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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651057/how-to-identify-plasmons-from-the-optical-response-of-nanostructures
#1
Runmin Zhang, Luca Bursi, Joel D Cox, Yao Cui, Caroline M Krauter, Alessandro Alabastri, Alejandro Manjavacas, Arrigo Calzolari, Stefano Corni, Elisa Molinari, Emily A Carter, F Javier Garcia de Abajo, Hui Zhang, Peter Nordlander
A promising trend in plasmonics involves shrinking the size of plasmon-supporting structures down to a few nanometers, thus enabling control over light-matter interaction at extreme-subwavelength scales. In this limit, quantum-mechanical effects, such as nonlocal screening and size quantization, strongly affect the plasmonic response, rendering it substantially different from classical predictions. For very small clusters and molecules, collective plasmonic modes are hard to distinguish from other excitations such as single-electron transitions...
June 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650995/septins-restrict-inflammation-and-protect-zebrafish-larvae-from-shigella-infection
#2
Maria J Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Infection by S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that components of the cytoskeleton have important functions in innate immunity and inflammation control. Septins, highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins, have emerged as key players in innate immunity to bacterial infection, yet septin function in vivo is poorly understood...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650248/health-services-utilization-among-fee-for-service-medicare-and-medicaid-patients-under-age-65-with-behavioral-health-illness-at-an-urban-safety-net-hospital
#3
Ramon S Cancino, Brian W Jack, John Jarvis, Alice Kate Cummings, Ellie Cooper, Pierre-Yves Cremieux, James F Burgess
BACKGROUND: In 2011, fee-for-service patients with both Medicare and Medicaid (dual eligible) sustained $319.5 billion in health care costs. OBJECTIVE: To describe the emergency department (ED) use and hospital admissions of adult dual eligible patients aged under 65 years who used an urban safety net hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective database analysis of patients aged between 18 and 65 years with Medicare and Medicaid, who used an urban safety net academic health center between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648218/innovative-information-technology-powered-population-health-care-management-improves-outcomes-and-reduces-hospital-readmissions-and-emergency-department-visits
#4
Sharon Anderson, Michele Campbell, Donna Mahoney, Ann Kathryn Muther, Janice Nevin, Patricia Resnik, Tabassum Salam, Terri Steinberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic conditions are often the most frequent users of health care. Moreover, adapting to developments in one's illness, understanding how to self-manage a chronic illness, and sharing information between primary care and specialty providers, can be a full-time job for someone with a chronic illness. In response to these challenges, Christiana Care Health System (Wilmington, Delaware) developed Care Link, an information technology (IT)-enhanced care management support to enable populations of patients to achieve better clinical outcomes at lower cost...
July 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647857/ros-modulated-therapeutic-approaches-in-cancer-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Muhammad Hassan Raza, Sami Siraj, Abida Arshad, Usman Waheed, Fahad Aldakheel, Shatha Alduraywish, Muhammad Arshad
PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in cancer cells as a result of increased metabolic rate, dysfunction of mitochondria, elevated cell signaling, expression of oncogenes and increased peroxisome activities. Certain level of ROS is required by cancer cells, above or below which lead to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This biochemical aspect can be exploited to develop novel therapeutic agents to preferentially and selectively target cancer cells. METHODS: We searched various electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed english-language articles...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647650/quick-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-compared-to-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-for-predicting-sepsis-in-emergency-department
#6
Hyun Kyung Park, Won Young Kim, Myung Chun Kim, Woong Jung, Byuk Sung Ko
PURPOSE: It is unclear whether quick sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure assessment (qSOFA) also has prognostic value for organ failure in patients with a suspected infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether qSOFA has prognostic value when compared to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in predicting organ failure in patients with a suspected infection in an emergency department (ED). METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in an ED during a 9-year period...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647172/infection-related-microcephaly-after-the-2015-and-2016-zika-virus-outbreaks-in-brazil-a-surveillance-based-analysis
#7
Wanderson Kleber de Oliveira, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França, Eduardo Hage Carmo, Bruce Bartholow Duncan, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Maria Inês Schmidt
BACKGROUND: On Nov 11, 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a Public Health Emergency of National Concern in response to an increased number of microcephaly cases, possibly related to previous Zika virus outbreaks. We describe the course of the dual epidemics of the Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in Brazil up to Nov 12, 2016, the first anniversary of this declaration. METHODS: We used secondary data for Zika virus and microcephaly cases obtained through the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance systems from Jan 1, 2015, to Nov 12, 2016...
June 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646957/whither-vaccines
#8
Charlene M C Rodrigues, Marta V Pinto, Manish Sadarangani, Stanley A Plotkin
Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646675/conformational-regulation-of-crispr-associated-nucleases
#9
REVIEW
Ryan N Jackson, Paul Bg van Erp, Samuel H Sternberg, Blake Wiedenheft
Adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea rely on small CRISPR-derived RNAs (crRNAs) to guide specialized nucleases to foreign nucleic acids. The activation of these nucleases is controlled by a series of molecular checkpoints that ensure precise cleavage of nucleic acid targets, while minimizing toxic off-target cleavage events. In this review, we highlight recent advances in understanding regulatory mechanisms responsible for controlling the activation of these nucleases and identify emerging regulatory themes conserved across diverse CRISPR systems...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646114/staphylococcus-aureus-strain-newman-photoinactivation-and-cellular-response-to-sunlight-exposure
#10
Jill S McClary, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
Sunlight influences microbial water quality of surface waters. Previous studies have investigated photoinactivation mechanisms and cellular photostress responses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli and enterococci, but further work is needed to characterize photostress responses of bacterial pathogens. Here we investigate the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Newman), a pigmented, waterborne pathogen of emerging concern. We measured photodecay using standard culture-based assays and cellular membrane integrity; and investigated photostress response by measuring the relative number of mRNA transcripts of select oxidative stress, DNA repair, and metabolism genes...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645238/new-world-arenavirus-biology
#11
Nicolás Sarute, Susan R Ross
Hemorrhagic fevers caused by viruses were identified in the late 1950s in South America. These viruses have existed in their hosts, the New World rodents, for millions of years. Their emergence as infectious agents in humans coincided with changes in the environment and farming practices that caused explosions in their host rodent populations. Zoonosis into humans likely occurs because the pathogenic New World arenaviruses use human transferrin receptor 1 to enter cells. The mortality rate after infection with these viruses is high, but the mechanism by which disease is induced is still not clear...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645232/interplay-between-innate-immunity-and-the-plant-microbiota
#12
Stéphane Hacquard, Stijn Spaepen, Ruben Garrido-Oter, Paul Schulze-Lefert
The innate immune system of plants recognizes microbial pathogens and terminates their growth. However, recent findings suggest that at least one layer of this system is also engaged in cooperative plant-microbe interactions and influences host colonization by beneficial microbial communities. This immune layer involves sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate quantitative immune responses to control host-microbial load, whereas diversification of MAMPs and PRRs emerges as a mechanism that locally sculpts microbial assemblages in plant populations...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645042/the-changing-health-priorities-of-earthquake-response-and-implications-for-preparedness-a-scoping-review
#13
REVIEW
C Cartwright, M Hall, A C K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes have substantial impacts on mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The academic evidence base to support Disaster Risk Reduction activities in LMIC settings is, however, limited. We sought to address this gap by identifying the health and healthcare impacts of earthquakes in LMICs and to identify the implications of these findings for future earthquake preparedness. STUDY DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken with systematic searches of indexed databases to identify relevant literature...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643936/phenotypic-analysis-of-organoids-by-proteomics
#14
REVIEW
Alexis Gonneaud, Claude Asselin, François Boudreau, François-Michel Boisvert
The development of 3D cell cultures into self-organizing organ-like structures named organoids provides a model that better reflects in vivo organ physiology and their functional properties. Organoids have been established from several organs, such as the intestine, prostate, brain, liver, kidney and pancreas. With recent advances in high-throughput and -omics profiling technologies, it is now possible to study the mechanisms of cellular organisation at the systems level. It is therefore not surprising that these methods are now used to characterize organoids at the transcriptomic, proteomic, chromatin state and transcription factor DNA-binding levels...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643399/distributed-health-literacy-among-people-living-with-type-2-diabetes-in-portugal-defining-levels-of-awareness-and-support
#15
Liliana Abreu, João Arriscado Nunes, Peter Taylor, Susana Silva
This study embraces a patient-centred and narrative-oriented notion of health literacy, exploring how social networks and personal experiences constitute distributed health literacy (DHL) by mapping out health literacy mediators of each individual and how they enable self-management skills and knowledge of health conditions. Semi-structured interviews with 26 patients with type 2 diabetes were conducted in a Primary Care Center of Porto (Portugal) from October 2014 to December 2015. Data were collected based on McGill Illness Narrative Interview (MINI)...
June 22, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643239/serum-histones-as-biomarkers-of-the-severity-of-heatstroke-in-dogs
#16
Yaron Bruchim, Isaac Ginsburg, Gilad Segev, Ahmad Mreisat, Yochai Avital, Itamar Aroch, Michal Horowitz
Heatstroke is associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, leading to multiple organ dysfunction and death. Currently, there is no specific treatment decreasing hyperthermia-induced inflammatory/hemostatic derangements. Emerging studies indicate that histones leaking from damaged cells into the extracellular space are toxic, pro-inflammatory, and pro-thrombotic. We therefore hypothesize that serum histones (sHs) are elevated during heatstroke and are associated with the severity of the disease. Sixteen dogs with heatstroke and seven healthy controls were included in the study...
June 22, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642838/adaptive-pathways-and-emerging-strategies-overcoming-treatment-resistance-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#17
Cameron M Armstrong, Allen C Gao
The therapies available for prostate cancer patients whom progress from hormone-sensitive to castration resistant prostate cancer include both systemic drugs, including docetaxel and cabazitaxel, and drugs that inhibit androgen signaling such as enzalutamide and abiraterone. Unfortunately, it is estimated that up to 30% of patients have primary resistance to these treatments and over time even those who initially respond to therapy will eventually develop resistance and their disease will continue to progress regardless of the presence of the drug...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642292/frequency-and-magnitude-of-intermittent-hypoxia-modulate-endothelial-wound-healing-in-a-cell-culture-model-of-sleep-apnea
#18
Noelia Campillo, Bryan Falcones, Josep M Montserrat, David Gozal, Ana Obeso, Teresa Gallego-Martin, Daniel Navajas, Isaac Almendros, Ramon Farre
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been implicated in the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the lack of suitable experimental systems has precluded assessment as to whether IH is detrimental, protective or both for the endothelium. The aim of the work was to determine the effects of frequency and amplitude of IH oxygenation swings on aortic endothelial wound healing. Monolayers of human primary endothelial cells were wounded, and subjected to constant oxygenation (1%, 4%, 13% or 20% O2) or IH at different frequencies (0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642024/rtms-with-a-two-coil-array-safety-and-efficacy-for-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Linda L Carpenter, Scott T Aaronson, Gregory N Clarke, Paul E Holtzheimer, Clark W Johnson, William M McDonald, Elizabeth L Stannard, M Bret Schneider
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a standard of care for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) who do not benefit from, or are unable to tolerate, antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Depth of stimulation is limited with currently approved figure-eight coils and larger coils capable of deeper penetration may be associated with loss of stimulation focality and undesired recruitment of motor cortex. A second generation 2-coil array rTMS system was designed to target converging brain pathways for potentially deeper prefrontal cortex stimulation...
June 9, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641940/dormant-origins-as-a-built-in-safeguard-in-eukaryotic-dna-replication-against-genome-instability-and-disease-development
#20
REVIEW
Naoko Shima, Kayla D Pederson
DNA replication is a prerequisite for cell proliferation, yet it can be increasingly challenging for a eukaryotic cell to faithfully duplicate its genome as its size and complexity expands. Dormant origins now emerge as a key component for cells to successfully accomplish such a demanding but essential task. In this perspective, we will first provide an overview of the fundamental processes eukaryotic cells have developed to regulate origin licensing and firing. With a special focus on mammalian systems, we will then highlight the role of dormant origins in preventing replication-associated genome instability and their functional interplay with proteins involved in the DNA damage repair response for tumor suppression...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
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