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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936789/toxic-synergism-between-quinolinic-acid-and-glutaric-acid-in-neuronal-cells-is-mediated-by-oxidative-stress-insights-to-a-new-toxic-model
#1
Paula Pierozan, Ana Laura Colín-González, Helena Biasibetti, Janaina Camacho da Silva, Angela Wyse, Moacir Wajner, Abel Santamaria
It has been shown that synergistic toxic effects of quinolinic acid (QUIN) and glutaric acid (GA), both in isolated nerve endings and in vivo conditions, suggest the contribution of these metabolites to neurodegeneration. However, this synergism still requires a detailed characterization of the mechanisms involved in cell damage during its occurrence. In this study, the effects of subtoxic concentrations of QUIN and/or GA were tested in neuronal cultures, co-cultures (neuronal cells + astrocytes), and mixed cultures (neuronal cells + astrocytes + microglia) from rat cortex and striatum...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933592/stat3-regulated-rhoa-drives-reactive-astrocyte-dynamics
#2
Francois Renault-Mihara, Hideyuki Okano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933425/carnosine-suppresses-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-recovery-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-reactive-astrocytes-of-rats-in-vitro
#3
Li Ou-Yang, Yuan Liu, Bing-Yu Wang, Pei Cao, Jing-Jing Zhang, Yu-Yan Huang, Yao Shen, Jian-Xin Lyu
Glial scar formation resulted from excessive astrogliosis limits axonal regeneration and impairs recovery of function, thus an intervention to ameliorate excessive astrogliosis is crucial for the recovery of neurological function after cerebral ischemia. In this study we investigated the effects of carnosine, an endogenous water-soluble dipeptide (β-alanyl-L-histidine), on astrogliosis of cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R) in vitro. Primary cultured rat astrocytes exhibited a significant increase in proliferation at 24 h recovery after OGD for 2 h...
September 21, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933213/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-potential-mechanisms-of-damage
#4
Brooke Fehily, Melinda Fitzgerald
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a significant public healthcare concern, accounting for the majority of all head injuries. While symptoms are generally transient, some patients go on to experience long-term cognitive impairments and additional mild impacts can result in exacerbated and persisting negative outcomes. To date, studies using a range of experimental models have reported chronic behavioral deficits in the presence of axonal injury and inflammation following repeated mTBI; assessments of oxidative stress and myelin pathology have thus far been limited...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932183/plant-polyphenols-and-exendin-4-prevent-hyperactivity-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-in-lps-treated-in-vitro-neuron-astrocyte-microglial-networks
#5
Francesca Gullo, Michela Ceriani, Alessia D'Aloia, Enzo Wanke, Andrew Constanti, Barbara Costa, Marzia Lecchi
Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929580/selective-expression-of-egfp-in-mouse-perivascular-astrocytes-by-modification-of-the-mlc1-gene-using-t2a-based-ribosome-skipping
#6
Jordan J Toutounchian, Joseph H McCarty
Perivascular astrocyte end feet closely juxtapose cerebral blood vessels to regulate important developmental and physiological processes including endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting as well as the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms underlying these events remain largely unknown due to a lack of experimental models for identifying perivascular astrocytes and distinguishing these cell types from other astroglial populations. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (Mlc1) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in perivascular astrocyte end feet where it controls BBB development and homeostasis...
September 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926781/a-leukomyeloencephalopathy-of-unknown-origin-in-an-azawakh-dog
#7
Maria Teresa Mandara, Alice Reginato, Federica Balducci, Marco Bernardini
A diffuse bilaterally symmetrical leukomyeloencephalopathy was observed in a 6-year-old male Azawakh dog showing a slowly progressive ataxia of six months duration associated with sensory disorders. Severe bilaterally symmetrical demyelination and vacuolisation were confined to the dorsal columns along the entire spinal cord with a minor axonal degeneration. The main changes of myelin sheaths consisted in splitting and intramyelin vacuolization. Naked axons were scattered in a network of astrocytic processes and collagen fibres...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925083/selective-knockout-of-astrocytic-na-h-exchanger-isoform-1-reduces-astrogliosis-bbb-damage-infarction-and-improves-neurological-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#8
Gulnaz Begum, Shanshan Song, Shaoxia Wang, Hanshu Zhao, Mohammad Iqbal H Bhuiyan, Eric Li, Rachel Nepomuceno, Qing Ye, Ming Sun, Michael Joseph Calderon, Donna B Stolz, Claudette St Croix, Simon C Watkins, Yinhuai Chen, Pingnian He, Gary E Shull, Dandan Sun
Stimulation of Na(+) /H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) in astrocytes causes ionic dysregulation under ischemic conditions. In this study, we created a Nhe1(flox/flox) (Nhe1(f/f) ) mouse line with exon 5 of Nhe1 flanked with two loxP sites and selective ablation of Nhe1 in astrocytes was achieved by crossing Nhe1(f/f) mice with Gfap-Cre(ERT2) Cre-recombinase mice. Gfap-Cre(ERT2+/-) ;Nhe1(f/f) mice at postnatal day 60-90 were treated with either corn oil or tamoxifen (Tam, 75 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 5 days. After 30 days post-injection, mice underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) to induce ischemic stroke...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924227/implication-of-the-glutamate-cystine-antiporter-xct-in-schizophrenia-cases-linked-to-impaired-gsh-synthesis
#9
M Fournier, A Monin, C Ferrari, P S Baumann, P Conus, K Do
xCT is the specific chain of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, which is widely reported to support anti-oxidant defenses in vivo. xCT is therefore at the crossroads between two processes that are involved in schizophrenia: oxidative stress and glutamatergic neurotransmission. But data from human studies implicating xCT in the illness and clarifying the upstream mechanisms of xCT imbalance are still scarce. Low glutathione (GSH) levels and genetic risk in GCLC (Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Catalytic subunit), the gene of limiting synthesizing enzyme for GSH, are both associated with schizophrenia...
September 18, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921700/low-dose-fractionated-irradiation-promotes-axonal-regeneration-beyond-reactive-gliosis-and-facilitates-locomotor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-beagle-dogs
#10
Qiang Zhang, Ying Xiong, Bo Zhu, Bifeng Zhu, Daishi Tian, Wei Wang
Injury to the adult central nervous system (CNS) results in the formation of glial scar tissues. Glial scar-induced failure of regenerative axon pathfinding may limit axon regrowth beyond the lesion site and cause incorrect reinnervation and dystrophic appearance of stalled growth after CNS trauma. Glial scars also upregulate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and expression of proinflammatory factor(s) that form a barrier to axonal regeneration. Therefore, interventions for glial scarring are an attractive strategy for augmenting axonal sprouting and regeneration and overcoming the physical and molecular barriers impeding functional repair...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900395/astrocyte-senescence-and-metabolic-changes-in-response-to-hiv-antiretroviral-therapy-drugs
#11
Justin Cohen, Luca D'Agostino, Joel Wilson, Ferit Tuzer, Claudio Torres
With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) survival rates among patients infected by HIV have increased. However, even though survival has increased HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still persist, suggesting that HAART-drugs may play a role in the neurocognitive impairment observed in HIV-infected patients. Given previous data demonstrating that astrocyte senescence plays a role in neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined the role of HAART on markers of senescence in primary cultures of human astrocytes (HAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895473/neuroinflammation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-role-of-redox-dys-regulation
#12
Nadia D'Ambrosi, Mauro Cozzolino, Maria Teresa Carrì
SIGNIFICANCE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is due to degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and in the motor cortex. Mechanisms leading to motor neuron death are complex and currently the disease is untreatable. Recent Advances. Work in genetic models of ALS indicates that an imbalance in the crosstalk that physiologically exists between motor neurons and the surrounding cells is eventually detrimental to motor neurons. In particular, the cascade of events collectively known as neuroinflammation and mainly characterized by a reactive phenotype of astrocytes and microglia, moderate infiltration of peripheral immune cells and elevated levels of inflammatory mediators has been consistently observed in motor regions of the central nervous system in sporadic and familial ALS, constituting a hallmark of the disease...
September 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890110/methyl-aspartylphenylalanine-the-pons-and-cerebellum-in-mice-an-evaluation-of-motor-morphological-biochemical-immunohistochemical-and-apoptotic-effects
#13
A Y Onaolapo, O J Onaolapo, P U Nwoha
In this study, adult mice were assigned to five groups, and administered vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) for 28days. Behavioural tests to assess motor-balance and gait were conducted on day 28, following which animals were sacrificed. Sections of the cerebellar cortex and pons were processed, for general histology and Bielschwosky's silver staining protocol. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity were assessed. Antioxidant status and aspartic acid/cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 levels were also assessed using homogenates of the cerebellum and pons...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889267/inflammatory-activation-of-microglia-and-astrocytes-in-manganese-neurotoxicity
#14
Ronald B Tjalkens, Katriana A Popichak, Kelly A Kirkley
Neurotoxicity due to excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) has been described as early as 1837 (Couper, Br Ann Med Pharm Vital Stat Gen Sci 1:41-42, 1837). Extensive research over the past two decades has revealed that Mn-induced neurological injury involves complex pathophysiological signaling mechanisms between neurons and glial cells. Glial cells are an important target of Mn in the brain, both for sequestration of the metal, as well as for activating inflammatory signaling pathways that damage neurons through overproduction of numerous reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and inflammatory cytokines...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884281/angiotensin-receptor-blockade-by-inhibiting-glial-activation-promotes-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-hypertension
#15
Shahnawaz Ali Bhat, Ruby Goel, Shubha Shukla, Rakesh Shukla, Kashif Hanif
Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for central nervous system (CNS) disorders like stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the other hand, CNS diseases like AD have been associated with gliosis and impaired neurogenesis. Further, renin angiotensin system (RAS) is intricately associated with hypertension; however, the accumulating evidences suggest that over-activity of RAS may perpetuate the brain inflammation related with AD. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of hypertension and RAS on glial (astrocytes and microglia) activation and hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of chronic hypertension...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877735/priming-astrocytes-with-tnf-enhances-their-susceptibility-to-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-and-creates-a-self-sustaining-inflammatory-milieu
#16
Andrea Alice Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Silva, Daniel Gibaldi, Rafael Meyer Mariante, Jessica Brandão Dos Santos, Isabela Resende Pereira, Otacílio Cruz Moreira, Joseli Lannes-Vieira
BACKGROUND: In conditions of immunosuppression, the central nervous sty 5ystem (CNS) is the main target tissue for the reactivation of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. In experimental T. cruzi infection, interferon gamma (IFNγ)(+) microglial cells surround astrocytes harboring amastigote parasites. In vitro, IFNγ fuels astrocyte infection by T. cruzi, and IFNγ-stimulated infected astrocytes are implicated as potential sources of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872930/inconsistence-between-number-and-function-of-autoreactive-t-cells-in-the-course-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#17
Xin Wan, Weiya Pei, Yiming Zhang, Lei Zhang, Khawar Ali Shahzad, Tao Xu, Chuanlai Shen
BACKGROUND: Mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is widely used model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The role of autoreactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the development of mouse EAE has been demonstrated. However, little information is available about the relation between the frequency and reactivity of myelin antigen-reactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in secondary lymphoid organs and their relevance with the inflammation and pathological lesion of CNS during the course of EAE mouse model...
September 5, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871262/role-of-neuroinflammation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-cellular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#18
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Fei Wang
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects upper motor neurons (MNs) comprising the corticospinal tract and lower MNs arising from the brain stem nuclei and ventral roots of the spinal cord, leading to fatal paralysis. Currently, there are no effective therapies for ALS. Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays an important role in ALS pathogenesis. The neuroinflammation in ALS is characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages, activation of microglia and reactive astrocytes, as well as the involvement of complement...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866326/progesterone-improves-neurocognitive-outcomes-following-therapeutic-cranial-irradiation-in-mice
#19
Seema Yousuf, Daniel J Brat, Hui-Kuo Shu, Ya Wang, Donald G Stein, Fahim Atif
Despite improved therapeutic methods, CNS toxicity resulting from cancer treatment remains a major cause of post-treatment morbidity. More than half of adult patients with cranial irradiation for brain cancer develop neurobehavioral/cognitive deficits that severely impact quality of life. We examined the neuroprotective effects of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG) against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced neurobehavioral/cognitive deficits in mice. Male C57/BL mice were exposed to one of two fractionated dose regimens of IR (3Gy×3 or 3Gy×5)...
September 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865458/salutary-effects-of-glibenclamide-during-the-chronic-phase-of-murine-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#20
Volodymyr Gerzanich, Tapas K Makar, Poornachander Reddy Guda, Min Seong Kwon, Jesse A Stokum, Seung Kyoon Woo, Svetlana Ivanova, Alexander Ivanov, Rupal I Mehta, Alexandra Brooke Morris, Joseph Bryan, Christopher T Bever, J Marc Simard
BACKGROUND: In multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), inflammation is perpetuated by both infiltrating leukocytes and astrocytes. Recent work implicated SUR1-TRPM4 channels, expressed mostly by astrocytes, in murine EAE. We tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of SUR1 during the chronic phase of EAE would be beneficial. METHODS: EAE was induced in mice using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55. Glibenclamide (10 μg/day) was administered beginning 12 or 24 days later...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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