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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937949/international-vision-care-issues-and-approaches
#1
Rohit C Khanna, Srinivas Marmamula, Gullapalli N Rao
Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Success stories, including control of vitamin A deficiency, onchocerciasis, and trachoma, showed that global partnerships, multisectoral collaboration, public-private partnerships, corporate philanthropy, support from nongovernmental organizations-both local and international-and governments are responsible for the success of these programs...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936957/-pk-pd-of-vancomycin-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis-combined-with-augmented-renal-clearance
#2
Juan He, Enqiang Mao, Feng Jing, Huiting Jiang, Wenyun Xu, Wanhua Yang, Erzhen Chen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum trough concentration and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of vancomycin in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and analyze the effect of vancomycin continuous infusion for optimizing the characteristics of its PK/PD. METHODS: The inhospital patients with SAP received vancomycin treatment and admitted to emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016 were enrolled...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936778/preferential-reduction-of-circulating-innate-lymphoid-cells-type-2-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-with-secondary-complications-is-part-of-a-broader-immune-dysregulation
#3
David Friedmann, Baerbel Keller, Ina Harder, Jonas Schupp, Yakup Tanriver, Susanne Unger, Klaus Warnatz
PURPOSE: Over a third of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) suffer from secondary complications like inflammatory organ disease, autoimmune manifestations, or lymphoproliferation contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerging roles in setting the milieu for physiological, but also pathological, immune responses and inflammation. We therefore sought to correlate the recently identified disturbed homeostasis of ILCs with alterations of the adaptive immune system in complex CVID patients (CVIDc)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936179/seasonal-variations-in-heart-rate-variability-as-an-indicator-of-stress-in-free-ranging-pregnant-przewalski-s-horses-e-ferus-przewalskii-within-the-hortob%C3%A3-gy-national-park-in-hungary
#4
Friederike Pohlin, Kristin Brabender, Gerhard Fluch, Gabrielle Stalder, Thierry Petit, Chris Walzer
Background: Ecosystems with seasonal fluctuations in climate and food availability present physiological challenges to resident mammals and may cause "stress." The two predominant physiological responses to stressors are (1) the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and (2) the modulation of the autonomic nervous system. To date, the primary indicator for "stress" in wildlife- and zoo animal research are glucocorticoid levels. By measuring the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity, particularly the vagal tone, heart rate variability (HRV) is presently emerging as a suitable indicator of "stress" in farm- and domestic animal research...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934186/opioid-overdose-outbreak-west-virginia-august-2016
#5
Joel Massey, Michael Kilkenny, Samantha Batdorf, Sarah K Sanders, Debra Ellison, John Halpin, R Matthew Gladden, Danae Bixler, Loretta Haddy, Rahul Gupta
On August 15, 2016, the Mayor's Office of Drug Control Policy in Huntington, West Virginia, notified the Cabell-Huntington Health Department (CHHD) of multiple calls regarding opioid overdose received by the emergency medical system (EMS) during 3 p.m.-8 p.m. that day. A public health investigation and response conducted by the West Virginia Bureau for Public Health (BPH) and CHHD identified 20 opioid overdose cases within a 53-hour period in Cabell County; all cases included emergency department (ED) encounters...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933929/diagnostic-accuracy-of-two-food-insecurity-screeners-recommended-for-use-in-health-care-settings
#6
Jennifer A Makelarski, Emily Abramsohn, Jasmine H Benjamin, Senxi Du, Stacy Tessler Lindau
OBJECTIVES: To test the diagnostic accuracy of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended food insecurity screener. METHODS: We conducted prospective diagnostic accuracy studies between July and November 2016 in Chicago, Illinois. We recruited convenience samples of adults from adult and pediatric emergency departments (12-month recall study: n = 188; 30-day recall study: n = 154). A self-administered survey included the 6-item Household Food Security Screen (gold standard), the validated 2-item Hunger Vital Sign (HVS; often, sometimes, never response categories), and the 2-item AAP tool (yes-or-no response categories)...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933579/innate-immune-cells-for-immunotherapy-of-autoimmune-and-cancer-disorders
#7
Carolina Schäfer, Gabriel Ascui, Carolina H Ribeiro, Mercedes López, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Pablo A González, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Andrés Baena, Alexis M Kalergis, Leandro J Carreño
Modulation of the immune system has been widely targeted for the treatment of several immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, due to its crucial role in these pathologies. Current available therapies focus mainly on symptomatic treatment and are often associated with undesirable secondary effects. For several years, remission of disease and subsequently recovery of immune homeostasis has been a major goal for immunotherapy. Most current immunotherapeutic strategies are aimed to inhibit or potentiate directly the adaptive immune response by modulating antibody production and B cell memory, as well as the effector potential and memory of T cells...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932979/tuberculous-meningitis-in-children-and-adults-new-insights-for-an-ancient-foe
#8
REVIEW
Alyssa Mezochow, Kiran Thakur, Christopher Vinnard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis is the most devastating manifestation of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents a medical emergency. Approximately one half of tuberculous meningitis patients die or suffer severe neurologic disability. The goal of this review will be to review the pathogenic, clinical, and radiologic features of tuberculous meningitis and to highlight recent advancements in translational and clinical science. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacologic therapy includes combination anti-tuberculosis drug regimens and adjunctive corticosteroids...
September 20, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932872/self-efficacy-and-barriers-to-disaster-evacuation-in-hong-kong
#9
Elizabeth A Newnham, Satchit Balsari, Rex Pui Kin Lam, Shraddha Kashyap, Phuong Pham, Emily Y Y Chan, Kaylie Patrick, Jennifer Leaning
OBJECTIVES: To investigate specific challenges to Hong Kong's capacity for effective disaster response, we assessed perceived barriers to evacuation and citizens' self-efficacy. METHODS: Global positioning system software was used to determine random sampling locations across Hong Kong, weighted by population density. The resulting sample of 1023 participants (46.5% female, mean age 40.74 years) were invited to complete questionnaires on emergency preparedness, barriers to evacuation and self-efficacy...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932817/designing-biomaterials-with-immunomodulatory-properties-for-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#10
REVIEW
James I Andorko, Christopher M Jewell
Recent research in the vaccine and immunotherapy fields has revealed that biomaterials have the ability to activate immune pathways, even in the absence of other immune-stimulating signals. Intriguingly, new studies reveal these responses are influenced by the physicochemical properties of the material. Nearly all of this work has been done in the vaccine and immunotherapy fields, but there is tremendous opportunity to apply this same knowledge to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This review discusses recent findings that reveal how material properties-size, shape, chemical functionality-impact immune response, and links these changes to emerging opportunities in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931938/dynamic-transcriptome-and-phytohormone-profiling-along-the-time-of-light-exposure-in-the-mesocotyl-of-rice-seedling
#11
Fangjun Feng, Hanwei Mei, Peiqing Fan, Yanan Li, Xiaoyan Xu, Haibin Wei, Ming Yan, Lijun Luo
Mesocotyl elongation is an important trait influencing seedling emergence and establishment in rice direct-seeding cultivation and is immediately inhibited after light exposure. Detailed researches on the molecular basis and biological processes underlying light repression of mesocotyl growth could probably provide useful information for key factors controlling this trait. Here we monitored the transcriptome and endogenous phytohormone changes specifically in the elongating mesocotyl in response to light exposure with a time-course...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931635/a-computational-multiscale-agent-based-model-for-simulating-spatio-temporal-tumour-immune-response-to-pd1-and-pdl1-inhibition
#12
Chang Gong, Oleg Milberg, Bing Wang, Paolo Vicini, Rajesh Narwal, Lorin Roskos, Aleksander S Popel
When the immune system responds to tumour development, patterns of immune infiltrates emerge, highlighted by the expression of immune checkpoint-related molecules such as PDL1 on the surface of cancer cells. Such spatial heterogeneity carries information on intrinsic characteristics of the tumour lesion for individual patients, and thus is a potential source for biomarkers for anti-tumour therapeutics. We developed a systems biology multiscale agent-based model to capture the interactions between immune cells and cancer cells, and analysed the emergent global behaviour during tumour development and immunotherapy...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931228/civil-registration-and-vital-statistics-emergencies-and-international-law-understanding-the-intersection
#13
Claire E Brolan, Hebe Gouda
Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are typically run by governments to record every birth, adoption, death, marriage, and divorce that occurs among a country's population. Registration of vital events provides individuals with a formal relationship with the State and each other, and is the foundation of a person's identity, nationality, and legal status. At a population level, vital statistics are essential for effective planning and implementation of policies and services. Globally, strong CRVS systems are increasingly recognised as a crucial backbone for redressing health inequities and as a priority in strengthening global health and development efforts...
May 1, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930779/inhibition-of-lymphatic-drainage-with-a-self-designed-surgical-approach-prolongs-the-vascularized-skin-allograft-survival-in-rats
#14
Jiaomiao Pei, Yang Li, Chen Chen, Xi Zhang, Shiping Wang, Yajuan Song, Bei Liu, Yingjun Su, Shuzhong Guo
Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is an emerging treatment for significant tissue defects. However, VCAs usually consist of multiple highly antigenic skin tissues. Previous studies have shown that the lymphatic system in skin plays important roles in the initiation of immune responses during acute rejection, by transporting T cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells to regional lymph nodes. Therefore, we designed a new surgical treatment to inhibit lymphatic drainage of skin allografts and investigated whether this approach could promote the survival of allografts and suppress immunological events after transplantation...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930181/ambient-air-pollution-and-risk-for-ischemic-stroke-a-short-term-exposure-assessment-in-south-china
#15
Pi Guo, Yulin Wang, Wenru Feng, Jiagang Wu, Chuanxi Fu, Hai Deng, Jun Huang, Li Wang, Murui Zheng, Huazhang Liu
Data on the association between air pollution and risk of ischemic stroke in China are still limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic strokes in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, using a large-scale multicenter database of stroke hospital admissions. Daily counts of ischemic stroke admissions over the study years 2013-2015 were obtained from the Guangzhou Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease Event Surveillance System...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929984/developing-a-hospital-disaster-preparedness-plan-for-mass-casualty-incidents-lessons-learned-from-the-downtown-beirut-bombing
#16
Mazen El Sayed, Ali F Chami, Eveline Hitti
Mass casualty incidents (MCIs) are becoming more frequent worldwide, especially in the Middle East where violence in Syria has spilled over to many neighboring countries. Lebanon lacks a coordinated prehospital response system to deal with MCIs; therefore, hospital preparedness plans are essential to deal with the surge of casualties. This report describes our experience in dealing with an MCI involving a car bomb in an urban area of downtown Beirut, Lebanon. It uses general response principles to propose a simplified response model for hospitals to use during MCIs...
September 20, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929477/superstorm-sandy-emergency-management-staff-perceptions-of-impact-and-recommendations-for-future-preparedness-new-york-state
#17
Adam Yanson, Asante Shipp Hilts, Stephanie Mack, Millicent Eidson, Trang Nguyen, Guthrie Birkhead
OBJECTIVE: This study collected and summarized feedback from staff at the New York State (NYS) Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and three county OEMs within NYS to understand lessons learned from the 2012 Superstorm Sandy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative analysis. SUBJECTS, PARTICIPANTS: One staff person from each identified critical role from the state and county OEMs who were still employed in the roles identified...
July 2017: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928729/high-throughput-genetic-screen-reveals-that-early-attachment-and-biofilm-formation-are-necessary-for-full-pyoverdine-production-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Donghoon Kang, Natalia V Kirienko
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a re-emerging, multidrug-resistant, opportunistic pathogen that threatens the lives of immunocompromised patients, patients with cystic fibrosis, and those in critical care units. One of the most important virulence factors in this pathogen is the siderophore pyoverdine. Pyoverdine serves several critical roles during infection. Due to its extremely high affinity for ferric iron, pyoverdine gives the pathogen a significant advantage over the host in their competition for iron. In addition, pyoverdine can regulate the production of multiple bacterial virulence factors and perturb host mitochondrial homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928575/referrral-systems-development-and-survey-of-perioperative-and-critical-care-referral-to-anesthetists
#19
P L Narendra, Harihar V Hegde, Maroof Ahmad Khan, Dayanand G Talikoti, Samson Nallamilli
INTRODUCTION: Anesthetists come in contact with more than two-third of hospital patients. Timely referral to anesthetists is vital in perioperative and remote site settings. Delayed referrals, improper referrals, and referrals at inappropriate levels can result in inadequate preparation, perioperative complications, and poor outcome. METHODS: The self administered paper survey to delegates attending anesthesia conferences. Questions were asked on how high-risk, emergency surgical cases remote site and critical care patients were referred to anesthetists and presence of rapid response teams...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928228/salivary-%C3%AE-amylase-in-on-call-from-home-fire-and-emergency-service-personnel
#20
Sarah Janet Hall, Brad Aisbett, Sam J Robertson, Sally A Ferguson, Anne Turner
The effect of working on-call from home on sympatho-adrenal medullary (SAM) system activity is currently unknown. This study had two aims, Aim 1: examine salivary α-amylase awakening response (AAR) and diurnal salivary α-amylase (sAA) profile in fire and emergency service workers who operate on-call from home following a night on-call with a call (NIGHT-CALL), a night on-call without a call (NO-CALL) and an off-call night (OFF-CALL) and, Aim 2: explore whether there was an anticipatory effect of working on-call from home (ON) compared to when off-call (OFF) on the diurnal sAA profile...
September 19, 2017: Endocrine Connections
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