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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#1
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323447/injury-mitigation-estimates-for-an-intersection-driver-assistance-system-in-straight-crossing-path-crashes-in-the-u-s
#2
John M Scanlon, Rini Sherony, Hampton C Gabler
OBJECTIVE: Accounting for one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the U.S., intersection crashes are among the most frequent and fatal crash modes. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of crashes and number of vehicles with a seriously injured driver (MAIS3+) that could be prevented or reduced if, for every straight crossing path (SCP) intersection crash, one of the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#3
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318455/airway-management-in-disaster-response-a-manikin-study-comparing-direct-and-video-laryngoscopy-for-endotracheal-intubation-by-prehospital-providers-in-level-c-personal-protective-equipment
#4
Sami Yousif, Jason T Machan, Yasser Alaska, Selim Suner
Introduction Airway management is one of many challenges that medical providers face in disaster response operations. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE), in particular, was found to be associated with higher failure rates and a prolonged time to achieve airway control. Hypothesis/Problem The objective of this study was to determine whether video laryngoscopy could facilitate the performance of endotracheal intubation by disaster responders wearing Level C PPE. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, crossover study, a convenience sample of practicing prehospital providers were recruited...
March 20, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316161/-to-further-strengthen-the-construction-of-emergency-medical-treatment-system-of-massive-burn
#5
C Y Jia
Although clinical medicine of our country has made great progress in recent years, the rescue of massive burn casualties is still facing enormous challenges. No matter it is the top level design, system configuration, plan preparation, training, education, or the operation process, the medical resource allocation, and the treatment efficiency, are far behind the demand of social development. Therefore, further strengthen the construction of emergency medical treatment system of massive burn is the unshirkable responsibility of burn medical workers in our country...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316029/impulsivity-and-stress-response-in-pathological-gamblers-during-the-trier-social-stress-test
#6
G Maniaci, A E Goudriaan, C Cannizzaro, R J van Holst
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314998/multispectral-images-of-flowers-reveal-the-adaptive-significance-of-using-long-wavelength-sensitive-receptors-for-edge-detection-in-bees
#7
Vera Vasas, Daniel Hanley, Peter G Kevan, Lars Chittka
Many pollinating insects acquire their entire nutrition from visiting flowers, and they must therefore be efficient both at detecting flowers and at recognizing familiar rewarding flower types. A crucial first step in recognition is the identification of edges and the segmentation of the visual field into areas that belong together. Honeybees and bumblebees acquire visual information through three types of photoreceptors; however, they only use a single receptor type-the one sensitive to longer wavelengths-for edge detection and movement detection...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314835/endocrine-therapy-in-the-current-management-of-postmenopausal-estrogen-receptor-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer
#8
Virginia G Kaklamani, William J Gradishar
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) results in substantial morbidity and mortality for women afflicted with this disease. A majority of MBCs are hormone-responsive and estrogen receptor-positive, making endocrine therapy (ET) an integral component of systemic therapy. With a primary goal of minimizing the effects of estrogen on hormone-responsive MBC, ETs are among the first targeted treatments that aim to inhibit the influence of estrogen receptor activation on tumor proliferation. Several biochemical mechanisms have been the focus of drug development for treatment, including selective estrogen-receptor modulation, aromatase inhibition, and selective estrogen-receptor degradation...
March 17, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306354/bronchiectasis-phenotyping-a-complex-disease
#9
James D Chalmers
Bronchiectasis is a long-neglected disease currently experiencing a surge in interest. It is a highly complex condition with numerous aetiologies, co-morbidities and a heterogeneous disease presentation and clinical course. The past few years have seen major advances in our understanding of the disease, primarily through large real-life cohort studies. The main outcomes of interest in bronchiectasis are symptoms, exacerbations, treatment response, disease progression and death. We are now more able to identify clearly the radiological, clinical, microbiological and inflammatory contributors to these outcomes...
March 15, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303773/improving-disaster-response-efforts-through-the-development-of-a-disaster-health-care-response-system
#10
Jonathan A Wilson, L Kendall McKenzie, W Terry McLeod, Damon A Darsey, Jim Craig
We review the development of a disaster health care response system in Mississippi aimed at improving disaster response efforts. Large-scale disasters generate many injured and ill patients, which causes a significant utilization of emergency health care services and often requires external support to meet clinical needs. Disaster health care services require a solid infrastructure of coordination and collaboration to be effective. Following Hurricane Katrina, the state of Mississippi implemented best practices from around the nation to establish a disaster health care response system...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303505/patient-reported-outcomes-10%C3%A2-years-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#11
Florence E Turrentine, James H Mehaffey, Rachel L Mehaffey, Matthew G Mullen, Bruce D Schirmer, Peter T Hallowell
BACKGROUND: Following weight-loss surgery, patients who failed to achieve or sustain weight loss have nevertheless reported high satisfaction with their long-term bariatric experience. Understanding this phenomenon better will likely improve patients' experiences. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore patients' long-term experiences following bariatric surgery. SETTING: A 604-bed academic health system in the USA. METHODS: Participants rated satisfaction and shared spontaneous comments regarding their gastric bypass experience...
March 16, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303104/mathematical-modeling-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-invasive-infection-and-treatment
#12
Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Neville J Boon, Thomas B Clarke, Reiko J Tanaka
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is a commensal bacterium that normally resides on the upper airway epithelium without causing infection. However, factors such as co-infection with influenza virus can impair the complex Sp-host interactions and the subsequent development of many life-threatening infectious and inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis or even sepsis. With the increased threat of Sp infection due to the emergence of new antibiotic resistant Sp strains, there is an urgent need for better treatment strategies that effectively prevent progression of disease triggered by Sp infection, minimizing the use of antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302106/barriers-and-facilitators-of-linkage-to-hiv-care-among-hiv-infected-young-chinese-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-qualitative-study
#13
Haochu Li, Chongyi Wei, Joseph Tucker, Dianmin Kang, Meizhen Liao, Eleanor Holroyd, Jietao Zheng, Qian Qi, Wei Ma
BACKGROUND: The Four Free and One Care Policy (HIV/AIDS-related free services) has been in place in China since 2004. However, linkage to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is not yet achieved very well among people living with HIV. We conducted a qualitative study to explore individual and contextual factors that may influence a linkage to HIV care from the perspective of young HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in a highly centralized HIV care context of China. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to recruit 21 HIV-infected MSM in Shandong Province, with in-depth interviews conducted between March and July 2015...
March 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300133/observation-of-anomalous-hall-effect-in-a-non-magnetic-two-dimensional-electron-system
#14
D Maryenko, A S Mishchenko, M S Bahramy, A Ernst, J Falson, Y Kozuka, A Tsukazaki, N Nagaosa, M Kawasaki
Anomalous Hall effect, a manifestation of Hall effect occurring in systems without time-reversal symmetry, has been mostly observed in ferromagnetically ordered materials. However, its realization in high-mobility two-dimensional electron system remains elusive, as the incorporation of magnetic moments deteriorates the device performance compared to non-doped structure. Here we observe systematic emergence of anomalous Hall effect in various MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures that exhibit quantum Hall effect. At low temperatures, our nominally non-magnetic heterostructures display an anomalous Hall effect response similar to that of a clean ferromagnetic metal, while keeping a large anomalous Hall effect angle θAHE≈20°...
March 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299645/new-concepts-in-embolotherapy-of-hcc
#15
REVIEW
F Pesapane, N Nezami, F Patella, J F Geschwind
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with rapidly growing incidence rates in the USA and Europe. Despite improving surveillance programs, most patients are diagnosed at intermediate to advanced stages and are no longer amenable to curative therapies, such as ablation, surgical resection and liver transplantation. For such patients, catheter-based image-guided embolotherapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) represent the standard of care and mainstay therapy, as recommended and endorsed by a variety of national guidelines and staging systems...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299419/insights-into-the-role-of-age-and-social-interactions-on-the-sexual-attractiveness-of-queens-in-an-eusocial-bee-melipona-flavolineata-apidae-meliponini
#16
Jamille Costa Veiga, Cristiano Menezes, Felipe Andrés León Contrera
The attraction of sexual partners is a vital necessity among insects, and it involves conflict of interests and complex communication systems among male and female. In this study, we investigated the developing of sexual attractiveness in virgin queens (i.e., gynes) of Melipona flavolineata, an eusocial stingless bee. We followed the development of sexual attractiveness in 64 gynes, belonging to seven age classes (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18 days post-emergence), and we also evaluated the effect of different social interactions (such as competition between queens and interactions with workers) on the development of attractiveness in other 60 gynes...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299152/ebola-viral-disease-in-west-africa-a-threat-to-global-health-economy-and-political-stability
#17
Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Ibrahim Mohammed, Yauba Saidu
The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298889/cortical-sensitivity-to-guitar-note-patterns-eeg-entrainment-to-repetition-and-key
#18
David A Bridwell, Emily Leslie, Dakarai Q McCoy, Sergey M Plis, Vince D Calhoun
Music is ubiquitous throughout recent human culture, and many individual's have an innate ability to appreciate and understand music. Our appreciation of music likely emerges from the brain's ability to process a series of repeated complex acoustic patterns. In order to understand these processes further, cortical responses were measured to a series of guitar notes presented with a musical pattern or without a pattern. ERP responses to individual notes were measured using a 24 electrode Bluetooth mobile EEG system (Smarting mBrainTrain) while 13 healthy non-musicians listened to structured (i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297961/atomic-scale-origin-of-dynamic-viscoelastic-response-and-creep-in-disordered-solids
#19
Rico Milkus, Alessio Zaccone
Viscoelasticity has been described since the time of Maxwell as an interpolation of purely viscous and purely elastic response, but its microscopic atomic-level mechanism in solids has remained elusive. We studied three model disordered solids: a random lattice, the bond-depleted fcc lattice, and the fcc lattice with vacancies. Within the harmonic approximation for central-force lattices, we applied sum rules for viscoelastic response derived on the basis of nonaffine atomic motions. The latter motions are a direct result of local structural disorder, and in particular, of the lack of inversion symmetry in disordered lattices...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295220/total-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-rectal-cancer-an-emerging-option
#20
REVIEW
Ethan B Ludmir, Manisha Palta, Christopher G Willett, Brian G Czito
The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has benefited from improved surgical techniques and from the implementation of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), which have markedly decreased the rates of local recurrence. However, distant metastatic disease remains the most significant cause of death for these patients. Although adjuvant chemotherapy (ChT) after neoadjuvant CRT and definitive surgery is commonly recommended, the value of adjuvant systemic therapy remains less clear. Trials evaluating adjuvant ChT for rectal cancer have been handicapped by poor compliance rates and inconsistent survival results...
March 10, 2017: Cancer
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