchanan Maiti, Won-Cheoul Jang, Hyeon-Cheol Cha, Mee-Sook Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by senile plaques, tauopathy and neuronal cell death in specific area of the brain. Recent studies suggest that neurovascular dysfunction may be an integral part of AD pathogenesis, contributing to the onset and development of AD pathologies such as neuronal death, inflammatory response, and breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB). In addition, vascular complications caused by age-related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure have high incidence in development of dementia and AD...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774449/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-grp78-following-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#2
Xuyan Jin, Dong Kyu Kim, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Mun-Yong Lee
The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in the injured central nervous system. Our aim was to examine the expression profiles and subcellular distributions of GRP78 and its association with the neuroglial reaction in the rat striatum after transient, focal cerebral ischemia. In sham-operated rats, constitutive, specific immunoreactivity for GRP78 was almost exclusively localized to the rough ER of striatal neurons, with none in the resting, ramified microglia or astrocytes...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767307/virus-vector-mediated-genetic-modification-of-brain-tumor-stromal-cells-after-intravenous-delivery
#3
Adrienn Volak, Stanley G LeRoy, Jeya Shree Natasan, David J Park, Pike See Cheah, Andreas Maus, Zachary Fitzpatrick, Eloise Hudry, Kelsey Pinkham, Sheetal Gandhi, Bradley T Hyman, Dakai Mu, Dwijit GuhaSarkar, Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Christian E Badr, Casey A Maguire
The malignant primary brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM) is generally incurable. New approaches are desperately needed. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated delivery of anti-tumor transgenes is a promising strategy, however direct injection leads to focal transgene spread in tumor and rapid tumor division dilutes out the extra-chromosomal AAV genome, limiting duration of transgene expression. Intravenous (IV) injection gives widespread distribution of AAV in normal brain, however poor transgene expression in tumor, and high expression in non-target cells which may lead to ineffective therapy and high toxicity, respectively...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765502/the-phenolic-components-of-gastrodia-elata-improve-prognosis-in-rats-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-by-enhancing-the-endogenous-antioxidant-mechanisms
#4
Anhuan Shi, Jianming Xiang, Fangyan He, Yanping Zhu, Gongbei Zhu, Yuhan Lin, Ningna Zhou
Pharmacological or spontaneous thrombolysis in ischemic stroke triggers an outbreak of reactive oxygen species and results in neuron death. Nrf2-mediated antioxidation in cells has been proved as a pivotal target for neuroprotection. This research reports that phenolic components of Gastrodia elata Blume (PCGE), a traditional Chinese medicine, can alleviate the pathological lesions in the penumbra and hippocampus by increasing the survival of neurons and astrocytes and improve neurofunction and cognition after reperfusion in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762127/electrospun-fiber-surface-nanotopography-influences-astrocyte-mediated-neurite-outgrowth
#5
Christopher D Johnson, Anthony R D'Amato, Devan L Puhl, Douglas M Wich, Amanda Vespermann, Ryan J Gilbert
Aligned, electrospun fiber scaffolds provide topographical guidance for regenerating neurons and glia after central nervous system injury. To date, no study has explored how fiber surface nanotopography affects astrocyte response to fibrous scaffolds. Astrocytes play important roles in the glial scar, the blood brain barrier, and in maintaining homeostasis in the central nervous system. In this study, electrospun poly L-lactic acid fibers were engineered with smooth, pitted, or divoted surface nanotopography...
May 15, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760648/profile-of-arachidonic-acid-derived-inflammatory-markers-and-its-modulation-by-nitro-oleic-acid-in-an-inherited-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Andrés Trostchansky, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Ernesto Miquel, Sebastián Rodríguez-Bottero, Laura Martínez-Palma, Patricia Cassina, Homero Rubbo
The lack of current treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) highlights the need of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms of the disease. A consistent neuropathological feature of ALS is the extensive inflammation around motor neurons and axonal degeneration, evidenced by accumulation of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia. Final products of inflammatory processes may be detected as a screening tool to identify treatment response. Herein, we focus on (a) detection of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolization products by lipoxygenase (LOX) and prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase in SOD1G93A mice and (b) evaluate its response to the electrophilic nitro-oleic acid (NO2 -OA)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755324/effect-of-chronic-oxidative-stress-on-neuroinflammatory-response-mediated-by-cd4-t-cells-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Helena Solleiro-Villavicencio, Selva Rivas-Arancibia
In a state of oxidative stress, there is an increase of reactive species, which induce an altered intracellular signaling, leading to dysregulation of the inflammatory response. The inability of the antioxidant defense systems to modulate the proinflammatory response is key to the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work is to review the effect of the state of oxidative stress on the loss of regulation of the inflammatory response on the microglia and astrocytes, the induction of different CD4+ T cell populations in neuroinflammation, as well as its role in some neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752681/critical-role-of-beclin1-in-hiv-tat-and-morphine-induced-inflammation-and-calcium-release-in-glial-cells-from-autophagy-deficient-mouse
#8
Jessica Lapierre, Myosotys Rodriguez, Chet Raj Ojha, Nazira El-Hage
We previously showed that autophagy is an important component in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and in the combined morphine-induced neuroinflammation in human astrocytes and microglia. Here we further studied the consequences of autophagy using glial cells of mice partially lacking the essential autophagy gene Atg6 (Beclin1) exposed to HIV Tat and morphine. Tat is known to cause an inflammatory response, increase calcium release, and possibly interact with autophagy pathway proteins. Following Tat exposure, autophagy-deficient (Becn1+/- ) glial cells had significantly and consistently reduced levels in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the chemokines RANTES and MCP-1 when compared to Tat-treated cells from control (C57BL/6J) mice, suggesting an association between the inflammatory effects of Tat and Beclin1...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751053/l-cysteine-suppresses-hypoxia-ischemia-injury-in-neonatal-mice-by-reducing-glial-activation-promoting-autophagic-flux-and-mediating-synaptic-modification-via-h-2-s-formation
#9
Danqing Xin, Xili Chu, Xuemei Bai, Weiwei Ma, Hongtao Yuan, Jie Qiu, Changxing Liu, Tong Li, Xin Zhou, Wenqiang Chen, Dexiang Liu, Zhen Wang
We previously reported that L-Cysteine, an H2 S donor, significantly alleviated brain injury after hypoxia-ischemic (HI) injury in neonatal mice. However, the mechanisms underlying this neuroprotective effect of L-Cysteine against HI insult remain unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the protective effects of L-Cysteine are associated with glial responses and autophagy, and L-Cysteine attenuates synaptic injury as well as behavioral deficits resulting from HI. Consistent with our previous findings, we found that treatment with L-Cysteine after HI reduced early brain injury, improved behavioral deficits and synaptic damage, effects which were associated with an up-regulation of synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 expression in the lesioned cortex...
May 8, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751018/differential-behavioral-and-glial-responses-induced-by-dopaminergic-mechanisms-in-the-inos-knockout-mice
#10
Ana Carolina Issy, Glauce Crivelaro Nascimento, Gabriel Henrique Dias de Abreu, Fabrine S Tristão, Elaine Del-Bel, Terence Duarte, Mariza Bortolanza
The interaction between distinctive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the dopamine system provides new avenues to the development of pharmacological tools for the pathophysiological conditions of the dopaminergic system. Our aim was to investigate the influences of dopamine-induced effects in inducible NOS knockout (iNOS KO) mice. In order to characterize iNOS KO mice phenotype, the animals were submitted to the basal analyses of motor, sensorimotor and sensorial abilities. Pharmacological challenging of the dopaminergic system included the investigation of amphetamine-induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) disruption, haloperidol-induced catalepsy, reserpine-induced oral involuntary movements and hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine in reserpine treated mice...
May 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746992/cofilin-knockdown-attenuates-hemorrhagic-brain-injury-induced-oxidative-stress-and-microglial-activation-in-mice
#11
Qasim Alhadidi, Kevin Nash, Saleh Alaqel, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Zahoor A Shah
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) resulting from the rupture of the blood vessels in the brain is associated with significantly higher mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies focused on alleviating the primary injury, hematoma formation and expansion, were largely ineffective, suggesting that secondary injury-induced inflammation and the formation of reactive species also contribute to the overall injury process. In this study, we explored the effects of cofilin knockdown in a mouse model of ICH. Animals given stereotaxic injections of cofilin-siRNA, 72-hours prior to induction of ICH by collagenase injection within the area of siRNA administration showed significantly decreased cofilin expression levels and lower hemorrhage volume and edema, and the animals performed significantly better in neurobehavioral tasks i...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744691/glioma-cell-and-astrocyte-co-cultures-as-a-model-to-study-tumor-tissue-interactions-a-review-of-methods
#12
REVIEW
Ivan V Chekhonin, Dimitry A Chistiakov, Nadezhda F Grinenko, Olga I Gurina
Astrocytes are a dominant cell type that envelopes the glioma bed. Typically, that is followed by formation of contacts between astrocytes and glioma cells and accompanied by change in astrocyte phenotype, a phenomenon known as a 'reactive astrogliosis.' Generally considered glioma-promoting, astrocytes have many controversial peculiarities in communication with tumor cells, which need thorough examination in vitro. This review is devoted to in vitro co-culture studies of glioma cells and astrocytes. Firstly, we list several fundamental works which allow understanding the modalities of co-culturing...
May 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740309/expression-of-cyclin-d1-in-astrocytes-varies-during-aging
#13
Brigitte Ciapa, Sylvie Granon
D-Cyclins control progression through the G1 phase and the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. In the adult brain, they regulate neurogenesis which is limited to the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) and to the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. Yet, D-cyclins have also been detected in other parts of the adult brain in differentiated neurons that do not proliferate and rather die by apoptosis in response to cell cycle reactivation. Expression of D-cyclins in astrocytes has also been reported but published results, such as those concerning neurons, appear conflictual...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730970/spinal-glial-adaptations-occur-in-a-minimally-invasive-mouse-model-of-endometriosis-potential-implications-for-lesion-etiology-and-persistent-pelvic-pain
#14
Kelsi N Dodds, Elizabeth A H Beckett, Susan F Evans, Mark R Hutchinson
Glial adaptations within the central nervous system are well known to modulate central sensitization and pain. Recently, it has been suggested that activity of glial-related proinflammatory cytokines may potentiate peripheral inflammation, via central neurogenic processes. However, a role for altered glial function has not yet been investigated in the context of endometriosis, a chronic inflammatory condition in women associated with peripheral lesions, often manifesting with persistent pelvic pain. Using a minimally invasive mouse model of endometriosis, we investigated associations between peripheral endometriosis-like lesions and adaptations in central glial reactivity...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728852/glial-cells-shape-pathology-and-repair-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
REVIEW
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken
Glial cell types were classified less than 100 years ago by del Rio-Hortega. For instance, he correctly surmised that microglia in pathologic central nervous system (CNS) were "voracious monsters" that helped clean the tissue. Although these historical predictions were remarkably accurate, innovative technologies have revealed novel molecular, cellular, and dynamic physiologic aspects of CNS glia. In this review, we integrate recent findings regarding the roles of glia and glial interactions in healthy and injured spinal cord...
May 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727731/effects-of-long-term-rapamycin-treatment-on-glial-scar-formation-after-cryogenic-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#16
Yan-Ying Fan, Fang Nan, Bao-Lu Guo, Yan Liao, Ming-Sheng Zhang, Jie Guo, Bao-Long Niu, Yue-Qin Liang, Cai-Hong Yang, Yi Zhang, Xuan-Ping Zhang, Xue-Fen Pang
Glial scar impedes axon regeneration and functional recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although it has been shown that rapamycin (a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin) can reduce astrocyte reactivation in the early stage of TBI, its effect on glial scar formation has not been characterized in TBI and other acute brain injury models. To test this, ICR mice received daily administration of rapamycin (0.5 or 1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) beginning at 1 h after cryogenic TBI (cTBI). The results showed that at 3 d post-injury, 1...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725905/jm-20-treatment-after-mcao-reduced-astrocyte-reactivity-and-neuronal-death-on-peri-infarct-regions-of-the-rat-brain
#17
Jeney Ramírez-Sánchez, Elisa Nicoloso Simões Pires, André Meneghetti, Gisele Hansel, Yanier Nuñez-Figueredo, Gilberto L Pardo-Andreu, Estael Ochoa-Rodríguez, Yamila Verdecia-Reyes, René Delgado-Hernández, Christianne Salbego, Diogo O Souza
Stroke is frequently associated with severe neurological decline and mortality, and its incidence is expected to increase due to aging population. The only available pharmacological treatment for cerebral ischemia is thrombolysis, with narrow therapeutic windows. Efforts aimed to identify new therapeutics are crucial. In this study, we look into plausible molecular and cellular targets for JM-20, a new hybrid molecule, against ischemic stroke in vivo. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) following 23 h of reperfusion...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725710/activation-of-autophagic-flux-and-the-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway-by-hydrogen-sulfide-protects-against-acrylonitrile-induced-neurotoxicity-in-primary-rat-astrocytes
#18
Bobo Yang, Yu Bai, Changsheng Yin, Hai Qian, Guangwei Xing, Suhua Wang, Fang Li, Jinsong Bian, Michael Aschner, Rongzhu Lu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), the third gasotransmitter, has been shown to act as a neuroprotective factor in numerous pathological processes; however, its underlying mechanism(s) of action remain unclear. It is widely accepted that activation of moderate autophagy and the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway play important roles in the biological self-defense systems. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous H2 S protects against the cytotoxicity of acrylonitrile (AN), a neurotoxin, in primary rat astrocytes...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725299/octadecylpropyl-sulfamide-reduces-neurodegeneration-and-restores-the-memory-deficits-induced-by-hypoxia-ischemia-in-mice
#19
Elk Kossatz, Daniel Silva-Peña, Juan Suárez, Fernando R de Fonseca, Rafael Maldonado, Patricia Robledo
The PPAR-α agonist, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has neuroprotective properties in stroke models. However, its rapid degradation represents a limitation for an effective therapeutic approach. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a stable OEA-modeled compound, octadecylpropyl sulfamide (SUL) on the cognitive, behavioral, cellular and molecular alterations associated with hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in mice. Mice subjected to HI were treated with the PPAR-α antagonist GW6471 (GW) (1 mg/kg) followed 15 min later by SUL (3 and 10 mg/kg)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724785/p2y1-receptor-blockade-normalizes-network-dysfunction-and-cognition-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#20
Nicole Reichenbach, Andrea Delekate, Björn Breithausen, Kevin Keppler, Stefanie Poll, Theresa Schulte, Jan Peter, Monika Plescher, Jan N Hansen, Nelli Blank, Armin Keller, Martin Fuhrmann, Christian Henneberger, Annett Halle, Gabor C Petzold
Astrocytic hyperactivity is an important contributor to neuronal-glial network dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that astrocyte hyperactivity is mediated by signaling through the P2Y1 purinoreceptor (P2Y1R) pathway. Using the APPPS1 mouse model of AD, we here find that chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of P2Y1R inhibitors normalizes astroglial and neuronal network dysfunction, as measured by in vivo two-photon microscopy, augments structural synaptic integrity, and preserves hippocampal long-term potentiation...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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