keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Informed consent and autonomy

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430418/audiovisual-recording-of-the-consenting-process-in-clinical-research-experiences-from-a-tertiary-referral-center
#1
Parvan A Shetty, Mitesh R Maurya, Brinal H Figer, Urmila M Thatte, Nithya J Gogtay
The quality of the written informed consent process is one of the most important aspects of clinical research, as it is the single tool that serves as a metric of autonomy. Several challenges have been identified with the informed consent process in developing countries the most important of which is the ability to assimilate and understand the information presented in the consent form. In India, a unique aspect of the informed consent process is the need for audio-video [AV] recording of the process for vulnerable populations and new chemical entities...
January 2018: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424409/-does-therapeutic-privilege-have-a-place-in-modern-medicine
#2
Rodrigo R Salinas, Carlos Echeverría B, Anamaría Arriagada U, Alejandro Goic G, Carlos Quintana V, Alberto Rojas O, Alejandro Serani M, Paulina Taboada R, Ricardo Vacarezza Y
During the last years, bioethical discussion has highlighted the role of the patients' autonomy, being informed consent its particular expression, about decisions that they should make about their own health. The Hippocratic tradition, the deontological positions of the Geneva Declaration of the World Medical Association and numerous codes of ethics in various countries, require that the physician, above all, should ensure patients' health. In this context the discussion on pros and cons for the so-called "therapeutic privilege" are discussed...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415551/caesarean-section-deliveries-experiences-of-mothers-of-midwifery-care-at-a-public-hospital-in-nelson-mandela-bay
#3
Thobeka P Jikijela, Sindiwe James, Balandeli S I Sonti
BACKGROUND: The rate of caesarean section deliveries has increased globally and mothers are faced with challenges of postoperative recovery and caring thereof. Midwives have a duty to assist these mothers to self-care. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore and describe experiences of post-caesarean section delivered mothers of midwifery care at a public hospital in Nelson Mandela Bay. METHODS: A qualitative, descriptive and explorative research design was used in the study...
January 30, 2018: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406774/photorealistic-avatar-and-teen-physical-activity-feasibility-and-preliminary-efficacy
#4
Deborah I Thompson, Dora Cantu, Chishinga Callender, Yan Liu, Mayur Rajendran, Madhur Rajendran, Yuting Zhang, Zhigang Deng
OBJECTIVE: Exergames played with a photorealistic avatar may enhance motivation to play, in addition to frequency, duration, and intensity of game-play. This article reports the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an exergame played with a photorealistic avatar on physical activity (PA) intensity in a laboratory-based study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Teens (12-14 years old) were recruited from a large, metropolitan area of the southwestern United States. Parents provided written informed consent...
February 6, 2018: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325614/ethical-issues-in-neurogenetics
#5
Wendy R Uhlmann, J Scott Roberts
Many neurogenetic conditions are inherited and therefore diagnosis of a patient will have implications for the patient's relatives and can raise ethical issues. Predictive genetic testing offers asymptomatic relatives the opportunity to determine their risk status for a neurogenetic condition, and professional guidelines emphasize patients' autonomy and informed, voluntary decision making. Beneficence and nonmaleficence both need to be considered when making decisions about disclosure and nondisclosure of genetic information and test results...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304845/testing-decision-making-competency-of-schizophrenia-participants-in-clinical-trials-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#6
Sorin Hostiuc, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Ionut Negoi, Eduard Drima
BACKGROUND: The process of assessing the decision-making capacity of potential subjects before their inclusion in clinical trials is a legal requirement and a moral obligation, as it is essential for respecting their autonomy. This issue is especially important in psychiatry patients (such as those diagnosed with schizophrenia). The primary purpose of this article was to evaluate the degree of impairment in each dimension of decision-making capacity in schizophrenia patients compared to non-mentally-ill controls, as quantified by the (MacCAT-CR) instrument...
January 5, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302597/ethical-challenges-involved-in-obtaining-consent-for-research-from-patients-hospitalized-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#7
Fiona Ecarnot, Jean-Pierre Quenot, Guillaume Besch, Gaël Piton
Clinical research remains a vital contributor to medical knowledge, and is an established and integral part of the practice of medicine worldwide. Respect for patient autonomy and ethical principles dictate that informed consent must be obtained from subjects before they can be enrolled into clinical research, yet these conditions may be difficult to apply in real practice in the intensive care unit (ICU). A number of factors serve to complexify the consent process in critically ill patients, notably decisional incapacity of the patient due to illness or sedation...
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297375/the-role-of-male-partners-in-women-s-participation-in-research-during-pregnancy-a-case-study-from-the-partners-demonstration-project
#8
Kenneth Ngure, Susan Brown Trinidad, Kristin Beima-Sofie, Jared M Baeten, Nelly R Mugo, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Renee Heffron, Grace John-Stewart, Maureen C Kelley
The exclusion of pregnant women from health research remains a significant challenge globally. In settings where cultural traditions and gender norms support a more restricted decision-making role for women in general, little is known about the attitudes of male partners toward the inclusion of women in research during pregnancy. Understanding the expectations of both men and women in such cultural settings offers an opportunity to engage and address local ethical concerns to improve women's access to research during pregnancy and enhance intervention development...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290004/a-republican-argument-against-nudging-and-informed-consent
#9
Paul Hamilton
I argue that it is impermissible to use nudges as a tool to influence patients in the context of informed consent. The motivation for such nudges is that their use can help reconcile potential conflicts between a physician's duty of beneficence and duty to respect patient autonomy. I argue that their use places physicians in a position of domination over patients. That is, it violates the republican freedom of patients because it grants physicians the power to arbitrarily interfere. I also argue that if one tries to adjust the duty of beneficence to avoid this conclusion, then the republican freedom of patients is still threatened under conditions of clinical equipoise...
December 30, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201387/a-half-century-of-electronic-fetal-monitoring-and-bioethics-silence-speaks-louder-than-words
#10
REVIEW
Thomas P Sartwelle, James C Johnston, Berna Arda
Bioethics abolished the prevailing Hippocratic tenet instructing physicians to make treatment decisions, replacing it with autonomy through informed consent. Informed consent allows the patient to choose treatment after options are explained by the physician. The appearance of bioethics in 1970 coincided with the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM), which evolved to become the fetal surveillance modality of choice for virtually all women in labor. Autonomy rapidly pervaded all medical procedures, but there was a clear exemption for EFM...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197378/informed-consent-for-clinical-treatment-in-low-income-setting-evaluating-the-relationship-between-satisfying-consent-and-extent-of-recall-of-consent-information
#11
Ikenna I Nnabugwu, Fredrick O Ugwumba, Emeka I Udeh, Solomon K Anyimba, Oyiogu F Ozoemena
BACKGROUND: Treatment informed consent aims to preserve the autonomy of patients in the clinician - patient relationship so as to ensure valid consent. An acceptable method of evaluating understanding of consent information is by assessing the extent of recall by patients of the pieces information believed to have been passed across. When concerns are not satisfactorily addressed from the patients' perspective, recall of consent information may be low. METHODS: This study is a questionnaire - based cross - sectional interview of consecutive adult surgical patients who could give their respective medical histories and who were booked for elective major surgical procedures over a period of 7 months in a tertiary health institution in southeastern Nigeria...
December 2, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191351/how-issues-of-autonomy-and-consent-differ-between-children-and-adults-kids-are-not-just-little-people
#12
Sean Reynolds, Jane M Grant-Kels, Lionel Bercovitch
Decision making in dermatology practice with adult patients is in most cases a relatively straightforward process, involving a back-and-forth exchange of information, ideas and opinions between the physician and patient. This process is more complex in the field of pediatric dermatology. It involves the triad of the patient, parent or guardian, and physician. It utilizes a model, common to many fields in pediatrics, whereby the physician seeks to obtain informed permission from the parent with the assent of the child, all the while endeavoring to act in the best interests of the child...
November 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182458/multimedia-aided-consent-for-alzheimer-s-disease-research
#13
Barton W Palmer, Alexandrea L Harmell, Laura B Dunn, Scott Y Kim, Luz L Pinto, Shahrokh Golshan, Dilip V Jeste
OBJECTIVES: Optimizing the research consent process simultaneously fosters respect for autonomy and protection of those with diminished capacity for autonomy. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an enhanced research consent procedure, employing multimedia disclosure and corrective feedback, in improving decisional capacity among 114 people with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 134 non-psychiatric comparison (NC) subjects. METHODS: Participants were randomized to consent type (routine versus enhanced) and protocol type (lower versus higher risk)...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171894/the-future-of-reproductive-autonomy
#14
Josephine Johnston, Rachel L Zacharias
In a project The Hastings Center is now running on the future of prenatal testing, we are encountering clear examples, both in established law and in the practices of individual providers, of failures to respect women's reproductive autonomy: when testing is not offered to certain demographics of women, for instance, or when the choices of women to terminate or continue pregnancies are prohibited or otherwise not supported. But this project also raises puzzles for reproductive autonomy. We have learned that some clinicians and patients do not discuss the fact that prenatal testing can lead to a decision about whether to terminate a pregnancy-they just don't talk about it...
December 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171889/the-shifting-landscape-of-prenatal-testing-between-reproductive-autonomy-and-public-health
#15
Vardit Ravitsky
Since the 1970s, prenatal testing has been integrated into many health care systems on the basis of two competing and largely irreconcilable rationales. The reproductive autonomy rationale focuses on nondirective counseling and consent as ways to ensure that women's decisions about testing and subsequent care are informed and free of undue pressures. It also represents an easily understandable and ethically convincing basis for widespread access to prenatal testing, since the value of autonomy is well established in Western bioethics and widely recognized by funders of health care...
December 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151393/ethics-of-smart-house-welfare-technology-for-older-adults-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
Veralia Gabriela Sánchez, Ingrid Taylor, Pia Cecilie Bing-Jonsson
BACKGROUND: The University College of Southeast Norway has an on-going project to develop a smart house welfare system to allow older adults and people with disabilities to remain in their homes for as long as they wish in safe, dignified, living conditions. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews reported ethical challenges to implementing smart houses for older adults. METHODS: A systematic literature review identified twenty-four articles in English, French, Spanish, and Norwegian, which were analyzed and synthesized using Hofmann's question list to investigate the reported ethical challenges...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148951/reframing-consent-for-clinical-research-a-function-based-approach
#17
Neal W Dickert, Nir Eyal, Sara F Goldkind, Christine Grady, Steven Joffe, Bernard Lo, Franklin G Miller, Rebecca D Pentz, Robert Silbergleit, Kevin P Weinfurt, David Wendler, Scott Y H Kim
Although informed consent is important in clinical research, questions persist regarding when it is necessary, what it requires, and how it should be obtained. The standard view in research ethics is that the function of informed consent is to respect individual autonomy. However, consent processes are multidimensional and serve other ethical functions as well. These functions deserve particular attention when barriers to consent exist. We argue that consent serves seven ethically important and conceptually distinct functions...
December 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145863/assessing-quality-of-maternity-care-in-hungary-expert-validation-and-testing-of-the-mother-centered-prenatal-care-mcpc-survey-instrument
#18
Nicholas Rubashkin, Imre Szebik, Petra Baji, Zsuzsa Szántó, Éva Susánszky, Saraswathi Vedam
BACKGROUND: Instruments to assess quality of maternity care in Central and Eastern European (CEE) region are scarce, despite reports of poor doctor-patient communication, non-evidence-based care, and informal cash payments. We validated and tested an online questionnaire to study maternity care experiences among Hungarian women. METHODS: Following literature review, we collated validated items and scales from two previous English-language surveys and adapted them to the Hungarian context...
November 16, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129020/ethical-aspects-of-medical-age-assessment-in-the-asylum-process-a-swedish-perspective
#19
Erik Malmqvist, Elisabeth Furberg, Lars Sandman
According to European regulations and the legislations of individual member states, children who seek asylum have a different set of rights than adults in a similar position. To protect these rights and ensure rule of law, migration authorities are commonly required to assess the age of asylum seekers who lack reliable documentation, including through various medical methods. However, many healthcare professionals and other commentators consider medical age assessment to be ethically problematic. This paper presents a simplified and amended account of the main findings of a recent ethical analysis of medical age assessment in the asylum process commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118785/advance-directives-as-support-of-autonomy-for-persons-with-dementia-a-pilot-study-among-persons-with-dementia-and-their-informal-caregivers
#20
Martina Schmidhuber, Sandra Haeupler, Velislava Marinova-Schmidt, Andreas Frewer, Peter L Kolominsky-Rabas
Background: Advance directives could be an important instrument to support a person's will once he/she is not able to consent anymore - if composed competently. A survey was conducted to identify the level of knowledge concerning possibilities and limits of advance directives. Methods: The study was conducted as part of the Bavarian Dementia Survey (BayDem). Data were collected from January 2014 to December 2015 by structured face-to-face interviews. Study participants were persons with dementia and their informal caregivers (n = 74)...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
keyword
keyword
74121
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"