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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320134/post-hemorrhagic-hydrocephalus-recent-advances-and-new-therapeutic-insights
#1
REVIEW
Qianwei Chen, Zhou Feng, Qiang Tan, Jing Guo, Jun Tang, Liang Tan, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen
Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), also referred to as progressive ventricular dilatation, is caused by disturbances in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption following hemorrhage in the brain. As one of the most serious complications of neonatal/adult intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and traumatic brain injury (TBI), PHH is associated with increased morbidity and disability of these events. Common sequelae of PHH include neurocognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and growth impairment...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316319/epileptic-spasms-in-paediatric-post-traumatic-epilepsy-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#2
Jun T Park, Harry T Chugani
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology...
March 17, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314984/substance-use-criminal-behaviour-and-psychiatric-symptoms-following-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#3
Eleanor Kennedy, Jon Heron, Marcus Munafò
Recent research suggests a link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) in youth and later risk behaviour. We explored the association between mild TBI and psychiatric symptoms, substance use and criminal behaviour using data from a longitudinal birth cohort. Participants with mild TBI (n = 800), orthopaedic injuries (n = 2305) and no injuries (n = 8307) were identified from self and parent reports up to age 16 years. Self-report measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and criminal behaviours, and parent-reported psychiatric symptoms were collected at age 17 years...
March 17, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314862/epidemiology-and-prognosis-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-returning-soldiers-a-cohort-study
#4
Karen Schwab, Heidi P Terrio, Lisa A Brenner, Renee M Pazdan, Henry P McMillan, Margaret MacDonald, Sidney R Hinds, Ann I Scher
OBJECTIVE: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; concussion) is common in returning service members yet limited definitive evidence exists on its prognosis. METHODS: Almost 25,000 non-medically evacuated soldiers returning from Afghanistan or Iraq to 2 military bases between 2009 and 2014 were screened for mTBI. We invited a random sample to participate in the present study, oversampling those screening positive, resulting in 557 mTBI cases and 1,010 controls, of whom 366 cases and 599 controls completed 3-month follow-up evaluations...
March 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314621/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-an-essential-nutrient-and-a-nutraceutical-for-brain-health-and-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Grace Y Sun, Agnes Simonyi, Kevin L Fritsche, Dennis Y Chuang, Mark Hannink, Zezong Gu, C Michael Greenlief, Jeffrey K Yao, James C Lee, David Q Beversdorf
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enriched in phospholipids in the brain and retina, is known to play multi-functional roles in brain health and diseases. While arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), DHA is linked to action of the Ca(2+)-independent iPLA2. DHA undergoes enzymatic conversion by 15-lipoxygenase (Alox 15) to form oxylipins including resolvins and neuroprotectins, which are powerful lipid mediators. DHA can also undergo non-enzymatic conversion by reacting with oxygen free radicals (ROS), which cause the production of 4-hydoxyhexenal (4-HHE), an aldehyde derivative which can form adducts with DNA, proteins and lipids...
March 10, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298170/concussion-induces-hippocampal-circuitry-disruption-in-swine
#6
John A Wolf, Brian N Johnson, Victoria E Johnson, Mary E Putt, Kevin D Browne, Constance J Mietus, Daniel P Brown, Kathryn L Wofford, Douglas H Smith, M Sean Grady, Akiva S Cohen, D Kacy Cullen
Hippocampal-dependent deficits in learning and memory formation are a prominent feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the role of the hippocampus in cognitive dysfunction after concussion (mild TBI) is unknown. We therefore investigated functional and structural changes in the swine hippocampus following TBI using a model of head rotational acceleration that closely replicates the biomechanics and neuropathology of closed-head TBI in humans. We examined neurophysiological changes using a novel ex vivo hippocampal slice paradigm with extracellular stimulation and recording in the dentate gyrus and CA1 occurring at 7 days following non-impact inertial TBI in swine...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293148/assessment-of-pre-injury-health-related-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Annemieke C Scholten, Juanita A Haagsma, Ewout W Steyerberg, Ed F van Beeck, Suzanne Polinder
BACKGROUND: Insight into the change from pre- to post-injury health-related quality of life (HRQL) of trauma patients is important to derive estimates of the impact of injury on HRQL. Prospectively collected pre-injury HRQL data are, however, often not available due to the difficulty to collect these data before the injury. We performed a systematic review on the current methods used to assess pre-injury health status and to estimate the change from pre- to post-injury HRQL due to an injury...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291465/long-term-outcomes-and-needs-of-military-service-members-after-noncombat-related-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Kelly J Miller, Jan E Kennedy, Karen A Schwab
OBJECTIVES: Assess the prevalence of self-identified unmet service needs in a military sample an average of 5 years following noncombat traumatic brain injury (TBI). Examine relationships between unmet needs and background, injury-related and outcome variables. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 89 veterans and service members who sustained non-combat TBI between 1999 and 2003, selected from enrollees in the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center TBI registry...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289516/biochemical-changes-in-the-injured-brain
#9
EDITORIAL
Seelora Sahu, Deb Sanjay Nag, Amlan Swain, Devi Prasad Samaddar
Brain metabolism is an energy intensive phenomenon involving a wide spectrum of chemical intermediaries. Various injury states have a detrimental effect on the biochemical processes involved in the homeostatic and electrophysiological properties of the brain. The biochemical markers of brain injury are a recent addition in the armamentarium of neuro-clinicians and are being increasingly used in the routine management of neuro-pathological entities such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial space occupying lesions...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288648/assessment-of-pre-injury-health-related-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Annemieke C Scholten, Juanita A Haagsma, Ewout W Steyerberg, Ed F van Beeck, Suzanne Polinder
BACKGROUND: Insight into the change from pre- to post-injury health-related quality of life (HRQL) of trauma patients is important to derive estimates of the impact of injury on HRQL. Prospectively collected pre-injury HRQL data are, however, often not available due to the difficulty to collect these data before the injury. We performed a systematic review on the current methods used to assess pre-injury health status and to estimate the change from pre- to post-injury HRQL due to an injury...
March 14, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286721/functional-outcome-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-patients-with-dominant-or-non-dominant-malignant-middle-cerebral-infarcts
#11
Bilal Kamal Alam, Ahmed S Bukhari, Salman Assad, Pir Muhammad Siddique, Haider Ghazanfar, Muhammad Junaid Niaz, Maryam Kundi, Saima Shah, Maimoona Siddiqui
BACKGROUND:  The use of decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been studied in the setting of different conditions, including traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. The rationale of this study is to determine the functional outcome after DC in patients with malignant MCA infarcts. METHODS:  A longitudinal cohort study was performed based on patients diagnosed with malignant MCA territory infarction admitted to the Neurosurgery Department of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan between July 2015 and November 2016...
January 26, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285745/experimental-measurements-and-mathematical-modeling-towards-quantification-of-brain-swelling-stress
#12
Stelios Angeli, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Traumatic brain injury results in brain tissue swelling which can be a life threatening condition due to skull confinement. While previous efforts successfully measured the exhibited volume change in brain tissue swelling, no data exist to provide information about the exhibited stresses. In this study, confined compression mechanical testing was employed to measure swelling stress in murine brain tissue samples by varying the ionic concentration of the bathing solutions. Subsequently, computer simulations of the experimental protocol were employed to confirm a triphasic mathematical model describing the effect and provide insights into the experimental data...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284950/naloxone-exacerbates-memory-impairments-and-depressive-like-behavior-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-in-mice-with-upregulated-opioid-system-activity
#13
Anna Lesniak, Pawel Leszczynski, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny, Chaim G Pick, Mariusz Sacharczuk
The neuroprotective role of the endogenous opioid system in the pathophysiological sequelae of brain injury remains largely ambiguous. Noteworthy, almost no data is available on how its genetically determined activity influences the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury. Thus, the aim of our study was to examine the effect of opioid receptor blockage on cognitive impairments produced by mild traumatic brain injury in mice selectively bred for high (HA) and low (LA) swim-stress induced analgesia that show innate divergence in opioid system activity...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283812/behavioral-treatments-for-post-traumatic-headache
#14
REVIEW
Felicia Fraser, Yuka Matsuzawa, Yuen Shan Christine Lee, Mia Minen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is a common headache type after traumatic brain injury (TBI). There are no FDA approved medications for PTH, and it is unknown how medications can affect the brain's ability to recover from TBI. Thus, we sought to examine the biopsychosocial factors that influence PTH and the non-pharmacologic treatments studied for headache treatment. We also sought to determine if there is literature examining whether the non-pharmacologic treatments influence the biopsychosocial factors...
May 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278589/assessment-and-treatment-of-mental-fatigue-after-a-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Birgitta Johansson, Lars Rönnbäck
Mental fatigue is a frequently occurring symptom after mild, moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Such mental fatigue may become a long-lasting problem, irrespective of severity and even after recovery from other neurological or psychiatric symptoms. Two characteristics of this mental fatigue are that patients easily become exhausted and there is generally a long recovery time. There is a need to increase knowledge and awareness of mental fatigue as it interferes considerably with work, studies, and social activities...
March 1, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277415/mortality-risk-stratification-after-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hazard-of-death-with-titrated-hypothermia-in-the-eurotherm3235trial
#16
Peter J D Andrews, Aryelly Rodriguez, Peter Suter, Claire G Battison, Jonathan K J Rhodes, Irene Puddu, Bridget A Harris
OBJECTIVES: Hypothermia reduces intracranial hypertension in patients with traumatic brain injury but was associated with harm in the Eurotherm3235Trial. We stratified trial patients by International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in [Traumatic Brain Injury] (IMPACT) extended model sum scores to determine where the balance of risks lay with the intervention. DESIGN: The Eurotherm3235Trial was a randomized controlled trial, with standardized and blinded outcome assessment...
March 8, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275834/%C3%AE-blocker-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-better-long-term-functional-outcome-a-matched-case-control-study
#17
R Ahl, E P Thelin, G Sjölin, B-M Bellander, L Riddez, P Talving, S Mohseni
PURPOSE: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the predominant cause of death and disability following trauma. Several studies have observed improved survival in TBI patients exposed to β-blockers, however, the effect on functional outcome is poorly documented. METHODS: Adult patients with severe TBI (head AIS ≥ 3) were identified from a prospectively collected TBI database over a 5-year period. Patients with neurosurgical ICU length of stay <48 h and those dying within 48 h of admission were excluded...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275224/aggressive-versus-conservative-antibiotic-use-to-prevent-and-treat-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-comparison-of-two-case-series
#18
Arturo Chieregato, Paolo Malacarne, Francesco Cocciolo, Maurizio Ravaldini, Emanuele Russo, Bruno Viaggi, Michele Giardino, Carlotta Rossi, Bruno Simini, Guido Bertolini
BACKGROUND: In patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is considered a dangerous complication, prompting early aggressive antibiotic treatment and prophylaxis. While this approach increases the selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR), its clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. METHODS: One-year incidence of VAP in severe TBI patients (ICU stay >48 hours, with either Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or receiving intracranial pressure monitoring, or having undergone emergency surgery) and the prevalence of MDR among those who eventually developed it, were compared in two Italian intensive care units (ICUs) adopting different antibiotic approaches...
March 8, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272763/when-are-metabolic-ratios-superior-to-absolute-quantification-a-statistical-analysis
#19
Sarah E Hoch, Ivan I Kirov, Assaf Tal
Metabolite levels measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are often expressed as ratios rather than absolute concentrations. However, the inter-subject variability of the denominator metabolite can introduce uncertainty into a metabolite ratio. In a clinical setting, there are no guidelines on whether ratios or absolute quantification should be used for a more accurate classification of normal versus abnormal results based on their statistical properties. In a research setting, the choice of one over the other can have significant implications on sample size, which must be factored in at the study design stage...
March 8, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269163/structural-and-functional-changes-during-epileptogenesis-in-the-mouse-model-of-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Yvan Dietrich, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Gabriel Dieuset, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Charles Pineau, Fabrice Wendling, Benoit Martin
An important issue in epilepsy research is to understand the structural and functional modifications leading to chronic epilepsy, characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, after initial brain insult. To address this issue, we recorded and analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data during epileptogenesis in the in vivo mouse model of Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (MTLE, kainate). Besides, this model of epilepsy is a particular form of drug-resistant epilepsy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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