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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013265/decline-in-bone-mass-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-is-associated-with-hormonal-changes-in-the-absence-of-renal-impairment-when-used-by-hiv-uninfected-adolescent-boys-and-young-men-for-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#1
Peter L Havens, Charles B Stephensen, Marta D Van Loan, Gertrud U Schuster, Leslie R Woodhouse, Patricia M Flynn, Catherine M Gordon, Cynthia G Pan, Brandy Rutledge, Nancy Liu, Craig M Wilson, Rohan Hazra, Sybil G Hosek, Peter L Anderson, Sharon M Seifert, Bill G Kapogiannis, Kathleen Mulligan
: SummaryTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based preexposure prophylaxis in human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative males, aged 15 to 22 years, is safe for kidneys. Disruption of parathyroid hormone-fibroblast growth factor 23-vitamin D control of calcium-phosphate balance is primarily linked with TDF-associated bone decline at this age. BACKGROUND: We aimed to define the relative importance of renal and endocrine changes in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related bone toxicity...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921023/effects-of-hydrophilic-extract-of-nasturtium-officinale-on-prevention-of-ethylene-glycol-induced-renal-stone-in-male-wistar-rats
#2
Sadrollah Mehrabi, Eslam Askarpour, Farhad Mehrabi, Ramin Jannesar
BACKGROUND: Nasturtium officinale is a traditional herb that is used for diuresis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of hydrophilic extract of Nasturtium officinale on ethylene glycol-induced renal stone in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 32 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in six groups and studied during 30 days. Two groups of negative and healthy control received 1% ethylene glycol in water respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914711/proteomic-based-research-strategy-identified-laminin-subunit-alpha-2-as-a-potential-urinary-specific-biomarker-for-the-medullary-sponge-kidney-disease
#3
Antonia Fabris, Maurizio Bruschi, Laura Santucci, Giovanni Candiano, Simona Granata, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Nadia Antonucci, Andrea Petretto, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Giovanni Gambaro, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) disease, a rare kidney malformation featuring recurrent renal stones and nephrocalcinosis, continues to be diagnosed using expensive and time-consuming clinical/instrumental tests (mainly urography). Currently, no molecular diagnostic biomarkers are available. To identify such we employed a proteomic-based research strategy utilizing urine from 22 patients with MSK and 22 patients affected by idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN) as controls. Notably, two patients with ICN presented cysts...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894216/bone-effects-of-canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Thomas C Blevins, Azeez Farooki
Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lowers blood glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. It has been reported that SGLT2 inhibitors may have potential adverse effects on bone, including increased fracture risk and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Across clinical studies, canagliflozin was not associated with meaningful changes in serum or urine calcium, vitamin D, or parathyroid hormone...
November 28, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778049/geographic-location-is-an-important-determinant-of-risk-factors-for-stone-disease
#5
Ethan B Fram, Matthew D Sorensen, Vincent G Bird, Joshua M Stern
Some regions are known to have an increased burden of urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is known to be affected by weather patterns, particularly high ambient temperatures. To identify geographic differences in risk factors, we compared metabolic information for 1254 patients in two geographically distinct regions, New York and Florida, with per sample adjustment for ambient weather. We observed that patients in New York were more likely to have low urine volume, but also lower total urinary calcium (168 vs 216 mg, p = 0...
October 24, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765695/vitamin-d-repletion-in-kidney-stone-formers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Matthew C Ferroni, Kevin J Rycyna, Timothy D Averch, Michelle J Semins
PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is often detected during metabolic evaluation in the nephrolithiasis population. Multiple vitamin D repletion protocols exist, however their differing impact on urinary stone formation risk factors is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a history of calcium stones and vitamin D deficiency (<30ng/ml) were randomized to receive either 1,000 International Units (IU) daily or 50,000 IU weekly of vitamin D supplementation for 6 weeks...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754162/pl-03-3-the-future-development-of-drug-therapy-for-hypertension
#7
Sverre Kjeldsen
There is a whole armament of good drugs for treatment of hypertension including diuretics, calcium antagonist, angiotensin receptor antagonists and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Secondary drugs mostly used for special indications include beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (aldosterone antagonists), renin-inhibitors, centrally acting drugs, direct vasodilators and others.A variety of new drugs targeting different pressor mechanism exist and have partly been studies experimentally but will unlikely make it to clinical use in human hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746004/the-use-of-semi-quantitative-tests-at-cesarean-section-delivery-for-the-differentiation-of-canine-fetal-fluids-from-maternal-urine-on-the-basis-of-biochemical-characteristics
#8
Orsolya Balogh, Marie Roch, Stefanie Keller, Erika Michel, Iris M Reichler
In dogs, there is no diagnostic test to identify and differentiate fetal fluids from maternal urine in the event that a clear-yellowish vulvar discharge is observed pre-whelping. The objective of this study was to find a test that could easily and accurately identify rupture of the fetal membranes preceding parturition. Maternal urine, and amniotic fluid (AMF) and allantoic fluid (ALF) from only one fetus per bitch, were collected intraoperatively during Cesarean section. Specific gravity (SG) was analyzed with a refractometer, whereas the presence of leukocytes, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, erythrocyte/hemoglobin (Hb), and the pH were assessed using a urine dipstick (Combur-Test(®))...
January 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735149/clinical-and-aetiological-spectrum-of-hypokalemic-flaccid-paralysis-in-western-odisha
#9
Biranchi Narayan Mohapatra, Sujit Kumar Lenka, Manoranjan Acharya, Chakradhar Majhi, Gouri Oram, Khetra Mohan Tudu
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) and to evaluate its causes. METHODS: Fifty cases of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) admitted between November 2012 to October 2014 were taken up in the study. Serum potassium level < 3.5 mmol/ltr has been taken as hypokalemia. All cases were studied for spot and/or 24 hour urinary sodium / potassium, serum potassium / calcium / magnesium. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) were diagnosed if there was spot/24 hour urine potassium excretion < 20mmol/ltr in presence of hypokalemia and flaccid weakness without other causes...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730307/calcium-oxalate-urolithiasis-in-children-urinary-promoters-inhibitors-and-role-of-their-ratios
#10
Daniel Turudic, Danica Batinic, Anja Tea Golubic, Mila Lovric, Danko Milosevic
: Diagnostic criteria for determination of inclination towards idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis based on biochemical urine parameters are not sufficiently well defined in children. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of CaOx urolithiasis in children from concentrations of calcium, oxalate, citrate, and glycosaminoglycans in urine and their ratios, all standardized in respect to creatinine. We collected and analyzed 24-h urine samples of children with CaOx urolithiasis (n = 61) and compared with urine samples of matched control group of healthy children (n = 25)...
December 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717860/the-effects-of-melatonin-on-ethylene-glycol-induced-nephrolithiasis-role-on-osteopontin-mrna-gene-expression
#11
Tarik Emre Sener, Goksel Sener, Ozge Cevik, Pinar Eker, Sule Cetinel, Olivier Traxer, Yiloren Tanidir, Cem Akbal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of melatonin (Mel) on an ethylene glycol (EG)-induced nephrolithiasis model in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups: control, EG, prevention Mel (Mel + EG + Mel), and therapeutic Mel (EG + Mel). EG (0.75%) was added to drinking water to create nephrolithiasis model. The EG group received EG and the Mel + EG + Mel group received both EG and Mel for 8 weeks...
January 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716387/extreme-hypernatremia-as-a-probable-cause-of-fatal-arrhythmia-a-case-report
#12
Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Noel P Somasundaram, Chaminda Garusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a frequent occurrence among hospitalized patients. Severe hypernatremia is associated with mortality rates of over 60 %. Extreme hypernatremia, defined as sodium levels >190 mmol/l, is a rare occurrence. The literature on electrocardiographic changes occurring with this degree of hypernatremia is extremely scarce. We report the case of an 11-year-old Sri Lankan girl who presented with sodium levels of 226 mmol/l following infusion with 3 % hypertonic saline who developed diffuse QT prolongation leading to fatal ventricular tachycardia...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704948/bmal1-is-required-for-normal-reproductive-behaviors-in-male-mice
#13
Erica L Schoeller, Daniel D Clark, Sandeepa Dey, Nathan V Cao, Sheila J Semaan, Ling W Chao, Alexander S Kauffman, Lisa Stowers, Pamela L Mellon
Circadian rhythms synchronize physiological processes with the light-dark cycle and are regulated by a hierarchical system initiated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a hypothalamic region that receives direct photic input. The suprachiasmatic nucleus then entrains additional oscillators in the periphery. Circadian rhythms are maintained by a molecular transcriptional feedback loop, of which brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (BMAL1) is a key member. Disruption of circadian rhythms by deletion of the BMAL1 gene (Bmal1 knockout [KO]) induces a variety of disease states, including infertility in males, due to unidentified mechanisms...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696726/parathyroid-adenoma-a-comprehensive-biochemical-and-histological-correlative-study
#14
S Stern, A Mizrachi, Y Strenov, A Knaanie, C Benbassat, T Shpitzer, G Bachar
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the controversial relationship between preoperative calcium and parathyroid hormone levels and the dimensions and histological features of parathyroid adenoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. STUDY DESIGN: Historical cohort. SETTING: Tertiary medical centre. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Clinical and tumour-related data were collected from the medical files of all patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in 1996-2012...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651585/calcium-to-creatinine-ratio-in-a-spot-sample-of-urine-for-early-prediction-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-a-prospective-study
#15
Anita David, P Padmaja
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders complicate 5-10 % of all pregnancies. Various methods for screening have been studied to identify pregnant women at risk of development of preeclampsia, but no ideal screening test has been identified so far. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio, in a spot urine sample, for the prediction of preeclampsia in asymptomatic pregnant women between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation. METHODS: This study was done on 112 patients presenting to the antenatal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Bangalore Baptist Hospital...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643117/pl-03-3-the-future-development-of-drug-therapy-for-hypertension
#16
Sverre Kjeldsen
There is a whole armament of good drugs for treatment of hypertension including diuretics, calcium antagonist, angiotensin receptor antagonists and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Secondary drugs mostly used for special indications include beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (aldosterone antagonists), renin-inhibitors, centrally acting drugs, direct vasodilators and others.A variety of new drugs targeting different pressor mechanism exist and have partly been studies experimentally but will unlikely make it to clinical use in human hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617249/is-focused-parathyroidectomy-appropriate-for-patients-with-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#17
Won Woong Kim, Yumie Rhee, Eun Jeong Ban, Cho Rok Lee, Sang-Wook Kang, Jong Ju Jeong, Kee-Hyun Nam, Woong Youn Chung, Cheong Soo Park
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether focused or complete parathyroidectomy was more appropriate and to compare follow-up data in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 225 operations for PHPT at Yonsei University Health System between 2000 and 2012. After excluding 93 patients, the remaining 132 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent focused parathyroidectomy (FP) and those who underwent conventional parathyroidectomy (CP)...
September 2016: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603954/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-acceptability-and-palatability-of-calcium-montmorillonite-clay-used-to-reduce-aflatoxin-b1-dietary-exposure-in-a-crossover-study-in-kenya
#18
Abigael O Awuor, Ellen Yard, Johnni H Daniel, Collen Martin, Christine Bii, Amelia Romoser, Elvis Oyugi, Sarah Elmore, Samwel Amwayi, John Vulule, Nicholas C Zitomer, Michael E Rybak, Timothy D Phillips, Joel M Montgomery, Lauren S Lewis
Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability, thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants were enrolled in this double-blinded, crossover clinical trial in 2014...
January 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577045/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-excessive-and-prolonged-intramuscular-injection-of-veterinary-supplements-containing-vitamins-a-d-and-e-a-series-of-16-cases
#19
Elizabeth De Francesco Daher, Lorena Vasconcelos Mesquita Martiniano, Laio Ladislau Lopes Lima, Newton Carlos Viana Leite Filho, Louize Emanuele de Oliveira Souza, Paulo Henrique Palácio Duarte Fernandes, Sonia Leite da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior
BACKGROUND: Despite well-documented risks, injectable supplements containing high doses of vitamins are commonly used. OBJECTIVES: To describe acute kidney injury (AKI) as a complication of vitamin intoxication. METHODS: Our series consisted of 16 patients with kidney complications resulting from the use of veterinary intramuscular injection supplements of vitamin A, D and E. The patients were admitted to two referral hospitals in Fortaleza (Brazil) between January 2010 and January 2015...
August 28, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554359/partial-dehulling-increases-the-energy-content-of-barley-fed-to-growing-pigs-and-can-be-comparable-to-corn
#20
Hongliang Wang, Meng Shi, Xiao Xu, Long Pan, Ling Liu, Xiangshu Piao
The hull attached to the barley kernel can be mechanically removed thus reducing the fiber content of the barley. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of partial dehulling on the nutrient digestibility as well as the DE and ME content of barley. Two barley samples (HF and LF) with either high or low fiber contents were obtained from the Hubei and Jiangsu Provinces of China. A portion of the two barleys was mechanically dehulled (DHF and DLF). Thirty barrows (initial BW=31.5±3.2 kg) were assigned to 1 of 5 diets in a randomized complete block design...
August 19, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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