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niacin and lipoprotein a

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919356/lipoprotein-a-cholesterol-levels-estimated-by-vertical-auto-profile-correlate-poorly-with-lp-a-mass-in-hyperlipidemic-subjects-implications-for-clinical-practice-interpretation-of-lp-a-mediated-risk
#1
Calvin Yeang, Paul C Clopton, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is generally measured as total mass of the entire particle or as apolipoprotein(a) particle number. OBJECTIVE: The cholesterol content of Lp(a) [Lp(a)-C)] can be estimated by the vertical auto profile (VAP) method. We assessed whether this is an accurate surrogate measurement of Lp(a) mass. METHODS: VAP-Lp(a)-C and VAP-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) estimated by the VAP technique, Lp(a) mass, oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) that primarily reflect OxPL on Lp(a), and HDL-C measured by enzymatic methods were measured in 552 hypercholesterolemic patients at baseline and 24 weeks after therapy with niacin monotherapy (N = 118), ezetimibe/simvastatin monotherapy (n = 155), or ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) + niacin (to 2 g) (N = 279) in a randomized, double-blind trial...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891663/extended-release-niacin-increases-anti-apoa-i-antibodies-that-block-the-anti-oxidant-effect-of-hdl-c-the-explore-clinical-trial
#2
J R Batuca, M C Amaral, C Favas, F S Paula, P R J Ames, A L Papoila, J Delgado Alves
AIMS: Extended Release-Niacin (ERN) is the most effective agent for increasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Having previously identified anti-HDL antibodies, we investigated whether ERN affected the antioxidant capacity of HDL and whether ERN was associated with the production of antibodies against HDL (aHDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (aApoA-I). METHODS: Twenty-one patients older than 18 years, with HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dL (men) or ≤ 50 mg/dL (women) were randomly assigned to receive daily ERN (n = 10) or placebo (n = 11) for two sequential 12-week periods, with 4 weeks of wash-out before cross-over...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799042/hdl-targeting-therapeutics-past-present-and-future
#3
Emile Zakiev, Ma Feng, Vasily Sukhorukov, Anatol Kontush
Large-scale epidemiological studies firmly established the association between low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. This relationship is thought to reflect the key biological function of HDL, which involves reverse cholesterol transport from the arterial wall to the liver for further excretion from the body. Other aspects of the cardioprotective HDL functionality include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic, vasodilatory, anti-infectious and anti-diabetic activities...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797643/modern-management-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#4
P Barton Duell, Ishwarlal Jialal
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder that can manifest clinically as both the severe homozygous (HoFH) form that often presents in childhood and the commoner heterozygous (HeFH) form that is typically identified in adults. The majority of genetic causes are due to defects in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor synthesis and action. Until recently, it was exceedingly difficult to achieve the goal of a 50% reduction in LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C < 70-100 in these patients. Established therapies include statins, niacin, bile-acid sequestrants, and ezetimibe in various combinations...
December 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749370/recent-explanatory-trials-of-the-mode-of-action-of-drug-therapies-on-lipoprotein-metabolism
#5
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749252/pleiotropic-effects-of-niacin-current-possibilities-for-its-clinical-use
#6
Miroslav Zeman, Marek Vecka, František Perlík, Barbora Staňková, Robert Hromádka, Eva Tvrzická, Jakub Širc, Jakub Hrib, Aleš Žák
Niacin was the first hypolipidemic drug to significantly reduce both major cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. Niacin favorably influences all lipoprotein classes, including lipoprotein[a],and belongs to the most potent hypolipidemic drugs for increasing HDL-C. Moreover, niacin causes favorable changes to the qualitative composition of lipoprotein HDL. In addition to its pronounced hypolipidemic action, niacin exerts many other, non-hypolipidemic effects (e.g., antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic), which favorably influence the development and progression of atherosclerosis...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733255/effect-of-extended-release-niacin-on-plasma-lipoprotein-a-levels-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#7
Amirhosssein Sahebkar, Željko Reiner, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Gianna Ferretti, Arrigo F G Cicero
AIM: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a proatherogenic and prothrombotic lipoprotein. Our aim was to quantify the extended-release nicotinic acid Lp(a) reducing effect with a meta-analysis of the available randomized clinical trials. METHODS: A meta-analysis and random-effects meta-regression were performed on data pooled from 14 randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials published between 1998 and 2015, comprising 17 treatment arms, which included 9013 subjects, with 5362 in the niacin arm...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710158/hypertriglyceridemia-the-importance-of-identifying-patients-at-risk
#8
Pamela A Kushner, Michael E Cobble
This review aims to explain risk factors, consequences, and management strategies recommended for patients with hypertriglyceridemia. A search of PubMed was performed: 'Hypertriglyceridemia'[Majr], limited to English-language and published in the 5 years up to April 2016. Abstracts of the 680 results were screened for inclusion. Reference lists of publications included were also screened for inclusion. Approximately 25% of the United States population has elevated (≥150 mg/dL) triglycerides (TG) putting them at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis...
November 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678425/mortality-reduction-in-patients-treated-with-long-term-intensive-lipid-therapy-25-year-follow-up-of-the-familial-atherosclerosis-treatment-study-observational-study
#9
Xue-Qiao Zhao, Binh An P Phan, Joseph Davis, Daniel Isquith, Alice A Dowdy, Suzanne Boltz, Moni Neradilek, Erik A Monick, Andrew Brockenbrough, Ellen E Hus-Frechette, John J Albers, B Greg Brown
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in life and is associated with both the number of risk factors present and length of exposure to these risk factors including hyperlipidemia. OBJECTIVES: The clinical benefit of intensive lipid therapy over 25 years was investigated in the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study-Observational Study. METHODS: Of 175 coronary artery disease subjects with mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 191 mg/dL and mean age of 50 years, who completed the randomized and placebo-controlled Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study, 100 chose receiving lipid management by their physicians (usual care [UC]) and 75 elected to receive an intensive treatment [IT] for lipid management with lovastatin (40 mg/d), niacin (2...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673306/association-between-lowering-ldl-c-and-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-among-different-therapeutic-interventions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Michael G Silverman, Brian A Ference, Kyungah Im, Stephen D Wiviott, Robert P Giugliano, Scott M Grundy, Eugene Braunwald, Marc S Sabatine
IMPORTANCE: The comparative clinical benefit of nonstatin therapies that reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between lowering LDL-C and relative cardiovascular risk reduction across different statin and nonstatin therapies. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched (1966-July 2016). The key inclusion criteria were that the study was a randomized clinical trial and the reported clinical outcomes included myocardial infarction (MI)...
September 27, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578122/triglyceride-lowering-therapies-reduce-cardiovascular-disease-event-risk-in-subjects-with-hypertriglyceridemia
#11
Kevin C Maki, John R Guyton, Carl E Orringer, Ian Hamilton-Craig, Dominik D Alexander, Michael H Davidson
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular outcomes trials of fibrates, niacin, or omega-3 fatty acids alone, or added to a statin, have not consistently demonstrated reduced risk, but larger, statistically significant clinical benefits have been reported in subgroups with elevated triglycerides (TG) and/or elevated TG plus low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of the effects of therapies targeting TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with elevated TG or elevated TG paired with low HDL-C...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512294/effect-of-low-dose-nicotinic-acid-on-hyperphosphatemia-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#12
N S Zahed, N Zamanifar, H Nikbakht
Hyperphosphatemia is a risk factor for ectopic calcification and coronary artery diseases in end stage renal diseases (ESRD). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low-dose nicotinic acid on hyperphosphatemia in patients with ESRD. This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was done on 70 ESRD patients with serum phosphoure ≥5.5 mg/dl. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 35) and the intervention group received niacin 25 mg/day as the initial dose. After 4 weeks, in patients who did not respond to treatment, niacin dose was increased up to 50 mg/dl...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498088/nonstatins-and-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-inhibitors-role-in-non-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#13
Jennifer G Robinson
After maximizing statin and lifestyle adherence, some patients may benefit from additional low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. The potential for net benefit from added therapy can inform nonstatin decision-making. Considering patient risk and the LDL-C level on statin, the additional potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction benefit from further lowering LDL-C depends on the magnitude of LDL-C lowering from the nonstatin. Ezetimibe is the only nonstatin shown to reduce atherosclerotic CVD events added to a statin, albeit modestly, since it modestly reduces LDL-C by about 20%...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497506/the-re-emergence-of-lipoprotein-a-in-a-broader-clinical-arena
#14
Sotirios Tsimikas
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a genetic, independent and likely causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Lp(a) levels are primarily genetically determined and tend to fluctuate only mildly around a pre-determined level. In primary care settings, one Lp(a) measurement can reclassify up to 40% of patients in intermediate risk score categories. In secondary care settings, recent data from the JUPITER and AIM-HIGH trials demonstrate that elevated Lp(a) remains part of the "residual risk" despite achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <70 mg/dL...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497504/statin-intolerance-a-literature-review-and-management-strategies
#15
David R Saxon, Robert H Eckel
Statin intolerance is a commonly encountered clinical problem for which useful management strategies exist. Although many patients report statin-related muscle symptoms, studies indicate that the majority of these patients can tolerate a statin upon re-challenge. Alternative statin dosing strategies are an effective way to modify and reintroduce statin therapy for patients reporting adverse symptoms. Correction of vitamin D deficiency and hypothyroidism may improve statin tolerability in some patients. CoQ10 supplementation has been found to be of no benefit for statin-related muscle symptoms in most recent clinical trials...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478390/switching-from-epa-dha-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-to-high-purity-epa-icosapent-ethyl-in-a-statin-treated-patient-with-persistent-dyslipidemia-and-high-cardiovascular-risk-a-case-study
#16
James R Crandell
Cardiovascular (CV) risk may remain despite statin treatment, and there is a need to address this risk with add-on therapy. The lipid effects of two different prescription omega-3 fatty acid therapies are described in a 55-year-old statin- and niacin-treated female with severe dyslipidemia and high CV risk. The patient was initially treated with omega-3-acid ethyl esters (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid) 4 g/day. Due to persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), she was switched to icosapent ethyl (high-purity EPA ethyl ester) 4 g/day...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443326/targeting-apoc-iii-to-reduce-coronary-disease-risk
#17
REVIEW
Sumeet A Khetarpal, Arman Qamar, John S Millar, Daniel J Rader
Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are causal contributors to the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a component of TRLs that elevates plasma triglycerides (TGs) through delaying the lipolysis of TGs and the catabolism of TRL remnants. Recent human genetics approaches have shown that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, the gene encoding apoC-III, lower plasma TGs and protect from CAD. This observation has spawned new interest in therapeutic efforts to target apoC-III...
September 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395328/nutrient-patterns-and-chronic-inflammation-in-a-cohort-of-community-dwelling-middle-aged-men
#18
Yingting Cao, Gary Wittert, Anne W Taylor, Robert Adams, Sarah Appleton, Zumin Shi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is limited data relating to the effect of the combination of nutrients on inflammation and the interactions with lifestyle factors and chronic conditions. We examined the association between nutrient patterns and inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in community dwelling middle-aged and elderly Australian men. METHODS: Participants (mean age 59.7 y) with complete data relating to diet and fasting serum inflammatory markers in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress cohort were analysed (n = 1577 for CRP, n = 1557 for IL-6)...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329952/pharmacological-targeting-of-the-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-complex-the-next-frontier-in-cvd-prevention-beyond-lowering-ldl-cholesterol
#19
Changting Xiao, Satya Dash, Cecilia Morgantini, Robert A Hegele, Gary F Lewis
Notwithstanding the effectiveness of lowering LDL cholesterol, residual CVD risk remains in high-risk populations, including patients with diabetes, likely contributed to by non-LDL lipid abnormalities. In this Perspectives in Diabetes article, we emphasize that changing demographics and lifestyles over the past few decades have resulted in an epidemic of the "atherogenic dyslipidemia complex," the main features of which include hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, qualitative changes in LDL particles, accumulation of remnant lipoproteins, and postprandial hyperlipidemia...
July 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242350/effects-of-rosuvastatin-versus-atorvastatin-alone-or-in-combination-on-lipoprotein-a
#20
Marija Vavlukis, Kristina Mladenovska, Arlinda Daka, Aleksandar Dimovski, Saska Domazetovska, Sonja Kuzmanovska, Sasko Kedev
BACKGROUND: There are little evidences about the therapeutic efficacy of different lipid-lowering agents in the reduction of elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. OBJECTIVE: testing the effect of different lipid-lowering agents on elevated Lp(a). METHODS: prospective interventional study performed in patients with CAD, or high CAD risk, with Lp(a), >50 mg/dL. Lp(a), total cholesterol (C), HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides (TGs), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, Apo B, enzymes of myocyte and hepatic injury were comparatively analyzed between 4 lipid-lowering strategies: rosuvastatin (R group) 40 mg, atorvastatin (A group) 80 mg, atorvastatin 40 mg add-on micronized fenofibrate (A+F group), and atorvastatin 40 mg add-on 1 g extended-release niacin (A+ERN group)...
August 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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