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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543031/in-memoriam-professor-jean-pierre-von-wartburg-1931-2017
#1
Helmut K Seitz
On April 11, 2017, Professor Jean Pierre von Wartburg passed away in his home in Bollingen, near Bern, Switzerland. In addition to being one of the pioneers in alcohol research, he was one of the leading scientists in the field of enzymology and alcohol metabolism. Between 1965 and 1990, he was a giant who dominated the field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533982/lid-opening-and-conformational-stability-of-t1-lipase-is-mediated-by-increasing-chain-length-polar-solvents
#2
Jonathan Maiangwa, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad Ali, Abu Bakar Salleh, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman, Yahaya M Normi, Fairolniza Mohd Shariff, Thean Chor Leow
The dynamics and conformational landscape of proteins in organic solvents are events of potential interest in nonaqueous process catalysis. Conformational changes, folding transitions, and stability often correspond to structural rearrangements that alter contacts between solvent molecules and amino acid residues. However, in nonaqueous enzymology, organic solvents limit stability and further application of proteins. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) of a thermostable Geobacillus zalihae T1 lipase was performed in different chain length polar organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol) and water mixture systems to a concentration of 50%...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529757/enzyme-activities-and-gene-expression-of-starch-metabolism-provide-insights-into-grape-berry-development
#3
Xudong Zhu, Chaobo Zhang, Weimin Wu, Xiaopeng Li, Chuan Zhang, Jinggui Fang
Grapes are categorized as a non-climacteric type of fruit which its ripening is not associated to important rises in respiration and ethylene synthesis. The starch metabolism shares a certain role in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways during grape berry development, and is regarded as an important transient pool in the pathway of sugar accumulation. However, the comprehensive role of starch and its contribution to the quality and flavor of grape berry have not been explored thoroughly. In this study, the expression levels of genes enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentrations related to starch metabolism, were analyzed to understand the molecular mechanism of starch accumulation during grape berry development...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526692/understanding-the-interrelationship-between-the-synthesis-of-urea-and-gluconeogenesis-by-formulating-an-overall-balanced-equation
#4
Piero L Ipata, Rossana Pesi
It is well known that a strong metabolic interrelationship exists between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. In this paper, we present a detailed, overall equation, describing a possible metabolic link between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. We adopted a guided approach in which we strongly suggest that students, when faced with the problem of obtaining the overall equation of a metabolic pathway, carefully account for all atoms and charges of the single reactions, as well as the cellular localizations of the substrates, and the related transport systems...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520920/methylation-of-human-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-alpha-eef1a-by-a-member-of-a-novel-protein-lysine-methyltransferase-family-modulates-mrna-translation
#5
Magnus E Jakobsson, Jedrzej Malecki, Benedikt S Nilges, Anders Moen, Sebastian A Leidel, Pål Ø Falnes
Many cellular proteins are methylated on lysine residues and this has been most intensively studied for histone proteins. Lysine methylations on non-histone proteins are also frequent, but in most cases the functional significance of the methylation event, as well as the identity of the responsible lysine (K) specific methyltransferase (KMT), remain unknown. Several recently discovered KMTs belong to the so-called seven-β-strand (7BS) class of MTases and we have here investigated an uncharacterized human 7BS MTase currently annotated as part of the endothelin converting enzyme 2, but which should be considered a separate enzyme...
May 18, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514423/enzymology-radical-ring-resizing
#6
Caitlin Deane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494956/resolution-of-submillisecond-kinetics-of-multiple-reaction-pathways-for-lactate-dehydrogenase
#7
Michael J Reddish, Robert Callender, R Brian Dyer
Enzymes are known to exhibit conformational flexibility. An important consequence of this flexibility is that the same enzyme reaction can occur via multiple reaction pathways on a reaction landscape. A model enzyme for the study of reaction landscapes is lactate dehydrogenase. We have previously used temperature-jump (T-jump) methods to demonstrate that the reaction landscape of lactate dehydrogenase branches at multiple points creating pathways with varied reactivity. A limitation of this previous work is that the T-jump method makes only small perturbations to equilibrium and may not report conclusively on all steps in a reaction...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490630/understanding-phospholipid-function-why-are-there-so-many-lipids
#8
William Dowhan
In the 1970's phospholipids were still considered mere building blocks of the membrane lipid bilayer, but the subsequent realization that phospholipids could also serve as second messengers brought new interest to the field. My own passion for the unique amphipathic properties of lipids led me to seek other, non-signaling functions for phospholipids, particularly in their interactions with membrane proteins. This seemed the last frontier in protein chemistry and enzymology to be conquered. I was fortunate to find my way to Eugene Kennedy's laboratory where both membrane proteins and phospholipids were foci of study thus providing a jumping-off point for advancing our fundamental understanding of lipid synthesis, membrane protein biosynthesis, phospholipid and membrane protein trafficking and the cellular roles of phospholipids...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462843/covalent-inhibitors-of-lgtc-a-blueprint-for-the-discovery-of-non-substrate-like-inhibitors-for-bacterial-glycosyltransferases
#9
Yong Xu, Ruth Smith, Mirella Vivoli, Masaki Ema, Niina Goos, Sebastian Gehrke, Nicholas J Harmer, Gerd K Wagner
Non-substrate-like inhibitors of glycosyltransferases are sought after as chemical tools and potential lead compounds for medicinal chemistry, chemical biology and drug discovery. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel small molecular inhibitor chemotype for LgtC, a retaining α-1,4-galactosyltransferase involved in bacterial lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis. The new inhibitors, which are structurally unrelated to both the donor and acceptor of LgtC, have low micromolar inhibitory activity, comparable to the best substrate-based inhibitors...
April 11, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455407/masochistic-enzymology-dennis-vance-s-work-on-phosphatidylcholine
#10
George Carman, Alexandra Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452355/crystal-structure-of-apobec3a-bound-to-single-stranded-dna-reveals-structural-basis-for-cytidine-deamination-and-specificity
#11
Takahide Kouno, Tania V Silvas, Brendan J Hilbert, Shivender M D Shandilya, Markus F Bohn, Brian A Kelch, William E Royer, Mohan Somasundaran, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hiroshi Matsuo, Celia A Schiffer
Nucleic acid editing enzymes are essential components of the immune system that lethally mutate viral pathogens and somatically mutate immunoglobulins, and contribute to the diversification and lethality of cancers. Among these enzymes are the seven human APOBEC3 deoxycytidine deaminases, each with unique target sequence specificity and subcellular localization. While the enzymology and biological consequences have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which APOBEC3s recognize and edit DNA remains elusive...
April 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441875/introduction-unusual-enzymology-in-natural-product-synthesis
#12
Wilfred A van der Donk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425708/revealing-multiple-pathways-in-t4-lysozyme-substep-conformational-motions-by-single-molecule-enzymology-and-modeling
#13
Maolin Lu, H Peter Lu
Enzyme conformational dynamics play crucial roles in catalytic functions. Obtaining molecular level insights into the conformational transition dynamics of enzyme-substrate complex from the inactive state to the active state is fundamental for understanding enzymatic function and dynamics. Here, we report our progress on the real-time conformational transition dynamics of T4 lysozyme under enzymatic reactions using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The time duration in forming the active enzyme-substrate complex state (ES*) shows distinctive Poisson and non-Poisson statistics, including exponential and nonexponential, convoluted Poisson distributions, and Gaussian-like distributions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425208/nitrogenase-cofactor-inspiration-for-model-chemistry
#14
Ivana Djurdjevic, Oliver Einsle, Laure Decamps
The cofactor of nitrogenase is the largest and most intricate metal cluster known in nature. Its reactivity, mode of action and even the precise binding site of substrate remain a matter of debate. For decades, synthetic chemists have taken inspiration from the exceptional structural, electronic and catalytic features of the cofactor and have tried to either mimic the unique topology of the entire site, or to extract its functional principles and build them into novel catalysts that achieve the same - or very similar - astounding transformations...
April 20, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411647/nanoarmored-enzymes-for-organic-enzymology-synthesis-and-characterization-of-poly-2-alkyloxazoline-enzyme-conjugates
#15
Melanie Leurs, Joerg C Tiller
The properties of enzymes can be altered significantly by modification with polymers. Numerous different methods are known to obtain such polymer-enzyme conjugates (PECs). However, there is no universal method to render enzymes into PECs that are fully soluble in organic solvents. Here, we present a method, which achieves such high degree of modification of proteins that the majority of modified enzymes will be soluble in organic solvents. This is achieved by preparing poly(2-alkyloxazoline)s (POx) with an NH2 end group and coupling this functional polymer via pyromellitic acid dianhydride onto the amino groups of the respective protein...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394118/the-uncommon-enzymology-of-cis-acyltransferase-assembly-lines
#16
Adrian T Keatinge-Clay
The enzymology of 135 assembly lines containing primarily cis-acyltransferase modules is comprehensively analyzed, with greater attention paid to less common phenomena. Diverse online transformations, in which the substrate and/or product of the reaction is an acyl chain bound to an acyl carrier protein, are classified so that unusual reactions can be compared and underlying assembly-line logic can emerge. As a complement to the chemistry surrounding the loading, extension, and offloading of assembly lines that construct primarily polyketide products, structural aspects of the assembly-line machinery itself are considered...
April 10, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389555/targeting-of-microbe-derived-metabolites-to-improve-human-health-the-next-frontier-for-drug-discovery
#17
J Mark Brown, Stanley L Hazen
Recent advances in metabolomic and genome mining approaches have uncovered a poorly understood metabolome that originates solely or in part from bacterial enzyme sources. Whether living on exposed surfaces or within our intestinal tract, our microbial inhabitants produce a remarkably diverse set of natural products and small molecule metabolites that can impact human health and disease. Highlighted here, the gut microbe-derived metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been causally linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380376/sirt4-is-a-lysine-deacylase-that-controls-leucine-metabolism-and-insulin-secretion
#18
Kristin A Anderson, Frank K Huynh, Kelsey Fisher-Wellman, J Darren Stuart, Brett S Peterson, Jonathan D Douros, Gregory R Wagner, J Will Thompson, Andreas S Madsen, Michelle F Green, R Michael Sivley, Olga R Ilkayeva, Robert D Stevens, Donald S Backos, John A Capra, Christian A Olsen, Jonathan E Campbell, Deborah M Muoio, Paul A Grimsrud, Matthew D Hirschey
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacylases that regulate several aspects of metabolism and aging. In contrast to the other mammalian sirtuins, the primary enzymatic activity of mitochondrial sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) and its overall role in metabolic control have remained enigmatic. Using a combination of phylogenetics, structural biology, and enzymology, we show that SIRT4 removes three acyl moieties from lysine residues: methylglutaryl (MG)-, hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-, and 3-methylglutaconyl (MGc)-lysine...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380256/investigation-of-the-mycobacterial-enzyme-hsad-as-a-potential-novel-target-for-anti-tubercular-agents-using-a-fragment-based-drug-design-approach
#19
Ali Ryan, Elena Polycarpou, Nathan A Lack, Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Christian Sieg, Alice Halman, Sanjib Bhakta, Olga Eleftheriadou, Timothy D McHugh, Sebastian Keany, Edward D Lowe, Romain Ballet, Areej Abuhammad, William R Jacobs, Alessio Ciulli, Edith Sim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, there is a need for new anti-tubercular drugs that work through novel mechanisms of action. The meta cleavage product hydrolase, HsaD, has been demonstrated to be critical for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages and is encoded in an operon involved in cholesterol catabolism, which is identical in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We generated a mutant strain of M...
April 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377529/catabolism-of-the-last-two-steroid-rings-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-other-bacteria
#20
Adam M Crowe, Israël Casabon, Kirstin L Brown, Jie Liu, Jennifer Lian, Jason C Rogalski, Timothy E Hurst, Victor Snieckus, Leonard J Foster, Lindsay D Eltis
Most mycolic acid-containing actinobacteria and some proteobacteria use steroids as growth substrates, but the catabolism of the last two steroid rings has yet to be elucidated. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this pathway includes virulence determinants and has been proposed to be encoded by the KstR2-regulated genes, which include a predicted coenzyme A (CoA) transferase gene (ipdAB) and an acyl-CoA reductase gene (ipdC). In the presence of cholesterol, ΔipdC and ΔipdAB mutants of either M. tuberculosis or Rhodococcus jostii strain RHA1 accumulated previously undescribed metabolites: 3aα-H-4α(carboxyl-CoA)-5-hydroxy-7aβ-methylhexahydro-1-indanone (5-OH HIC-CoA) and (R)-2-(2-carboxyethyl)-3-methyl-6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA (COCHEA-CoA), respectively...
April 4, 2017: MBio
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