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non traumatic brain injury

Philip W Cameron, Noelle C Soltero, Justin Byers
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are common in contact sports. There is an association between mTBIs and altered motor function. BioSway technology measures individuals' balance using the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Prior to incorporating BESS testing in concussion protocol, other variables that influence the BESS test require review. The objective of this study is to determine if game fatigue in hockey players also influences the BESS score. 23 male (21.08 ± 1.09) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes were tested using the BioSway™ (Biodex, USA)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Annabel Jain Sorby-Adams, Robert Vink, Renee Jade Turner
Acute central nervous system injury, encompassing traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, accounts for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies in animal models have greatly enhanced our understanding of the complex pathophysiology that underlies TBI and stroke and enabled the pre-clinical screening of over 1000 novel therapeutic agents. Despite this, the translation of novel therapeutics from experimental models to clinical therapies has been extremely poor. One potential explanation for this poor clinical translation is the choice of experimental model, given that the majority of pre-clinical TBI and ischemic stroke studies have been conducted in small animals, such as rodents, which have small lissencephalic brains...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Samuel Enumah, Elizabeth J Lilley, Stephanie Nitzschke, Adil H Haider, Ali Salim, Zara Cooper
BACKGROUND: Hospice improves quality and value of end of life care (EOLC), and enrollment has increased for older patients dying from chronic medical conditions. It remains unknown if the same is true for older patients who die after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI). METHODS: Subjects included Medicare beneficiaries (≥65 years) who were hospitalized for msTBI from 2005 to 2011. Outcomes included intensity and quality of EOLC for decedents within 30 days of admission, and 30-day mortality for the entire cohort...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Maria Punchak, Jihad Abdelgadir, Oscar Obiga, Martha Itait, Josephine N Najjuma, Michael M Haglund, David Kitya
BACKGROUND: RTIs, falls and violence contribute to more than two thirds of pediatric TBIs in SSA. In this study, we sought to assess mechanisms of pediatric TBI in an effort to propose interventions for more effective pediatric head injury prevention. METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients who were <18 years treated at MRRH between November 2016 and June 2017 were enrolled in the study. Information on etiology of injury was obtained via a questionnaire administered to patient caretakers at the time of admission...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Saeed Kayhanian, Adam M H Young, Rory J Piper, Joseph Donnelly, Daniel Scoffings, Matthew R Garnett, Helen M Fernandes, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J Hutchinson, Shruti Agrawal
Radiological assessment of the head is a routine part of the management of traumatic brain injury. This assessment can help to determine the requirement for invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The radiological correlates of elevated ICP have been widely studied in adults but far fewer specific pediatric studies have been conducted. There is, however, growing evidence that there are important differences in the radiological presentations of elevated ICP between children and adults; a reflection of the anatomical and physiological differences, as well as a difference in the pathophysiology of brain injury in children...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Christina Notarianni, Anil Nanda
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury [TBI] is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide and intracranial pressure [ICP] monitoring plays a crucial role in its management. Based on existing literature, the authors review the current practicing non-invasive ICP monitoring devices and their accuracy in predicting raised ICP in pediatric TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough literature search was conducted on PubMed, Medline and Cochrane data base, articles were selected systematically, reviewed completely and relevant data was summarized and discussed...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Marie Hexeberg Tollefsen, Anne Vik, Toril Skandsen, Oddrun Sandrød, Susan Frances Deane, Vidar Rao, Kent Gøran Moen
OBJECT: We aimed to examine the effect of preinjury antithrombotic medication on clinical and radiological neuroworsening in TBI and study the effect on outcome. METHODS: 184 consecutive patients ≥50 years old with moderate and severe TBI admitted to a level 1 trauma center were included. Neuroworsening was assessed clinically by using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and radiologically by using Rotterdam CT score on repeated time points. Functional outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 6 months postinjury...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Stephanie A Pasquesi, Susan S Margulies
Computational models are valuable tools for studying tissue-level mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, but to produce more accurate estimates of tissue deformation, these models must be validated against experimental data. In this study, we present in situ measurements of brain-skull displacement in the neonatal piglet head ( n  = 3) at the sagittal midline during six rapid non-impact rotations (two rotations per specimen) with peak angular velocities averaging 51.7 ± 1.4 rad/s. Marks on the sagittally cut brain and skull/rigid potting surfaces were tracked, and peak values of relative brain-skull displacement were extracted and found to be significantly less than values extracted from a previous axial plane model...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Shalini Singh, Sushmita Jha
Nucleotide binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing proteins (NLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors involved in major innate immune defense mechanisms. NLRs play a key role in several cancers, autoimmune, and inflammation-associated diseases. Association of NLRP3 has been widely investigated in neurodegenerative diseases, chronic alcoholism, depression, traumatic brain injury, and pathogenic infections. Several research studies have shown possible involvement of various other inflammasome-forming and non-inflammasome-forming NLRs in the brain; however, their mechanisms of action are yet to be defined clearly...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ricarda Seemann, Frank Graef, Anja Garbe, Johannes Keller, Fan Huang, Georg Duda, Kate Schmidt-Bleek, Klaus-Dieter Schaser, Serafeim Tsitsilonis
INTRODUCTION: The combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long-bone fracture leads to increased formation of callus and mineral density in wild-type (WT) mice. However, this effect was not detected radiologically in leptin-deficient mice. Due to the complex interactions between hormonal and bone metabolism and the important role of leptin in this setting, our aim was to investigate morphologic properties and the tissue composition in the fracture callus comparing WT and leptin-deficient mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Hyung-Joo Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Dong-Woo Seo, Chang Hwan Sohn, Seung Mok Ryoo, Shin Ahn, Yoon-Seon Lee, Won Young Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim
OBJECTIVE: The detection of intracranial injury in patients with facial injury rather than traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a challenge for emergency physicians. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of intracranial injury in patients with orbital wall fracture (OWF), who were classified with a chief complaint of facial injury rather than TBI. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study enrolled adult OWF patients (age ≥18 years) who presented at the hospital between January 2004 and March 2016...
February 24, 2018: Injury
Qianqian Wu, Li Ma, Qiunan Liu, Lina Feng, Zhenyu Wang, Arne Ohrndorf, Hans-Jürgen Christ, Jian Xiong
A skull fracture, due to a composition of typical lightweight cellular structures, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. This paper presents a systematic investigation on the failure mechanism and energy absorption of skull cellular bones under low- and medium-velocity impact loadings. Non-destructive three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) is utilized to scan samples of human skull cellular bones, and relevant structural parameters are obtained to reconstruct a finite element (FE) model of these bones...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Jakob M Townsend, Brian T Andrews, Yi Feng, Jinxi Wang, Randolph J Nudo, Erik Van Kampen, Stevin H Gehrke, Cory J Berkland, Michael S Detamore
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a life-threatening condition defined by internal brain herniation. Severe TBI is commonly treated by a two-stage surgical intervention, where decompressive craniectomy is first conducted to remove a large portion of calvarial bone and allow unimpeded brain swelling. In the second surgery, spaced weeks to months after the first, cranioplasty is performed to restore the cranial bone. Hydrogels with paste-like precursor solutions for surgical placement may potentially revolutionize TBI treatment by permitting a single-stage surgical intervention, capable of being implanted with the initial surgery, remaining pliable during brain swelling, and tuned to regenerate calvarial bone after brain swelling has subsided...
February 26, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Martin Shaw, Laura Moss, Chris Hawthorne, John Kinsella, Ian Piper
OBJECTIVES: Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is well known to be indicative of a poor outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This phenomenon was quantified using a pressure time index (PTI) model of raised ICP burden in a paediatric population. Using the PTI methodology, this pilot study is aimed at investigating the relationship between raised ICP and length of stay (LOS) in adults admitted to a neurological intensive care unit (neuro-ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 10 patients admitted to the neuro-ICU following TBI, ICP was measured and data from the first 24 h were analysed...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
G Frigieri, R A P Andrade, C Dias, D L Spavieri, R Brunelli, D A Cardim, C C Wang, R M M Verzola, S Mascarenhas
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the invasive (iICP) and a non-invasive intracranial pressure (nICP) monitoring methods in patients with traumatic brain injury, based on the similarities of the signals' power spectral densities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recorded the intracranial pressure of seven patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to Hospital São João, Portugal, using two different methods: a standard intraparenchymal (iICP) and a new nICP method based on mechanical extensometers...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Christopher Hawthorne, Martin Shaw, Ian Piper, Laura Moss, John Kinsella
OBJECTIVES: We have previously demonstrated a relationship between transcranial bioimpedance (TCB) measurements and intracranial pressure (ICP) in an animal model of raised ICP. The primary objective of this study was to explore the relationship between non-invasive bioelectrical impedance measurements of the brain and skull and ICP in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included patients were adults admitted to the Neurological Intensive Care Unit with TBI and undergoing invasive ICP monitoring as part of their routine clinical care...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
T Lo, I Piper, B Depreitere, G Meyfroidt, M Poca, J Sahuquillo, T Durduran, P Enblad, P Nilsson, A Ragauskas, K Kiening, K Morris, R Agbeko, R Levin, J Weitz, C Park, P Davis
OBJECTIVES: Validated optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) treatment thresholds in children do not exist. To improve the intensive care unit (ICU) management of the paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) population, we are forming a new paediatric multi-centre collaboration to recruit standardised ICU data for running and reporting upon models for assessing autoregulation and optimal CCP (CPPopt). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We are adapting the adult BrainIT group's approach to develop a new Paediatric Brain Monitoring and Information Technology Group (KidsBrainIT), which will include a repository to store prospectively collected high-resolution physiological, clinical, and outcome data...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, Peter Smielewski, David K Menon, John D Pickard
OBJECTIVE: In nearly 1,000 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients monitored in the years 1992-2014, we identified 18 vegetative state (VS) cases. Our database provided access to continuous computer-recorded signals, which we used to compare primary signals, intracranial pressure (ICP)-derived indices and demographic data between VS patients, patients who survived but who were not VS (S), and patients who died (D). METHOD: Mean values of ICP, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) from the whole monitoring periods were compared between the different outcome groups...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Maria Monteagudo Vela, Diana García Sáez, Andre R Simon
Fifty years after the first successful heart transplantation, despite multiple advances in the treatment of advanced acute and chronic heart failure, there is still no equivalent to heart transplantation as a long-term treatment for end-stage heart failure. Transplantation is, however, limited by the scarcity and quality of heart allografts. Donors are nowadays significantly older, particularly in European countries, and traumatic head injury as the cause of death has been replaced by intracerebral hemorrhage or hypoxic brain damage in the majority of cases...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Laura Jolliffe, Natasha A Lannin, Dominique A Cadilhac, Tammy Hoffmann
OBJECTIVES: Rehabilitation clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contain recommendation statements aimed at optimising care for adults with stroke and other brain injury. The aim of this study was to determine the quality, scope and consistency of CPG recommendations for rehabilitation covering the acquired brain injury populations. DESIGN: Systematic review. INTERVENTIONS: Included CPGs contained recommendations for inpatient rehabilitation or community rehabilitation for adults with an acquired brain injury diagnosis (stroke, traumatic or other non-progressive acquired brain impairments)...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
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