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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792051/predicting-suicide-attempts-and-suicide-deaths-following-outpatient-visits-using-electronic-health-records
#1
Gregory E Simon, Eric Johnson, Jean M Lawrence, Rebecca C Rossom, Brian Ahmedani, Frances L Lynch, Arne Beck, Beth Waitzfelder, Rebecca Ziebell, Robert B Penfold, Susan M Shortreed
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to develop and validate models using electronic health records to predict suicide attempt and suicide death following an outpatient visit. METHOD: Across seven health systems, 2,960,929 patients age 13 or older (mean age, 46 years; 62% female) made 10,275,853 specialty mental health visits and 9,685,206 primary care visits with mental health diagnoses between Jan. 1, 2009, and June 30, 2015. Health system records and state death certificate data identified suicide attempts (N=24,133) and suicide deaths (N=1,240) over 90 days following each visit...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791942/emerging-viral-infections-and-their-impact-on-the-global-burden-of-neurological-disease
#2
Laura S Muñoz, Maria A Garcia, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Beatriz Parra, Carlos A Pardo
Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income regions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791492/characterization-of-the-caspase-family-in-zebrafish
#3
Olivia Spead, Tine Verreet, Cory J Donelson, Fabienne E Poulain
First discovered for their role in mediating programmed cell death and inflammatory responses, caspases have now emerged as crucial regulators of other cellular and physiological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. In the developing nervous system, for instance, the non-apoptotic functions of caspases have been shown to play critical roles in the formation of neuronal circuits by regulating axon outgrowth, guidance and pruning. How caspase activity is spatially and temporally maintained at sub-lethal levels within cells remains however poorly understood, especially in vivo...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791450/significant-acceleration-of-emergency-response-using-smartphone-geolocation-data-and-a-worldwide-emergency-call-support-system
#4
Michael Weinlich, Peter Kurz, Melissa B Blau, Felix Walcher, Stefan Piatek
IMPORTANCE: When patients are disorientated or experience language barriers, it is impossible to activate the emergency response system. In these cases, the delay for receiving appropriate help can extend to several hours. OBJECTIVES: A worldwide emergency call support system (ECSS), including geolocation of modern smartphones (GPS, WLAN and LBS), was established referring to E911 and eCall systems. The system was tested for relevance in quickly forwarding abroad emergency calls to emergency medical services (EMS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791001/plain-language-emergency-alert-codes-the-importance-of-direct-impact-statements-in-hospital-emergency-alerts
#5
Kristopher J Prickett, Kay Williams-Prickett
The nature of an emergency is not predictable, and no two emergencies are alike. In response to this unpredictable nature, healthcare facilities across the nation have adopted a system of emergency codes to notify staff of an emergent situation, often without alerting patients and visitors to the crises. However, the system of emergency codes varies significantly within most states and even within healthcare coalition regions. This variation in codes leads to not only the potential for staff confusion, considering many healthcare providers work within multiple healthcare centers, but also decreases the amount of transparency a healthcare center projects to its patients and visitors...
March 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790983/climate-change-and-one-health
#6
Jakob Zinsstag, Lisa Crump, Esther Schelling, Jan Hattendorf, Yahya Osman Maidane, Kadra Osman Ali, Abdifatah Muhummed, Abdurezak Adem Umer, Ferzua Aliyi, Faisal Nooh, Mohammed Ibrahim Abdikadir, Seid Mohammed Ali, Stella Hartinger, Daniel Mäusezahl, Monica Berger Gonzalez de White, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Danilo Alvarez Castillo, John McCracken, Fayiz Abakar, Colin Cercamondi, Sandro Emmenegger, Edith Maier, Simon Karanja, Isabelle Bolon, Rafael Ruiz de Castañeda, Bassirou Bonfoh, Rea Tschopp, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Guéladio Cissé
The journal The Lancet recently published a countdown on health and climate change. Attention was focused solely on humans. However, animals, including wildlife, livestock and pets, may also be impacted by climate change. Complementary to the high relevance of awareness rising for protecting humans against climate change, here we present a One Health approach, which aims at the simultaneous protection of humans, animals and the environment from climate change impacts (climate change adaptation). We postulate that integrated approaches save human and animal lives and reduce costs when compared to public and animal health sectors working separately...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789495/apolipoprotein-e-and-atherosclerosis-from-lipoprotein-metabolism-to-microrna-control-of-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Laura Bouchareychas, Robert L Raffai
Apolipoprotein (apo) E stands out among plasma apolipoproteins through its unprecedented ability to protect against atherosclerosis. Although best recognized for its ability to mediate plasma lipoprotein clearance in the liver and protect against macrophage foam cell formation, our recent understanding of the influence that apoE can exert to control atherosclerosis has significantly widened. Among apoE's newfound athero-protective properties include an ability to control exaggerated hematopoiesis, blood monocyte activation and aortic stiffening in mice with hyperlipidemia...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789377/polyamine-modulation-of-anticonvulsant-drug-response-a-potential-mechanism-contributing-to-pharmacoresistance-in-chronic-epilepsy
#8
Niklas Michael Beckonert, Thoralf Opitz, Julika Pitsch, Patrício Soares da Silva, Heinz Beck
Despite the development of numerous novel anticonvulsant drugs, approximately 30% of epilepsy patients remain refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Many established and novel AEDs reduce hyperexcitability via voltage- and use-dependent inhibition of voltage-gated Na+ channels. For the widely-used anticonvulsant carbamazepine (CBZ), use-dependent block of Na+ channels is significantly reduced both in experimental and human epilepsy. However, the molecular underpinnings of this potential cellular mechanism for pharmacoresistance have remained enigmatic...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788338/clinical-pharmacology-in-adult-and-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Amy Hemperly, William J Sandborn, Niels Vande Casteele
This review describes the clinical pharmacology of the major drugs used for the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety profile are discussed. Some small molecules were developed to act systemically (eg, ozanimod) or locally (eg, aminosalicylates) and thus have disparate pharmacokinetic properties. In addition, locally acting compounds have been optimized to mitigate systemic exposure-eg, budesonide, which undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism-thereby reducing systemic bioavailability and side effects...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787445/deployment-of-the-dosikit-system-under-operational-conditions-experience-from-a-french-defense-national-nuclear-exercise
#10
F Entine, J Bensimon Etzol, C Bettencourt, M Dondey, X Michel, G Gagna, G Gellie, Y Corre, N Ugolin, S Chevillard, J-C Amabile
Estimation of the dose received by accidentally irradiated victims is based on a tripod: clinical, biological, and physical dosimetry. The DosiKit system is an operational and mobile biodosimetry device allowing the measurement of external irradiation directly on the site of a radiological accident. This tool is based on capillary blood sample and hair follicle collection. The aim is to obtain a whole-body and local-surface dose assessment. This paper is about the technical evaluation of the DosiKit; the analytical process and scientific validation are briefly described...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787443/old-data-new-concepts-integrating-indirect-effects-into-radiation-protection
#11
Carmel Mothersill, Colin Seymour
PURPOSE: To address the following key question, what are the consequences of nontargeted and delayed effects for linear nonthreshold models of radiation risk? This paper considers low-dose "indirect" or nontargeted effects and how they might impact radiation protection, particularly at the level of the environment. Nontargeted effects refer to effects in cells, tissues, or organisms that were not targeted by irradiation and that did not receive direct energy deposition. They include genomic instability and lethal mutations in progeny of irradiated cells and bystander effects in neighboring cells, tissues, or organisms...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787423/autoimmune-granulomatous-inflammation-of-lacrimal-glands-and-axonal-neuritis-following-treatment-with-ipilimumab-and-radiation-therapy
#12
Ecaterina Ileana Dumbrava, Veronica Smith, Rasha Alfattal, Adel K El-Naggar, Marta Penas-Prado, Apostolia M Tsimberidou
Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), anti PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) and PD-L1 (programmed cell death protein-ligand 1) monoclonal antibodies are emerging as standard oncology treatments in various tumor types. The indications will expand as immunotherapies are being investigated in various tumors with promising results. Currently, there is inadequate identification of predictive biomarkers of response or toxicity. Unique response patterns include pseudoprogression and delayed response...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787325/barriers-to-self-reporting-patient-safety-incidents-by-paramedics-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
Julie E Sinclair, Michael A Austin, Christopher Bourque, Jennifer Kortko, Justin Maloney, Richard Dionne, Andrew Reed, Penny Price, Lisa A Calder
BACKGROUND: A minimal amount of research exists examining the extent to which patient safety events occur within paramedicine and even fewer studies investigating patient safety systems for self-reporting by paramedics. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to paramedic self-reporting of patient safety incidents (PSIs). METHODS: We randomly distributed paper-based surveys among 1,153 paramedics in an Ontario region in Canada. The survey described one of 5 different PSI clinical scenarios (near miss, adverse event, and minor, major or critical patient care variances) and listed 18 potential barriers to self-reporting PSIs as statements presented for rating on a 5-point Likert scale (very significant = 1 - very insignificant = 5)...
May 22, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785356/examining-the-potential-for-south-american-arboviruses-to-spread-beyond-the-new-world
#14
Víctor Hugo Peña-García, Michael K McCracken, Rebecca C Christofferson
Zika and chikungunya viruses emerged as public health emergencies in the Western Hemisphere where previously they had not been reported on a large scale. Millions were infected as the viruses met with virtually no herd immunity upon emergence. Purpose of the Review: We explore the histories of these two recent arbovirus experiences in South America. We then review similarly three endemic South American viruses: yellow fever, Oropouche, and Mayaro viruses. Recent Findings: We discuss the commonalities of the transmission systems and the possibility of an atypical emergence, that of New World virus to the Old World...
December 2017: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785336/targeting-the-microbiota-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-to-mood-disorders-focus-on-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#15
M M Pusceddu, K Murray, M G Gareau
Purpose of review: The crosstalk between the gut and the brain has revealed a complex communication system responsible for maintaining a proper gastrointestinal homeostasis as well as affect emotional mood and cognitive functions. Recent research has revealed that beneficial manipulation of the microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics represent an emerging and novel strategy for the treatment of a large spectrum of diseases ranging from visceral pain to mood disorders. The review critically evaluates current knowledge of the effects exerted by both probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and mood disorders such as anxiety and depression...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784005/cd8-t-cells-mediate-the-antitumor-activity-of-frankincense-and-myrrh-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Chun Xu, Xian Lu, Wei Liu, Anxian Chen, Gang Meng, Hailin Zhang, Binghua Li, Yonghui Zhang, Junhua Wu, Jiwu Wei
BACKGROUND: Tumor-promoting inflammation is an emerging hallmark of cancer, which participates in both cancer progression and immune escape. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer with an extremely poor prognosis. Frankincense and myrrh are anti-inflammation agents commonly used in clinic. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether extract of frankincense and myrrh (FM) downregulates inflammatory microenvironment of HCC and thereby restores antitumor immune responses...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783140/congenital-diaphragmatic-disease-an-unusual-presentation-in-adulthood-case-report
#17
Angela Gurrado, Roberta Maria Isernia, Alessandro De Luca, Valentina Ferraro, Daniela Virgintino, Anna Napoli, Giuseppe Cavallaro, Eugenio Maiorano, Angela Pezzolla, Mario Testini
INTRODUCTION: Congenital diaphragmatic disease is a quite common condition that usually occurs in the neonatal period, and the diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic disease in adulthood is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-years-old Caucasian woman was admitted in emergency at our Department, due to a bowel obstruction and dyspnea. A CT-scan showed a diaphragmatic herniation in the left area, with malposition of dilated transverse and descending colon in the chest. An emergency laparatomy was performed, showing a toxic megacolon, in the absence of a true diaphragmatic hernia, and a left diaphragm and left liver hypoplasia...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783126/systemic-therapy-for-intermediate-and-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-sorafenib-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Luc Raoul, Masatoshi Kudo, Richard S Finn, Julien Edeline, Maria Reig, Peter R Galle
The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment landscape changed a decade ago, with sorafenib demonstrating survival benefit in the first-line setting and becoming the first systemic therapy to be approved for HCC. More recently, regorafenib and nivolumab have received approval in the second-line setting after sorafenib, with further positive phase 3 studies emerging in the first line (lenvatinib non-inferior to sorafenib) and second line versus placebo (cabozantinib and ramucirumab). A key recommendation in the management of patients receiving sorafenib is to promote close communication between the patient and the physician so that adverse events (AEs) are detected early and severe AEs can be prevented...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782817/evolution-of-the-developmental-plasticity-and-a-coupling-between-left-mechanosensory-neuromasts-and-an-adaptive-foraging-behavior
#19
Vânia Filipa Lima Fernandes, Christian Macaspac, Louise Lu, Masato Yoshizawa
Many animal species exhibit laterality in sensation and behavioral responses, namely, the preference for using either the left or right side of the sensory system. For example, some fish use their left eye when observing social stimuli, whereas they use their right eye to observe novel objects. However, it is largely unknown whether such laterality in sensory-behavior coupling evolves during rapid adaptation processes. Here, in the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, we investigate the laterality in the relationship between an evolved adaptive behavior, vibration attraction behavior (VAB), and its main sensors, mechanosensory neuromasts...
May 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782706/biological-stimulus-driven-assembly-disassembly-of-functional-nanoparticles-for-targeted-delivery-controlled-activation-and-bioelimination
#20
REVIEW
Xi Hu, Fangyuan Li, Shuying Wang, Fan Xia, Daishun Ling
Nanoassembly technology has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted drug delivery and provides a basis for fabricating medical theranostic nanosystems. However, it is extremely difficult to concentrate nanoparticles at tumor sites, and the poor target-to-background ratio undoubtedly obstructs the accurate diagnosis and effective therapy of cancerous tissues. Importantly, the addition of biological stimulus-responsive groups to nanoassembly systems can enable a biological stimulus-driven assembly-disassembly mutual switch or structural composition/conformation change, thereby amplifying the imaging signal and/or enhancing the therapeutic effect...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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