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Maternal obesity

Giuseppa Patti, Marta Giaccardi, Valeria Capra, Flavia Napoli, Giuliana Cangemi, Sara Notarnicola, Sara Guzzetti, Silvia Russo, Mohamad Maghnie, Natascia Di Iorgi
Context: There is little information on long-term natural history of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Objective: To describe the phenotypes and the metabolic status in adults with SRS. Design: Clinical and metabolic evaluations in adults with a molecular diagnosis of SRS. Partecipants: 7Caucasian patients (aged 18 to 46 years, mean age 26.9 years) were studied. Two had chromosome 7 maternal uniparental disomy, 3 had 11p15 loss of methylation and 2 had 11p15 duplication...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sophie Vincent, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Andrea R Spence, Haim A Abenhaim
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal respiratory-related outcomes among women who underwent an elective cesarean section (CS). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s 2009-2013 period linked birth/infant death dataset. Women who had elective CSs at term were categorized by their pre-pregnancy BMI as normal, overweight, obese or morbidly obese...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Cilia Mejia-Lancheros, John Mehegan, Celine M Murrin, Cecily C Kelleher
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The role of smoking from the paternal line during the pre-conception period on grand-child's overweight/obesity and associated underlying pathways are uncertain. We examined whether the smoking status from the paternal line was associated with the grand-child's higher weight at birth, and overweight or obesity at 5 and 9 years of age. The grandparental smoking effect from the maternal line was also explored. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were fathers and grandparents and grand-children from the Lifeways Cross Generational Cohort (N = 1021 for the analysis at birth; N = 562 and N = 284 for the analysis at 5 and 9 years, respectively)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Margaret O Murphy, Joseph B Herald, Jacqueline Leachman, Alejandro Villasante Tezanos, Dianne M Cohn, Analia S Loria
.: Exposure to early life stress (ELS) is associated with behavioral-related alterations, increases in body mass index and higher systolic blood pressure in humans. Postnatal maternal separation and early weaning (MSEW) is a mouse model of neglect characterized by a long-term dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system. OBJECTIVES: Given the contribution of adrenal-derived hormones to the development of obesity, we hypothesized that exposure to MSEW could contribute to  the worsening of cardiometabolic function in response to chronic high-fat diet (HF) feeding by promoting adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Elvira Larqué, Eva Morales, Rosaura Leis, José E Blanco-Carnero
BACKGROUND: To what extent does the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration help to meet the physiological needs of humans is an ongoing subject of debate. Remaining unexposed to the sun to reduce melanoma cancer risk, current lifestyle with less out door activities, and increasing obesity rates, which in turn increases the storage of vitamin D in the adipose tissue, are presumably factors that contribute to the substantial upsurge in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in humans...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Ami R Zota, Ruth J Geller, Laura E Romano, Kimberly Coleman-Phox, Nancy E Adler, Emily Parry, Miaomiao Wang, June-Soo Park, Angelo F Elmi, Barbara A Laraia, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can target immune and metabolic pathways. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined the influence of EDCs on measures of inflammation and cellular aging during pregnancy and postpartum. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDE metabolites (OH-PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and per- and polyfluorochemicals (PFASs) with repeated biomarker measurements of inflammation and cellular aging in women during pregnancy and the postpartum period...
March 10, 2018: Environment International
Long The Nguyen, Hui Chen, Crystal Mak, Amgad Zaky, Carol Pollock, Sonia Saad
Recent studies indicate that SIRT1, an important metabolic sensor and regulator of lifespan, plays a mechanistic role in maternal obesity-induced programming of metabolic disorders in the offspring. In this study we investigate whether SIRT1 activation in early childhood can mitigate metabolic disorders due to maternal and postnatal high-fat feeding in mice. Male offspring born to chow-fed (MC) or high-fat diet-fed dams (MHF) were weaned onto postnatal chow or high-fat diet and treated with SRT1720 (SRT, 25mg/kg/2days i...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Saori Kataoka, Toshio Norikura, Shin Sato
Maternal malnutrition is known to increase the risk of obesity in offspring. We investigated whether green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation affects obesity-related fibrosis and inflammation in the kidney of high-fat-diet-fed adult offspring of protein-restricted-diet-fed dams during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant Wistar rats received diets containing 20% (normal-protein, NP) or 8% (low-protein, LP) casein, and they received 0%-, 0.12%- or 0.24%-GTE-containing LP diets (LP/LP, LP/LGT and LP/HGT, respectively) during lactation...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Alan Leviton, Stephen R Hooper, Scott J Hunter, Megan N Scott, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. METHODS: We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis...
December 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Marina Gomes, Vera Trocado, Mariana Carlos-Alves, Diana Arteiro, Paula Pinheiro
Non-pulsatile oxytocin given during labour can negatively affect breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess whether intrapartum oxytocin administration has any effect on breastfeeding. Secondly, to assess whether some maternal or neonatal variables influence breastfeeding. A retrospective cohort study was done, comparing two groups: women exposed (n = 101) and not exposed to oxytocin (n = 100) during labour. Women with caesarean section, vacuum extraction/forceps, twin pregnancy, breech presentation, premature neonates and with an Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes were excluded...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Leah T Stiemsma, Karin B Michels
Although the prominent role of the microbiome in human health has been established, the early-life microbiome is now being recognized as a major influence on long-term human health and development. Variations in the composition and functional potential of the early-life microbiome are the result of lifestyle factors, such as mode of birth, breastfeeding, diet, and antibiotic usage. In addition, variations in the composition of the early-life microbiome have been associated with specific disease outcomes, such as asthma, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Tomoko Saikusa, Munetsugu Hara, Kazuhiro Iwama, Kotaro Yuge, Chihiro Ohba, Jun-Ichiro Okada, Tadashi Hisano, Yushiro Yamashita, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto, Toyojiro Matsuishi
We present a unique 11-year-old girl showing clinical features of Rett-related disorder with distinctive facial features and multiple congenital anomalies including ocular hypertelorism, arched eyebrows, a broad nose, dental anomalies, congenital heart disease, truncal obesity, and epilepsy. A novel de novo mutation in histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) (c.652G > T, p.Gly218Cys) was confirmed by whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing. X-chromosome inactivation analysis on DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed a completely skewed pattern associated with an inactive maternal allele...
March 5, 2018: Brain & Development
Silvia Burlina, Maria Grazia Dalfrà, Annunziata Lapolla
The prevalence of gestational diabetes in the developed world is increased and parallels that of obesity. Apart from the maternal and fetal complications occurring during pregnancy, GDM is characterized by a high subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we outline the different factors to consider in assessing the future risk of diabetes developing in women with a history of GDM. Looking at the modifiable risk factors, it is worth noting that promoting a healthy diet and lifestyle before (physical activity), during and after pregnancy (breast feeding) in women of fertile age are fundamental to the success of efforts to reduce the burden of diabetes in these young people...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Laura Schummers, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Michele R Hacker, Tyler J VanderWeele, Paige L Williams, Thomas A McElrath, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
BACKGROUND: First deliveries in women older than 35, 40, or 45 are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with those in younger women. However, specific relationships between each additional year of maternal age and pregnancy risks remain unclear, and absolute risks at each maternal age are not known. METHODS: Using a population-based cohort of nulliparous women in British Columbia, Canada, from 2004-2014 (n=203,414), We examined relationships between maternal age (modeled flexibly to allow curvilinear shapes) and pregnancy outcomes using logistic regression...
March 6, 2018: Epidemiology
Sobha Puppala, Cun Li, Jeremy P Glenn, Romil Saxena, Samer Gawrieh, Amy Quinn, Jennifer Palarczyk, Edward J Dick, Peter W Nathanielsz, Laura A Cox
Maternal obesity (MO) increases offspring cardiometabolic disease risk. Altered fetal liver development in response to the challenge of MO has metabolic consequences underlying adverse offspring life-course health outcomes. Little is known about molecular pathways and potential epigenetic changes regulating primate fetal liver responses to MO. We hypothesized that MO would induce fetal baboon liver epigenetic changes resulting in dysregulation of key metabolic pathways that impact lipid metabolism. MO was induced prior to pregnancy by a high fat, high sucrose diet...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Christina Wraw, Ian J Deary, Geoff Der, Catharine R Gale
OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the association between both mothers' and offspring's intelligence and offspring's body mass index (BMI) in youth. METHOD: Participants were members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) Children and Young Adults cohort (n = 11,512) and their biological mothers who were members of the NLSY-79 (n = 4932). Offspring's IQ was measured with the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT). Mothers' IQ was measured with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT)...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Féaron C Cassidy, Marika Charalambous
In the 1980s, mouse nuclear transplantation experiments revealed that both male and female parental genomes are required for successful development to term ( McGrath and Solter, 1983; Surani and Barton, 1983). This non-equivalence of parental genomes is because imprinted genes are predominantly expressed from only one parental chromosome. Uniparental inheritance of these genomic regions causes paediatric growth disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (reviewed in Peters, 2014). More than 100 imprinted genes have now been discovered and the functions of many of these genes have been assessed in murine models...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Birgit Arabin, Nina Timmesfeld, Kathrin Noever, Susann Behnam, Christin Ellermann, Mirjam Jenny
The rates of overweight, obesity and morbid obesity cause major public health problems in both the developed and the developing world. In this paper, we review the prevalence, the impact on short- and long-term health of mother and offspring and the burden for societies. In addition, we try to demonstrate that scientific publications and guidelines per se have not yet interrupted the vicious cycle of transgenerational transfer and the risks of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. We propose some different ways to improve health literacy to better communicate the serious facts into effective information for health care politicians and providers and mainly to present and future parents...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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