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Prostate cancer mortality epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721887/external-beam-radiation-therapy-with-a-brachytherapy-boost-versus-radical-prostatectomy-in-gleason-pattern-5-prostate-cancer-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Chenyang Wang, Amar U Kishan, Mitchell Kamrava, Michael L Steinberg, Christopher R King
PURPOSE: Patients with prostate cancer (PCa) containing Gleason pattern (GP) 5 disease experience a greater and earlier incidence of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) than general PCa patients. This affords the statistical power to compare PCSM outcomes among different treatment modalities even when restricting the analysis to patients treated in the modern era. The purpose of the present study was to compare the survival outcomes among patients with GP 5 PCa on needle core biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate who underwent extremely dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT; exemplified by external beam RT with a brachytherapy boost [EBRT + BT]) versus radical prostatectomy (RP) in the modern era...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689518/colon-cancer-screening-is-it-time-yet
#2
EDITORIAL
Hadi Bhurgri, Sami Samiullah
The month of March is dedicated to Colon Cancer Awareness. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has been on the rise. It is currently the third most common cancer in men (746,000 cases, 10.0% of the total) and the second in women (614,000 cases, 9.2% of the total).1 Arecent meta-analysis reported a 61% risk reduction in CRC incidence with colonoscopy.2 Unlike screening programs for breast and prostate cancers, not only has CRC screening reduced mortality from colon cancer and detected early CRC, it has also decreased the incidence of CRC through detection and removal of pre-cancerous lesions...
June 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669156/cancer-incidence-and-mortality-district-cancer-registry-trivandrum-south-india
#3
Aleyamma Mathew, Preethi Sara George, Kalavathy M C, Padmakumari G, Jagathnath Krishna K M, Paul Sebastian
Background: Cancer is emerging as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries. Cancer registry figures help for planning and delivery of health services. This paper provided the first results of cancer incidence and mortality [Crude (CR) and age-standardized (ASR)] rates (world-standard population) of Trivandrum district, South India and compared with other registries under the network of National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP), Government of India. Materials and Methods: Trivandrum district cancer registry encompasses a population of 3...
June 25, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591151/cardiac-glycosides-use-and-the-risk-and-mortality-of-cancer-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#4
Mohamed Hosny Osman, Eman Farrag, Mai Selim, Mohamed Samy Osman, Arwa Hasanine, Azza Selim
BACKGROUND: Cardiac glycosides (CGs) including digitalis, digoxin and digitoxin are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Pre-clinical studies have investigated the anti-neoplastic properties of CGs since 1960s. Epidemiological studies concerning the association between CGs use and cancer risk yielded inconsistent results. We have performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the effects of CGs on cancer risk and mortality. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library, Medline and Web of Knowledge were searched for identifying relevant studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589750/a-unified-approach-for-assessing-heterogeneity-in-age-period-cohort-model-parameters-using-random-effects
#5
Pavel Chernyavskiy, Mark P Little, Philip S Rosenberg
Age-period-cohort models are a popular tool for studying population-level rates; for example, trends in cancer incidence and mortality. Age-period-cohort models decompose observed trends into age effects that correlate with natural history, period effects that reveal factors impacting all ages simultaneously (e.g. innovations in screening), and birth cohort effects that reflect differential risk exposures that vary across birth years. Methodology for the analysis of multiple population strata (e.g. ethnicity, cancer registry) within the age-period-cohort framework has not been thoroughly investigated...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552709/morbidity-and-mortality-of-locally-advanced-prostate-cancer-a-population-based-analysis-comparing-radical-prostatectomy-versus-external-beam-radiation
#6
Adam S Feldman, Christian P Meyer, Alejandro Sanchez, Anna Krasnova, Gally Reznor, Mani Menon, Adam S Kibel, Toni K Choueiri, Stuart R Lipsitz, Maxine Sun, Quoc-Dien Trinh
PURPOSE: The management of locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. We sought to compare the effect of primary external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) vs. radical prostatectomy (RP) for locally advanced PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 2,935 elderly (≥65 years) men in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Medicare linked database who underwent EBRT or RP for locally advanced PCa. Propensity-adjusted Cox proportional hazard and regression models fitted to examine urinary and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), as well as overall and PCa-specific mortality...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552708/recent-changes-in-prostate-cancer-screening-practices-and-prostate-cancer-epidemiology
#7
REVIEW
Daniel J Lee, Katherine Mallin, Amy J Graves, Sam S Chang, David F Penson, Matthew J Resnick, Daniel A Barocas
PURPOSE: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based screening for prostate cancer has had a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease. Its use has been associated with a significant reduction in prostate cancer mortality, but has also resulted in the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of indolent prostate cancer, exposing many men to the harms of treatment without benefit. The U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) issued a recommendation against screening men over 75 in 2008, and against routine screening for all men in 2012, indicating that, in their interpretation, the harms of screening outweigh the benefits...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506524/contemporary-incidence-and-cancer-control-outcomes-of-primary-neuroendocrine-prostate-cancer-a-seer-database-analysis
#8
Emanuele Zaffuto, Raisa Pompe, Marc Zanaty, Helen Davis Bondarenko, Sami-Ramzi Leyh-Bannurah, Marco Moschini, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Giorgio Gandaglia, Nicola Fossati, Armando Stabile, Kevin C Zorn, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti, Pierre I Karakiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (NEPC) is a rare entity. We aimed at providing contemporary data on incidence and survival figures of de-novo NEPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 309 individuals with de-novo NEPC diagnosed between 2004 and 2013. We evaluated age-adjusted incidence rates over the study. Kaplan-Meier analyses assessed overall survival (OS) after stratification according to histologic subtype, metastatic status, and treatment...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503238/epidemiology-of-prostate-and-kidney-cancer-in-the-aboriginal-population-of-canada-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Emily Chu Lee Wong, Anil Kapoor
INTRODUCTION: Prostate and kidney cancer rates in the Aboriginal population of Canada is a growing issue. METHODS: A systematic review of prostate and kidney cancer epidemiology in the Aboriginal population of Canada was performed with international comparison and evaluation of present epidemiological disparities. PubMed, Medline, and Embase (from January 1946 to June 2016), relevant government-published reports, and the websites of organizations contributing to prostate or kidney cancer guidelines were searched...
May 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486651/vitamin-d-and-cancer-risk-and-mortality-state-of-the-science-gaps-and-challenges
#10
Alison M Mondul, Stephanie J Weinstein, Tracy M Layne, Demetrius Albanes
There has been substantial enthusiasm recently regarding the potential role of vitamin D in the primary and secondary prevention of cancer. Laboratory studies demonstrate a range of anticarcinogenic effects for vitamin D compounds, but human studies have yielded little consistent evidence supporting a protective association. Higher circulating levels of vitamin D (i.e., 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D) appear to be associated with reduced risk of colorectal and bladder malignancies, but higher risk of prostate and possibly pancreatic cancers, with no clear association for most other organ sites examined...
January 1, 2017: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444639/metformin-and-prostate-cancer-a-new-role-for-an-old-drug
#11
REVIEW
Jessica Whitburn, Claire M Edwards, Prasanna Sooriakumaran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since epidemiological studies first demonstrated a potential positive effect of metformin in reducing cancer incidence and mortality, there has been an increased interest in not only better understanding metformin's mechanisms of action but also in exploring its potential anti-cancer effects. In this review, we aim to summarise the current evidence exploring a role for metformin in prostate cancer therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies have demonstrated a number of antineoplastic biological effects via a range of molecular mechanisms...
June 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444227/incidence-and-prognosis-of-patients-with-brain-metastases-at-diagnosis-of-systemic-malignancy-a-population-based-study
#12
Daniel N Cagney, Allison M Martin, Paul J Catalano, Amanda J Redig, Nancy U Lin, Eudocia Q Lee, Patrick Y Wen, Ian F Dunn, Wenya Linda Bi, Stephanie E Weiss, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Brian M Alexander, Ayal A Aizer
Background: Brain metastases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Population-level data describing the incidence and prognosis of patients with brain metastases are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the incidence and prognosis of patients with brain metastases at diagnosis of systemic malignancy using recently released data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Methods: We identified 1,302,166 patients diagnosed with non-hematologic malignancies originating outside of the central nervous system between 2010-2013 and described the incidence proportion and survival of patients with brain metastases...
April 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419139/skeletal-related-events-and-mortality-among-men-diagnosed-with-advanced-prostate-cancer-the-impact-of-alternative-measures-of-radiation-to-the-bone
#13
Eberechukwu Onukwugha, Young Kwok, Jay P Ciezki, Candice Yong, Catherine Plaisant, Chandana A Reddy, C Daniel Mullins, Brian Seal, Adriana Valderrama, Arif Hussain
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Skeletal-related events (SREs), which include radiation to the bone (RtB), can occur among patients with bone metastasis (BM). There is a recognized potential for misclassification of RtB when using claims data. We compared alternative measures of RtB to better understand their impact on SRE prevalence and SRE-related mortality. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed data for stage IV prostate cancer (PCa) cases identified between 2005 and 2009 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry linked with Medicare claims...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416350/survival-among-men-at-high-risk-of-disseminated-prostate-cancer-receiving-initial-locally-directed-radical-treatment-or-initial-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#14
Prasanna Sooriakumaran, Tommy Nyberg, Olof Akre, Anders Widmark, Freddie Hamdy, Markus Graefen, Stefan Carlsson, Gunnar Steineck, N Peter Wiklund
BACKGROUND: There is increasing low-quality evidence rationalizing the use of radical therapy for men at high risk of disseminated prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To investigate, using high-quality epidemiologic data, whether initial radical therapy in men at high risk of disseminated prostate cancer improves survival. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An observational population-based Swedish study from 1996 to 2010 of men at high risk of disseminated prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >50) initially treated by radical therapy (radiation therapy [n=630] or radical prostatectomy [n=120]) or androgen deprivation therapy (n=17 602), and followed for up to 15 yr...
April 14, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397503/-trends-in-prostate-cancer-epidemiology-in-slovakia-an-international-comparison
#15
M Ondrušová, D Ondruš
INTRODUCTION: According to worldwide estimates, Slovakia is classed as a country with a medium-high incidence of prostate cancer. Current predictions indicate that in the near future prostate cancer will become the most frequent cancer among males in Slovakia. AIMS: The aims of the study presented in this paper were to analyse trends in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in Slovakia and compare these trends with those in other countries and regions of the world, predict epidemiological indicators of prostate cancer in Slovakia, and provide relevant and updated data for the purposes of further analyses and evaluation of the impacts of interventions...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385454/local-therapy-improves-survival-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#16
Sami-Ramzi Leyh-Bannurah, Stéphanie Gazdovich, Lars Budäus, Emanuele Zaffuto, Alberto Briganti, Firas Abdollah, Francesco Montorsi, Jonas Schiffmann, Mani Menon, Shahrokh F Shariat, Margit Fisch, Felix Chun, Thomas Steuber, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Pierre I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND: Treatment of the primary, termed local therapy (LT), may improve survival in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) versus no local therapy (NLT). OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer-specific mortality (CSM) after LT versus NLT in mPCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2004-2013), 13 692 mPCa patients were treated with LT (radical prostatectomy [RP] or radiation therapy [RT]) or NLT...
April 3, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330822/long-term-survival-of-patients-aged-80-years-or-older-treated-with-radical-prostatectomy-for-prostate-cancer
#17
P Dell'Oglio, E Zaffuto, K Boehm, V Trudeau, A Larcher, Z Tian, M Moschini, S F Shariat, M Graefen, F Saad, U Capitanio, A Briganti, F Montorsi, P I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND: Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the gold standard for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) patients with life expectancy (LE) of at least 10 years. We examined long-term survival of men aged 80 years or older treated with RP and we attempted to identify criteria based on age and comorbidities that could predict survival of at least 10 years after RP, to identify those that might be considered for RP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare-linked database, we identified 234 octo- and nonagenarians with clinical T1, T2 or T3 PCa treated with RP between 1991 and 2009...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291906/changes-in-mortality-and-incidence-of-prostate-cancer-by-risk-class-in-different-periods-in-italy-the-possible-effects-of-psa-spread
#18
Massimo Vicentini, Claudio Sacchettini, Annalisa Trama, Nicola Nicolai, Gemma Gatta, Laura Botta, Riccardo Valdagni, Paolo Giorgi Rossi
PURPOSE: In Italy, the spread of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing varies in different areas. A peak of incidence was reached in 2003-2004 in some areas, while in others the incidence is still increasing. Mortality has declined since 1999 in some areas, while it remains stable in others. We compared mortality and the risk of advanced cancer over 2 periods (1996-1998; 2005-2007) and by geographic area characterized by a different spread of PSA, to understand the possible impact of PSA on the epidemiology of prostate cancer...
May 12, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247425/estimating-heritability-of-prostate-cancer-specific-survival-using-population-based-registers
#19
Robert Szulkin, Mark S Clements, Patrik K E Magnusson, Fredrik E Wiklund, Ralf Kuja-Halkola
BACKGROUND: There is a strong genetic component in prostate cancer development with an estimated heritability of 58%. In addition, recent epidemiological assessments show a familial component in prostate cancer-specific survival, which could be due to either common genetics or environment. In this study we sought to estimate the heritability of prostate cancer-specific survival by studying brothers and father-son pairs in Sweden. METHODS: We used linkage records from three Swedish national registers: the Multi-Generation Register, the Cancer Register, and the Cause of Death Register...
March 1, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239004/cancer-mortality-in-the-mississippi-delta-region-descriptive-epidemiology-and-needed-future-research-and-interventions
#20
Whitney E Zahnd, Wiley D Jenkins, Georgia S Mueller-Luckey
The Delta Region is a federally designated, socioeconomically disadvantaged region of the United States covering 252 counties in eight states along the Mississippi River. The objective of this study is to describe the Region's cancer mortality burden. National Center for Health Statistics data were used to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios for the Delta Region for all cancers, lung, colorectal, breast (female), cervical, and prostate cancers. Rates were also calculated for comparison groups, and were stratified by gender, race, rurality, and socioeconomic status...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
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