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niacin and lipoprotein a

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753732/niacin-action-in-the-atherogenic-mixed-dyslipidemia-of-metabolic-syndrome-insights-from-metabolic-biomarker-profiling-and-network-analysis
#1
Martin Adiels, M John Chapman, Paul Robillard, Michel Krempf, Martine Laville, Jan Borén
BACKGROUND: Niacin as an adjunct to statin treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk is questioned. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interrelationships between the effects of niacin on mixed dyslipidemia and a spectrum of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: Obese, nondiabetic, hypertriglyceridemic males (n = 19) with low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels received extended-release nicotinic acid for 8 weeks. Multiple biomarkers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, enzymatic/absorptiometric, or multiplex biochip assays...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735610/reduction-in-secretion-of-very-low-density-lipoprotein-triacylglycerol-by-a-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-in-a-rat-model-of-diet-induced-hypertriglyceridemia
#2
Yoichi Kawashima, Yoshihiro Eguchi, Tohru Yamazaki, Minako Karahashi, Hiroshi Kawai, Naomi Kudo
Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) reduced serum triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and Zucker fa/fa rats in our previous study. However, the mechanisms underlying TAG reduction by MMPIs remain unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which F81-1144b, a MMPI, lowers serum TAG levels in an animal model of high sucrose diet (HSD)-induced hypertriglyceridemia. F81-1144b was repeatedly administered to rats fed HSD, and its effects were evaluated on TAG levels in serum and the liver, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis in the liver, and the expression of genes regulating the metabolism of FA, TAG, and VLDL in the liver and serum...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627296/relationship-between-lipoprotein-subfraction-cholesterol-and-residual-risk-for-cardiovascular-outcomes-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-aim-high-trial
#3
Peter P Toth, Steven R Jones, April Slee, Jerome Fleg, Santica M Marcovina, Megan Lacy, Ruth McBride, William E Boden
BACKGROUND: The AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) trial failed to demonstrate incremental clinical benefit of extended-release niacin (ERN) in 3414 statin-treated patients with established cardiovascular (CV) disease who had low baseline levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared to placebo. A previous secondary analysis suggested that ERN provided outcome benefits in ERN-treated patients with high triglycerides (TGs; >200 mg/dL) and very low HDL-C (<32 mg/dL) at baseline...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561409/nicotinic-acid-and-related-compounds-a-meta-analysis-of-their-use-for-hyperphosphatemia-in-dialysis-patients
#4
Xianhua Liu, Ruiheng Yang, Bo Dai, Honghao Zhang, Jinxue Wang, Ning Ma
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that nicotinic acid and related compounds may decrease phosphorus concentrations effectively by reducing the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the efficacy and safety of oral niacin treatments have only been investigated in a limited number of small-scale studies. METHODS: We performed this meta-analysis by pooling 12 qualified relevant preclinical and clinical trials to evaluate the association of nicotinic acid (and its related compounds) treatment and hyperphosphatemia among dialysis patients...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459241/the-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-complex-and-novel-approaches-to-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Priska Stahel, Changting Xiao, Robert A Hegele, Gary F Lewis
Despite the effectiveness of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering strategies for the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia, significant residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains. Residual risk might in part be explained by lipid abnormalities that go beyond LDL cholesterol elevation, collectively termed the "atherogenic dyslipidemia complex (ADC)," consisting of hypertriglyceridemia, elevated small dense LDL particles, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein particle numbers, increased remnant lipoproteins, and postprandial hyperlipidemia...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449329/impact-of-apolipoprotein-a-isoform-size-on-lipoprotein-a-lowering-in-the-hps2-thrive-study
#6
Sarah Parish, Jemma C Hopewell, Michael R Hill, Santica Marcovina, Elsa Valdes-Marquez, Richard Haynes, Alison Offer, Terje R Pedersen, Colin Baigent, Rory Collins, Martin Landray, Jane Armitage
BACKGROUND: Genetic studies have shown lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) to be an important causal risk factor for coronary disease. Apolipoprotein(a) isoform size is the chief determinant of Lp(a) levels, but its impact on the benefits of therapies that lower Lp(a) remains unclear. METHODS: HPS2-THRIVE (Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) is a randomized trial of niacin-laropiprant versus placebo on a background of simvastatin therapy...
February 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424255/the-therapeutic-potential-of-cetp-inhibitors-a-patent-review
#7
REVIEW
Xinran Wang, Wei Li, Lijuan Hao, Honglei Xie, Chenzhou Hao, Chunchi Liu, Wenyan Li, Xuqiong Xiong, Dongmei Zhao
Epidemiological studies have identified that high levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are two independent causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins, niacin and fibrate are used for the treatment of CVD. However, some defects are shown in the treatment process. Thus, there is a demand for better treatment strategies that confer preferable efficacy with fewer side effects. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes the movement of CEs from HDL to LDL and VLDL in exchange for triglycerides (TGs)...
April 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409728/relations-of-glyca-and-lipoprotein-particle-subspecies-with-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-aim-high-trial
#8
James D Otvos, John R Guyton, Margery A Connelly, Sydney Akapame, Vera Bittner, Steven L Kopecky, Megan Lacy, Santica M Marcovina, Joseph B Muhlestein, William E Boden
BACKGROUND: The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes trial showed no incremental benefit of extended-release niacin (ERN) therapy added to simvastatin in subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ERN treatment on lipoprotein particles and GlycA, a new marker of systemic inflammation, and their relations with incident CVD events including mortality...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404461/cat-2003-a-novel-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-inhibitor-that-reduces-steatohepatitis-plasma-lipids-and-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-3-leiden-mice
#9
Michael Zimmer, Pradeep Bista, Ericka L Benson, Diana Y Lee, Feng Liu, Dominic Picarella, Rick B Vega, Chi B Vu, Maisy Yeager, Min Ding, Guosheng Liang, Jay D Horton, Robert Kleemann, Teake Kooistra, Martine C Morrison, Peter Y Wielinga, Jill C Milne, Michael R Jirousek, Andrew J Nichols
CAT-2003 is a novel conjugate of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and niacin designed to be hydrolyzed by fatty acid amide hydrolase to release EPA inside cells at the endoplasmic reticulum. In cultured liver cells, CAT-2003 blocked the maturation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and SREBP-2 proteins and decreased the expression of multiple SREBP target genes, including HMGCR and PCSK9 . Consistent with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) reduction, both low-density lipoprotein receptor protein at the cell surface and low-density lipoprotein particle uptake were increased...
June 2017: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304861/high-density-lipoprotein-3-cholesterol-is-a-predictive-factor-for-arterial-stiffness-a-community-based-4-8-year-prospective-study
#10
Fan Wang, Xiaona Wang, Ping Ye, Ruihua Cao, Yun Zhang, Yue Qi, Dong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Although drug trials with niacin and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors that substantially increase high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) failed to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, HDL protection of the cardiovascular system cannot be easily denied. Hence, it may be HDL subfractions that are responsible for the long-held and consistent cardioprotective association of HDL. Arterial stiffness has been increasingly recognized as a strong predictor of subclinical vascular disease, atherosclerotic disease, and cardiovascular mortality...
January 5, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245288/elevated-serum-lipoprotein-a-as-a-risk-factor-for-combined-intracranial-and-extracranial-artery-stenosis-in-a-child-with-arterial-ischemic-stroke-a-case-report
#11
Ji Yoon Han, Hyun Jeong Kim, Soyoung Shin, Joonhong Park, In Goo Lee
RATIONALE: Stroke is an uncommon disease in childhood with an estimated incidence of 1 to 6 per 100,000 and stenoocclusive arteriopathy is the main risk factor of recurrent pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Dyslipidemia may influence strongly before puberty and in late adolescence when plasma levels are naturally highest. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 11-year-old male presented with acute onset seizure, a drowsy mentality, and right hemiplegia. DIAGNOSES: Magnetic resonance (MR) angiogram demonstrated occlusion of distal basilar artery and left vertebral arteries...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183962/intestinal-lymphatic-hdl-mir-223-and-apoa-i-are-reduced-during-insulin-resistance-and-restored-with-niacin
#12
Rabban Mangat, Faye Borthwick, Tina Haase, Miriam Jacome, Randy Nelson, Anatol Kontush, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
The intestine is involved in whole-body lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and secretes lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein (Apo)B48 and discrete ApoA-I into the mesenteric lymph. The lymphatic system has been proposed to have a significant role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway associated with HDL-ApoA-I. In conditions of insulin resistance (IR), there is intestinal overproduction of chylomicrons containing ApoB48; however, there is limited data on the intestinal synthesis and secretion of HDL-ApoA-I...
March 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155776/differential-effects-of-lipid-lowering-drugs-in-modulating-morphology-of-cholesterol-particles
#13
Shanmugavel Madasamy, David Liu, Jason Lundry, Benjamin Alderete, Raymond Kong, J Paul Robinson, Alan H B Wu, Edward P Amento
Treatment of dyslipidemia patients with lipid-lowering drugs leads to a significant reduction in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level and a low to moderate level of increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in plasma. However, a possible role of these drugs in altering morphology and distribution of cholesterol particles is poorly understood. Here, we describe the in vitro evaluation of lipid-lowering drug effects in modulating morphological features of cholesterol particles using the plaque array method in combination with imaging flow cytometry...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096859/lipoprotein-a-apheresis-in-the-light-of-new-drug-developments
#14
Anja Vogt
Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) contribute to the risk of early and severe cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recently <50 mg/dl was recommended as the desirable level for clinical use and decision making. All established medical therapies to lower cholesterol levels have no impact on lowering Lp(a) except niacin which is all too often poorly tolerated and not obtainable everywhere. Lipoprotein apheresis is an extracorporeal treatment to lower levels of Lp(a) significantly by > 60%. In some countries it is recommended in very high risk patients with early or progressive CVD...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978219/epidemiology-and-management-of-hyperlipidemia
#15
Samantha Karr
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among adults in the United States, and people with hyperlipidemia are at roughly twice the risk of developing CVD as compared to those with normal total cholesterol levels.1 Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have an even greater risk of developing CVD at an earlier age; therefore, early detection and treatment are imperative to reduce cardiovascular events and premature death. Statins are the mainstay treatment for hyperlipidemia; however, the limitations of statins include treatment resistance, intolerance due to adverse events, and a lack of adherence which contribute to poor outcomes...
June 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927896/niacin-and-heart-disease-prevention-engraving-its-tombstone-is-a-mistake
#16
REVIEW
Harold Robert Superko, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Howard N Hodis, John R Guyton
Niacin (nicotinic acid) has been used for primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention for over 40 years. Until recently clinical trials incorporating niacin as part of an intervention strategy consistently demonstrated reduction in clinical events and lesion improvement, including ≥6% absolute mortality reduction. Two large clinical event trials in 2011 (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and 2014 (Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) concluded that niacin added to statin therapy did not provide clinical event benefit over statin alone...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766509/high-density-lipoprotein-metabolism-and-reverse-cholesterol-transport-strategies-for-raising-hdl-cholesterol
#17
Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Sonja Topuzovska
A key to effective treatment of cardiovascular disease is to understand the body's complex lipoprotein transport system. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the process of cholesterol movement from the extrahepatic tissues back to the liver. Lipoproteins containing apoA-I [highdensity lipoprotein (HDL)] are key mediators in RCT, whereas non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL, lipoproteins containing apoB) are involved in the lipid delivery pathway. HDL particles are heterogeneous; they differ in proportion of proteins and lipids, size, shape, and charge...
August 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716185/pitavastatin-and-hdl-effects-on-plasma-levels-and-function-s
#18
REVIEW
Angela Pirillo, Alberico L Catapano
Low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels represent an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease; in addition to the reduced HDL-C levels commonly observed in patients at cardiovascular risk, the presence of dysfunctional HDL, i.e. HDL with reduced atheroprotective properties, has been reported. Despite the established inverse correlation between HDL-C levels and cardiovascular risk, several clinical trials with HDL-C-increasing drugs (such as niacin, CETP inhibitors or fibrate) failed to demonstrate that a significant rise in HDL-C levels translate into a cardiovascular benefit...
July 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628560/genetic-coding-variants-in-the-niacin-receptor-hydroxyl-carboxylic-acid-receptor-2-and-response-to-niacin-therapy
#19
Sony Tuteja, Lu Wang, Richard L Dunbar, Jinbo Chen, Stephanie DerOhannessian, Santica M Marcovina, Marshall Elam, Ellis Lader, Daniel J Rader
OBJECTIVE: Niacin has been used for seven decades to modulate plasma lipids, but its mechanism of action is still unclear. We sought to determine whether variants in the niacin receptor gene, hydroxyl-carboxylic receptor 2 (HCAR2), are associated with lipid response to treatment. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Coding variants, rs7314976 (p.R311C) and rs2454727 (p.M317I), were genotyped in 2067 participants from the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial...
August 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618994/role-of-anti-pcsk9-antibodies-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-statin-intolerance
#20
Julia Schreml, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold
Statin intolerance is usually defined as the inability of a patient to tolerate statin-treatment due to muscle-related complaints. While randomised trials show that these complaints occure with similar frequency in patients receiving placebo, namely in up to ~5% of the subjects, data from registries as well as clinical experience indicate a much higher frequency of up to ~30%. The lack of standard definition or of a diagnostic marker of statin intolerance confounds the problem. The diagnosis remains subjective based on the symptoms the patient reports...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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