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Maternal obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921259/epigenetic-effects-of-the-pregnancy-mediterranean-diet-adherence-on-the-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-markers
#1
REVIEW
David Lorite Mingot, Eva Gesteiro, Sara Bastida, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a multifactorial and not yet fully clarified origin. Insulin resistance is a key element that connects all the accepted components of MS (obesity, dyslipemia, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia). There is strong evidence that epigenetic changes during fetal development are key factors in the development of MS. These changes are induced by maternal nutrition, among different factors, affecting the intrauterine environment. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of MS in adults...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918470/assessment-of-glucose-regulation-in-pregnancy-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#2
Christian S Göbl, Latife Bozkurt, Andrea Tura, Michael Leutner, Laura Andrei, Lukas Fahr, Peter Husslein, Wolfgang Eppel, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is characterised by glycaemic variability. Prospective studies of glucose metabolism in pregnancy after RYGB are not available, therefore this study aimed to evaluate physiological alterations in glucose metabolism in pregnancy following RYGB. METHODS: Sixty-three pregnant women (25 who underwent RYGB, 19 non-operated obese control women and 19 normal weight control women) were included. Frequently sampled 3 h OGTTs and 1 h IVGTTs were performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation and, in a subgroup, were repeated at 3-6 months after delivery...
September 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917205/prenatal-ddt-exposure-and-child-adiposity-at-age-12-the-chamacos-study
#3
Marcella Warner, Morgan Ye, Kim Harley, Katherine Kogut, Asa Bradman, Brenda Eskenazi
OBJECTIVE: Using data from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) birth cohort study, we assessed the association of in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) with child adiposity at age 12. METHODS: We included 240 children with o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE concentrations measured in maternal serum collected during pregnancy (ng/g lipid) and complete 12-year follow-up data...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915506/maternal-diethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-affects-adiposity-and-insulin-tolerance-in-offspring-in-a-pcna-dependent-manner
#4
Brian G Hunt, Yuan-Liang Wang, Min-Shan Chen, Shao-Chun Wang, Susan E Waltz
The ubiquitous plasticizer, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a known endocrine disruptor. However, DEHP exposure effects are not well understood. Changes in industrial and agricultural practices have resulted in increased prevalence of DEHP exposure and has coincided with the heightened occurrence of metabolic syndrome and obesity. DEHP and its metabolites are detected in the umbilical cord blood of newborns; however, the prenatal and perinatal effects of DEHP exposure have not been intensively studied. Previously, we discovered that phosphorylation (p) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at tyrosine 114 (Y114) is required for adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity in mice...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915389/choline-prevents-fetal-overgrowth-and-normalizes-placental-fatty-acid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-obesity
#5
Juha Nam, Esther Greenwald, Chauntelle Jack-Roberts, Tamara T Ajeeb, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Kathleen Axen, Anjana Saxena, Ekaterina Semernina, Khatia Nanobashvili, Xinyin Jiang
Maternal obesity increases placental transport of macronutrients, resulting in fetal overgrowth and obesity later in life. Choline participates in fatty acid metabolism, serves as a methyl donor and influences growth signaling, which may modify placental macronutrient homeostasis and affect fetal growth. Using a mouse model of maternal obesity, we assessed the effect of maternal choline supplementation on preventing fetal overgrowth and restoring placental macronutrient homeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF, 60% kcal from fat) diet or a normal (NF, 10% kcal from fat) diet with a drinking supply of either 25 mM choline chloride or control purified water, respectively, beginning 4 weeks prior to mating until gestational day 12...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911167/in-utero-exposure-to-a-high-fat-diet-programs-hepatic-hypermethylation-and-gene-dysregulation-and-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-male-mice
#6
Yoshinori Seki, Masako Suzuki, Xingyi Guo, Alan Scott Glenn, Patricia M Vuguin, Ariana Fiallo, Quan Du, Yi-An Ko, Yiting Yu, Katalin Susztak, Deyou Zheng, John M Greally, Ellen B Katz, Maureen J Charron
Exposure to a high-fat (HF) diet in utero is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome later in life. However, the molecular basis of this enhanced susceptibility for metabolic disease is poorly understood. Gene expression microarray and genome-wide DNA methylation analyses of mouse liver revealed that exposure to a maternal HF milieu activated genes of immune response, inflammation, and hepatic dysfunction. DNA methylation analysis revealed 3360 differentially methylated loci, most of which (76%) were hypermethylated and distributed preferentially to hotspots on chromosomes 4 [atherosclerosis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs) 1] and 18 (insulin-dependent susceptibility QTLs 21)...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903110/flavor-perception-and-preference-development-in-human-infants
#7
Catherine A Forestell
As most parents and caregivers are aware, feeding children a nutritionally balanced diet can be challenging. Children are born with a biological predisposition to prefer sweet and to avoid bitter foods such as green leafy vegetables. It has been hypothesized that this predisposition evolved to attract children to energy-dense foods while discouraging the consumption of toxins. Although this may have enhanced survival in environments historically characterized by food scarcity, it is clearly maladaptive in many of today's food environments where children are surrounded by an abundance of sweet-tasting, unhealthful foods and beverages that place them at risk for excessive weight gain...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900415/perinatal-western-diet-consumption-leads-to-profound-plasticity-and-gabaergic-phenotype-changes-within-hypothalamus-and-reward-pathway-from-birth-to-sexual-maturity-in-rat
#8
Julie Paradis, Pierre Boureau, Thomas Moyon, Sophie Nicklaus, Patricia Parnet, Vincent Paillé
Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD)] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899652/predicting-preschool-children-s-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-from-maternal-pressure-to-eat-a-longitudinal-study-of-low-income-latina-mothers
#9
Lionor Galindo, Thomas G Power, Ashley D Beck, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M O'Connor, Sheryl O Hughes
Early work by Klesges et al. (1983, 1986) suggested that mothers who frequently prompt their children to eat have children at greater risk for obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that controlling feeding practices override children's responsiveness to their internal fullness cues, increasing the risk of overeating and obesity (e.g., Johnson & Birch, 1994). Subsequent cross-sectional research on pressure to eat, however, has been inconsistent. Most studies have shown that maternal self-reports of pressure to eat are negatively associated with childhood obesity, and observational studies showed inconsistent relationships with child weight status...
September 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895688/breakfast-nutritional-status-and-socioeconomic-outcome-measures-among-primary-school-students-from-the-city-of-salta-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Susana J Gotthelf, Claudia P Tempestti
INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic context and family dynamics are determining factors when considering eating habits and nutritional status among students. It has been demonstrated that skipping breakfast or having a light breakfast has an unfavorable impact on nutritional status. OBJETIVE: To establish a relationship among breakfast, sociodemographic outcome measures, and nutritional status among students attending public schools in the urban and peri-urban areas of the City of Salta...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893283/perceived-fussy-eating-in-australian-children-at-14%C3%A2-months-of-age-and-subsequent-use-of-maternal-feeding-practices-at-2%C3%A2-years
#11
Rebecca Byrne, Elena Jansen, Lynne Daniels
BACKGROUND: Concerns about fussy eating are common amongst parents of young children. However, studies of the long-term impact of fussy eating show mixed results with regard to adequacy of dietary intake and child growth. This may be in part because there is no accepted definition of fussy eating and studies measure the construct in different ways, commonly relying on parent perception. This longitudinal analysis explores maternal and child characteristics associated with maternal perception of her toddler as a fussy eater in early toddlerhood and subsequent use of feeding practices at 2 years...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890989/association-between-maternal-nonresponsive-feeding-practice-and-child-s-eating-behavior-and-weight-status-children-aged-1-to-6%C3%A2-years
#12
Chunmei Shi, Nan Li, Jing Dong, Li Wang, Xiling Li, Chenbo Ji, Xingyun Wang, Xia Chi, Xirong Guo, Meiling Tong, Min Zhang
The purposes of this study are to investigate the prevalence of nonresponsive feeding practice (NRFP) and child's eating behavior (CEB) and to explore the hypothetical association between child's weight status, NRFP and CEB for 1- to 6-year-old children. In this study, 2423 caregivers of 1- to 6-year-old children are from the Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital who completed the self-report questionnaires about their NRFP and CEB as well as their children's sociodemographic data. Chi-square test and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the correlation between child's weight status and NRFP and CEB...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889657/the-physiologic-pattern-of-normal-labor-progression
#13
Jun Zhang, Tao Duan
The escalating frequency of obstetric interventions such as oxytocin augmentation and cesarean delivery has raised concerns to practitioners and the public. While maternal consequences of cesarean section are well recognized by obstetricians, the impact of cesarean birth on child health has come under the spot light in recent years. Mounting evidence is linking cesarean birth with childhood allergic disorders, such as asthma, childhood obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders (Cho CE, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;208:249-54...
September 10, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889026/gnas-mutations-and-heterotopic-ossification
#14
Murat Bastepe
GNAS is a complex imprinted gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory heterotrimeric G protein (Gsα). GNAS gives rise to additional gene products that exhibit exclusively maternal or paternal expression, such as XLαs, a large variant of Gsα that shows exclusively paternal expression and is partly identical to the latter. Gsα itself is expressed biallelically in most tissues, although the expression occurs predominantly from the maternal allele in a small set of tissues, such as renal proximal tubules...
September 6, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887432/maternal-pregravid-obesity-remodels-the-dna-methylation-landscape-of-cord-blood-monocytes-disrupting-their-inflammatory-program
#15
Suhas Sureshchandra, Randall M Wilson, Maham Rais, Nicole E Marshall, Jonathan Q Purnell, Kent L Thornburg, Ilhem Messaoudi
Prepregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring, including increased incidence of neonatal bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. We recently reported that umbilical cord blood (UCB) monocytes from babies born to obese mothers generate a reduced IL-6/TNF-α response to TLR 1/2 and 4 ligands compared to those collected from lean mothers. These observations suggest altered development of the offspring's immune system, which in turn results in dysregulated function...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887030/association-of-picky-eating-with-weight-status-and-dietary-quality-among-low-income-preschoolers
#16
Callie L Brown, Eliana M Perrin, Karen E Peterson, Holly E Brophy Herb, Mildred A Horodynski, Dawn Contreras, Alison L Miller, Danielle P Appugliese, Sarah C Ball, Julie C Lumeng
BACKGROUND: Picky eating is common in children. Few studies have examined predictors of picky eating, and the association of picky eating with weight status and dietary quality is inconsistent in prior literature. We aimed to identify predictors of picky eating and to test the association of picky eating with child body mass index z-score (BMIz), dietary quality, and micronutrient intake. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial to prevent obesity among 506 preschoolers attending Head Start...
September 5, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886213/prospective-study-of-the-effect-of-maternal-body-mass-index-on-labor-progress-in-nulliparous-women-in-egypt
#17
Ahmed M Maged, Doaa S Belal, Heba M Marie, Hamsa Rashwan, Suzy Abdelaziz, Amir A Gabr, Ahmed R Elzayat
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) on labor progress in nulliparous women. METHODS: The present prospective cohort study enrolled primigravidae admitted to Kasr Al Ainy hospital, Cairo University, Egypt, during active labor between February 1, 2016, and February 28, 2017. Patients were classified into three equal groups using their BMI at admission: underweight (<18...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885859/interventions-designed-to-promote-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-update
#18
Helen Skouteris, Cate Bailey, Cate Nagle, Yvonne Hauck, Lauren Bruce, Heather Morris
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, women seldom reach the recommended target of exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months postpartum. The aim of the current study was to update a previously published review that presented a conceptual and methodological synthesis of interventions designed to promote exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months in high-income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of leading databases was conducted for scholarly, peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials published from June 2013 to December 2016...
September 8, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883541/prenatal-risk-factors-influencing-childhood-bmi-and-overweight-independent-of-birth-weight-and-infancy-bmi-a-path-analysis-within-the-danish-national-birth-cohort
#19
C S Morgen, L Ängquist, J L Baker, A-Mn Andersen, K F Michaelsen, T I A Sørensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prenatal risk factors for childhood overweight may operate indirectly through development in body size in early life and/or directly independent hereof. We quantified the effects of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI), maternal age, socioeconomic position (SEP), parity, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, caesarean section, birth weight, and BMI at 5 and 12 months on BMI and overweight at 7 and 11 years. METHODS: Family triads with information on maternal, paternal and child BMI at ages 7 (n=29 374) and 11 years (n=18 044) were selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883521/impact-of-maternal-obesity-on-the-incidence-of-pregnancy-complications-in-france-and-canada
#20
Florent Fuchs, Marie-Victoire Senat, Evelyne Rey, Jacques Balayla, Nils Chaillet, Jean Bouyer, François Audibert
The aim of our study was to compare the impact of maternal obesity on the incidence of medical complications of pregnancy in France and Canada. We performed a prospective comparative cohort study using French data, retrieved from a prospective cohort of singleton deliveries, and Canadian data retrieved from QUARISMA, a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Quebec, both between 2009 and 2011. Outcomes studied included, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), venous thromboembolism, stillbirth, caesarean delivery and macrosomia...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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