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reactive astrocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905510/remarkable-alterations-of-nav1-6-in-reactive-astrogliosis-during-epileptogenesis
#1
Hongyan Zhu, Yuxiao Zhao, Hao Wu, Nan Jiang, Ziyi Wang, Weide Lin, Jiahui Jin, Yonghua Ji
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a vital role in controlling neuronal excitability. Nav1.6 is the most abundantly expressed VGSCs subtype in the adult central nervous system and has been found to contribute to facilitate the hyperexcitability of neurons after electrical induction of status epilepticus (SE). To clarify the exact expression patterns of Nav1.6 during epileptogenesis, we examined the expression of Nav1.6 at protein and mRNA levels in two distinct animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) including a post-SE model induced by kainic acid (KA) intrahippocampal injection and a kindling model evoked by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895509/effects-of-fentanyl-on-pain-and-motor-behaviors-following-a-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#2
Laurence Saine, Pierre Hélie, Pascal Vachon
PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (IH) and cephalalgia are common consequences of traumatic brain injury. One of the primary obstacles for patient recovery is the paucity of treatments to support an appropriate analgesic protocol. The present study aimed to assess pain and motor behaviors following different doses of fentanyl on a rat model of IH. METHODS: Twenty-one male Sprague Dawley rats underwent a stereotaxic surgery to produce a collagenase-induced IH in the right caudoputamen nucleus...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895121/neuronal-mtorc1-is-required-for-maintaining-the-nonreactive-state-of-astrocytes
#3
Yue Zhang, Song Xu, Kang-Yan Liang, Kai Li, Zhi-Peng Zou, Cui-Lan Yang, Kang Tan, Xiong Cao, Yu Jiang, Tian-Ming Gao, Xiao-Chun Bai
Astrocytes respond to central nervous system (CNS) insults through reactive astrogliosis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we show that inactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1) signaling in postnatal neurons induces reactive astrogliosis in mice. Ablation of Raptor (an mTORC1-specific component) in postmitotic neurons abolished mTORC1 activity and produced neurons with smaller soma and fewer dendrites, resulting in microcephaly and aberrant behavior in adult mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882335/id-ealizing-control-of-adult-subventricular-zone-neural-stem-precursor-cell-differentiation-for-cns-regeneration
#4
COMMENT
Christian Bohrer, Christian Schachtrup
The adult central nervous system (CNS) was considered a comparatively static tissue with little cell turnover. It is now well established that there is more plasticity than previously thought and that astrocytes act as neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ). The discovery that these NSPCs can give rise to a limited number of new neurons, reactive astrocytes and oligodendrocytes contributing to brain repair in CNS disease, has raised hopes toward harnessing these cells for therapeutic interventions...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881777/temporal-profiling-of-astrocyte-precursors-reveals-parallel-roles-for-asef-during-development-and-after-injury
#5
Lesley S Chaboub, Jeanne M Manalo, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Stacey M Glasgow, Fengju Chen, Yoshihiro Kawasaki, Tetsu Akiyama, Chay T Kuo, Chad J Creighton, Carrie A Mohila, Benjamin Deneen
: Lineage development is a stepwise process, governed by stage-specific regulatory factors and associated markers. Astrocytes are one of the principle cell types in the CNS and the stages associated with their development remain very poorly defined. To identify these stages, we performed gene-expression profiling on astrocyte precursor populations in the spinal cord, identifying distinct patterns of gene induction during their development that are strongly correlated with human astrocytes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876534/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-modifies-astrocytosis-cell-density-and-lipopolysaccharide-levels-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#6
Francisco J Medina-Fernández, Evelio Luque, Macarena Aguilar-Luque, Eduardo Agüera, Montserrat Feijóo, Fe I García-Maceira, Begoña M Escribano, Álvaro Pascual-Leone, René Drucker-Colín, Isaac Túnez
AIMS: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is considered a valid experimental model for multiple sclerosis, a chronic neuroinflammatory condition of the central nervous system. Additionally, some evidence has shown that some microbial products such as the bacterial lipopolysaccharide could lead to the activation of reactive immune cells, triggering neuroinflammation. Several studies have found that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may exert a neuroprotective effect. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of TMS on the neuroinflammation occurring in EAE...
November 19, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873219/immortalization-of-primary-microglia-a-new-platform-to-study-hiv-regulation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#7
Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Taylor R Jay, Mary Ann Checkley, Benjamin Luttge, Curtis Dobrowolski, Saba Valadkhan, Gary E Landreth, Jonathan Karn, David Alvarez-Carbonell
The major reservoirs for HIV in the CNS are in the microglia, perivascular macrophages, and to a lesser extent, astrocytes. To study the molecular events controlling HIV expression in the microglia, we developed a reliable and robust method to immortalize microglial cells from primary glia from fresh CNS tissues and commercially available frozen glial cells. Primary human cells, including cells obtained from adult brain tissue, were transformed with lentiviral vectors expressing SV40 T antigen or a combination of SVR40 T antigen and hTERT...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864825/individual-hippocampal-subfield-assessment-indicates-that-matrix-macromolecules-and-gliosis-are-key-elements-for-the-increased-t2-relaxation-time-seen-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Tonicarlo Rodrigues Velasco, Joao Alberto Assirati, Carlos Gilberto Carlotti, Renata Caldo Scandiuzzi, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Joao Pereira Leite
OBJECTIVE: Increased T2 relaxation time is often seen in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. Water content directly affects the effective T2 in a voxel. Our aim was to evaluate the relation between T2 values and two molecules associated with brain water homeostasis aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), as well as cellular populations in the hippocampal region of patients with TLE. METHODS: Hippocampal T2 imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained from 42 drug-resistant patients with TLE and 20 healthy volunteers (radiologic controls, RCs)...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864733/-epicatechin-a-natural-flavonoid-compound-protects-astrocytes-against-hemoglobin-toxicity-via-nrf2-and-ap-1-signaling-pathways
#9
Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Qian Li, Jian Wang
(-)-Epicatechin is a brain-permeable, natural product found at high concentrations in green tea and cocoa. Our previous research has shown that (-)-epicatechin treatment reduces hemorrhagic stroke injury via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in vivo. However, the mechanism of action of this compound in modulation of oxidant stress and in protection against hemoglobin-induced astrocyte injury is unclear. Therefore, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these protective effects in vitro...
November 18, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855618/scutellarin-as-a-therapeutic-agent-in-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-in-cerebral-ischemia
#10
Chun-Yun Wu, Ming Fang, Aparna Karthikeyan, Yun Yuan, Eng-Ang Ling
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in different brain diseases including acute brain injuries such as cerebral ischemic stroke and chronic neurodegenerative diseases e.g. Alzheimer's disease etc. The central player in this is the activated microglia which produce substantial amounts of proinflammatory mediators that may exacerbate the disease. Associated with microglia activation is astrogliosis characterized by hypertrophic astrocytes with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, neurotrophic factors, stem cell, neuronal and proliferation markers, all these are crucial for reconstruction of damaged tissue and ultimate restoration of neurological functions...
November 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843334/targeting-neuroinflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli, Aniello Iacomino, Luca Steardo, Caterina Scuderi
Almost 47 million people suffer from dementia worldwide, with an estimated new case diagnosed every 3.2 seconds. Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for approximately 60%-80% of all dementia cases. Given this evidence, it is clear dementia represents one of the greatest global public health challenges. Currently used drugs alleviate the symptoms of AD but do not treat the underlying causes of dementia. Hence, a worldwide quest is under way to find new treatments to stop, slow, or even prevent AD. Besides the classic targets of the oldest therapies, represented by cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, and tau tangles, new therapeutic approaches have other targets...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837318/astrocytes-in-migration
#12
Jiang Shan Zhan, Kai Gao, Rui Chao Chai, Xi Hua Jia, Dao Peng Luo, Guo Ge, Yu Wu Jiang, Yin-Wan Wendy Fung, Lina Li, Albert Cheung Hoi Yu
Cell migration is a fundamental phenomenon that underlies tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, immune response, and cancer metastasis. Great progresses have been made in research methodologies, with cell migration identified as a highly orchestrated process. Brain is considered the most complex organ in the human body, containing many types of neural cells with astrocytes playing crucial roles in monitoring normal functions of the central nervous system. Astrocytes are mostly quiescent under normal physiological conditions in the adult brain but become migratory after injury...
November 11, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836802/effects-of-dimethyl-sulfoxide-on-the-morphology-and-viability-of-primary-cultured-neurons-and-astrocytes
#13
Chen Zhang, Yuanying Deng, Hongmei Dai, Wenjuan Zhou, Jing Tian, Guoying Bing, Lingling Zhao
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent and vehicle for in vivo and in vitro administration of test compounds. Effects of DMSO independent of the test compound, such as in studies examining morphological plasticity or neurotoxic responses, may lead to spurious results. AIM: To investigate effects of DMSO concentration ([DMSO]) on morphology and survival of primary cultured neurons and astrocytes. METHODS: Primary cultured neurons and astrocytes were treated with 0...
November 9, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836571/effect-of-acrylamide-induced-neurotoxicity-in-a-primary-astrocytes-microglial-co-culture-model
#14
Mengyao Zhao, Fu Sheng Lewis Wang, Xiao Song Hu, Fang Chen, Hing Man Chan
Acrylamide (AA),is acommon food contaminant generated by heat processing. Astrocytes and microglia are the two major glial cell types in the brain that play pivotal but different roles in maintaining optimal brain function. The objective of this study is to investigate the neurotoxicity of AA, using a primary astrocytes/microglia co-culture model. Co-cultural cells obtained from Balb/c mice were cultured and treated with 0-1.0mM AA for 24-96h. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative end produces formation and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured...
November 8, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832093/second-generation-amphiphilic-poly-lysine-dendrons-inhibit-glioblastoma-cell-proliferation-without-toxicity-for-neurons-or-astrocytes
#15
Jolanta Janiszewska, Inmaculada Posadas, Pablo Játiva, Marta Bugaj-Zarebska, Zofia Urbanczyk-Lipkowska, Valentín Ceña
Glioblastomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumours in adults and one of the most aggressive and difficult-to-treat cancers. No effective treatment exits actually for this tumour and new therapeutic approaches are needed for this disease. One possible innovative approach involves the nanoparticle-mediated specific delivery of drugs and/or genetic material to glioblastoma cells where they can provide therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we have synthesised and characterised several second generation amphiphilic polylysine dendrons to be used as siRNA carriers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830574/inflammation-effects-on-brain-glutamate-in-depression-mechanistic-considerations-and-treatment-implications
#16
Ebrahim Haroon, Andrew H Miller
There has been increasing interest in the role of glutamate in mood disorders, especially given the profound effect of the glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine in improving depressive symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant depression. One pathway by which glutamate alterations may occur in mood disorders involves inflammation. Increased inflammation has been observed in a significant subgroup of patients with mood disorders, and inflammatory cytokines have been shown to influence glutamate metabolism through effects on astrocytes and microglia...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826689/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-in-the-brain-one-molecule-multiple-mechanisms
#17
Lavanya B Achanta, Caroline D Rae
β-Hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), a ketone body, is oxidised as a brain fuel. Although its contribution to energy metabolism in the healthy brain is minimal, it is an interesting metabolite which is not only oxidised but also has other direct and collateral effects which make it a molecule of interest for therapeutic purposes. In brain βOHB can be produced in astrocytes from oxidation of fatty acids or catabolism of amino acids and is metabolised in the mitochondria of all brain cell types although uptake across the blood brain barrier is a metabolic control point...
November 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826038/title-expression-of-glial-cbp-in-steroid-mediated-neuroprotection-in-male-and-female-zebra-finches
#18
Molly Klores, John T Moon, Kelli A Duncan
Under neurodegenerative conditions, reactive astrocytes upregulate both aromatase (estrogen synthase) as well as estrogen and androgen receptors. This increased steroidogenic signal promotes neuroprotection and repair by promoting neurogenesis and decreasing cell death, but also by modulating the release of inflammatory molecules. Thus, endocrine - immune cross-talk is an essential component of estrogen mediated neuroprotection following brain injury. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this cross-talk remains unknown...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815396/quantitative-analysis-of-the-cellular-microenvironment-of-glioblastoma-to-develop-predictive-statistical-models-of-overall-survival
#19
Jessica X Yuan, Fahad F Bafakih, James W Mandell, Bethany J Horton, Jennifer M Munson
Glioblastomas, the most common primary malignant brain tumors, have a distinct tissue microenvironment. Although non-neoplastic cells contribute to glioblastoma progression, very few quantitative studies have shown the effect of tumor microenvironmental influences on patient survival. We examined relationships of the cellular microenvironment, including astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and blood vessels, to survival in glioblastoma patients. Using histological staining and quantitative image analyses, we examined the tumor-associated parenchyma of 33 patients and developed statistical models to predict patient outcomes based on the cellular picture of the tumor parenchyma...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808010/role-of-neuroinflammation-and-latent-transcription-factors-in-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Rishi Pal, Prafulla Chandra Tiwari, Rajendra Nath, Kamlesh Kumar Pant
Parkinson's disease (PD) the second most common age-associated progressive neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons, cytoplasmic inclusions of aggregated proteins (Lewy bodies), and neuroinflammation. The inflammation of neurons causes release of various inflammatory mediators (IFNs, EGF, IL5, IL6, HGF, LIF and BMP2). The hallmarks of neuroinflammation are the presence of activated microglia and reactive astrocytes in the parenchyma of the CNS and increased production of cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, complement cascade proteins, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) which in some cases can result in disruption of the blood brain barrier and direct participation of the adaptive immune system...
November 3, 2016: Neurological Research
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