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Maternal obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721552/high-plasma-adenosine-levels-in-overweight-obese-pregnant-women
#1
Priscila Badillo, Paola Salgado, Patricia Bravo, Katherine Guevara, Jesenia Acurio, Maria Angelica Gonzalez, Carlos Oyarzun, Rody San Martin, Carlos Escudero
We aim to investigate whether overweight/obese pregnant women have elevated plasma levels of adenosine associated with increased consumption of high-calorie food. Sixty women were included. They were divided into lean (n = 23 and n = 12) or overweight/obese (n = 7 and n = 18) non-pregnant and pregnant women, respectively. Clinical records and maternal blood samples were collected after informed consent. A self-reported dietary questionnaire was also completed. Plasma adenosine levels were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography...
July 18, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719804/maternal-obesity-attenuates-predelivery-inflammatory-reaction-in-c57bl-6n-mice
#2
Sarah Appel, Merle Schulze-Edinghausen, Tobias Kretschmer, Sarah Storck, Ruth Janoschek, Inga Bae-Gartz, Marion Handwerk, Maria Wohlfarth, Kai-Dietrich Nüsken, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Malte Heykants, Esther Mahabir, Jörg Dötsch
Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to increase before labour. Whether gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) participates in this process and whether labour-related processes in placental and adipose tissue are altered in obese women is unknown. In our mouse model, lean mice display elevated placental inflammation and oxidative stress towards the end of pregnancy, accompanied by an increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors in gWAT. Obese mice also display elevated levels of pro-inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in placentas shortly before birth...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717128/mother-s-pre-pregnancy-bmi-and-placental-candidate-mirnas-findings-from-the-environage-birth-cohort
#3
Maria Tsamou, Dries S Martens, Ellen Winckelmans, Narjes Madhloum, Bianca Cox, Wilfried Gyselaers, Tim S Nawrot, Karen Vrijens
There is increasing evidence that the predisposition for development of chronic diseases arises at the earliest times of life. In this context, maternal pre-pregnancy weight might modify fetal metabolism and the child's predisposition to develop disease later in life. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and miRNA alterations in placental tissue at birth. In 211 mother-newborn pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, we assessed placental expression of seven miRNAs important in crucial cellular processes implicated in adipogenesis and/or obesity...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716548/maternal-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-gestational-weight-gain-influence-birth-weight
#4
R Zhao, L Xu, M L Wu, S H Huang, X J Cao
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain have impact on pregnancy and birth weight, yet whether maternal gestational weight gain has a differential effect on the rates of adverse birth weight among women with different pre-pregnancy body mass index categories are unknown. METHODS: We selected 1617 children matched with their mothers as study subjects. The subjects were divided into three categories: weight gain below the American Institute of Medicine guidelines, weight gain within the American Institute of Medicine guidelines and weight gain above the American Institute of Medicine guidelines...
July 14, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715482/impact-of-maternal-body-mass-index-and-gestational-weight-gain-on-neonatal-outcomes-among-healthy-middle-eastern-females
#5
Tatiana Papazian, Georges Abi Tayeh, Darine Sibai, Hala Hout, Imad Melki, Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz
BACKGROUND: Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712975/fto-genotype-and-weight-status-among-preadolescents-assessing-the-mediating-effects-of-obesogenic-appetitive-traits
#6
Jennifer A Emond, Alison Tovar, Zhigang Li, Reina K Lansigan, Diane Gilbert-Diamond
Polymorphisms in the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated (FTO) gene are robustly associated with overweight and obesity among children, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested if appetitive traits partially mediated the association between FTO genotype and increased BMI among a sample of US preadolescents. Data were from 178 unrelated 9-10 year olds who participated in an experimental study between 2013 and 2015. Children's DNA was isolated from buccal swabs, and the rs9939609 SNP in the FTO gene was genotyped...
July 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712831/maternal-prepregnancy-weight-and-children-s-behavioral-and-emotional-outcomes
#7
Julianna Deardorff, Louisa H Smith, Lucia Petito, Hyunju Kim, Barbara F Abrams
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child behaviors at ages 9-11 years and examine interaction by race and gender. METHODS: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Children and Young Adults surveys are U.S.-based, ongoing longitudinal studies, initiated in 1979 and 1986, respectively. Mothers (n=2,952) reported pregnancy and child (n=5,660) developmental information at multiple time points. Child total, internalizing, and externalizing problems at ages 9-11 years were assessed using the Behavior Problems Index (BPI), collected biennially until 2012...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712019/maternal-body-mass-index-before-pregnancy-as-a-risk-factor-for-adhd-and-autism-in-children
#8
Christina Hebsgaard Andersen, Per Hove Thomsen, Ellen Aagaard Nohr, Sanne Lemcke
The risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be influenced by environmental factors such as maternal obesity before pregnancy. Previous studies investigating those associations have found divergent results. We aim to investigate in a large birth cohort this association further in children with ADHD, ASD and comorbid ADHD and ASD. Our study population consisted of 81,892 mother-child pairs participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Information about pre-pregnancy weight and height was collected in week 16 of pregnancy; the analysis was divided into groups based on BMI...
July 15, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711660/a-novel-deletion-involving-gnas-exon-1-causes-php1a-and-further-refines-the-region-required-for-normal-methylation-at-exon-a-b
#9
Monica Reyes, Anara Karaca, Murat Bastepe, Nese Ersoz Gulcelik, Harald Jüppner
GNAS exons 1-13 encode the biallelically expressed alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gαs). Additional transcripts derived from this locus use alternative first exons that undergo parent-specific methylation, thus allowing transcription only from the non-modified allele. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP1A) is characterized by Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) and resistance to multiple hormones; this disorder is caused by maternal inactivating mutations involving Gαs exons. In contrast, pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is characterized mostly by resistance to PTH and often mild TSH resistance, usually without AHO features...
July 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711316/effect-of-gestational-weight-gain-and-prepregnancy-body-mass-index-in-adolescent-mothers-on-weight-and-body-mass-index-of-adolescent-offspring
#10
Susan W Groth, Margaret L Holland, Joyce A Smith, Ying Meng, Harriet Kitzman
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the association of the gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) of low-income adolescent mothers with the risk of their children being overweight and/or obese in late adolescence. METHODS: Study subjects were low-income, primiparous adolescents (n = 360) who self-identified as black and participated in the New Mothers Study in Memphis, Tennessee, and their children. Gestational weight gain was examined as a continuous variable and also categorized into overgain, recommended gain, and undergain following the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711069/preterm-birth-and-its-impact-on-renal-health
#11
Valerie A Luyckx
Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. Preterm infants have reduced nephron numbers at birth in proportion to gestational age, and are at increased risk of neonatal acute kidney injury as well as higher blood pressure, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease later in life. Rapid catch-up growth in preterm infants, especially if resulting in obesity, is a risk factor for end-stage kidney disease among children with proteinuric renal disease. Preterm birth, however, is a risk factor not only for the infant because mothers who deliver preterm have an increased risk of having subsequent preterm deliveries as well as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease later in life...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709520/strategies-to-reduce-disparities-in-maternal-morbidity-and-mortality-the-role-of-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#12
Christina Paidas Teefey, Celeste P Durnwald
Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and preexisting diabetes are known risk factors for increased maternal and neonatal morbidity. These conditions are more prevalent in certain racial and ethnic minorities. Identification and acknowledgement of racial and ethnic inequalities related to maternal metabolic disease is crucial for clinicians to provide the most comprehensive care in pregnancy. Research and clinical efforts should focus on implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions preconceptually and risk reduction efforts in disease complications during pregnancy...
July 11, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707000/inducing-maternal-inflammation-promotes-leptin-production-in-offspring-but-does-not-improve-allergic-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-rhinitis
#13
Atsuko Imai, Keiko Satoi, Eka Fujimoto, Kazuto Sato
AIMS: The intrauterine environment is considered to affect immunological development in fetus, leading to an increased risk of developing allergy. In particular, maternal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration might regulate the development of allergic disease in offspring. Several studies have shown that being obese relates to a higher prevalence of allergic diseases compared to normal weight. The present study explored the effects of inducing maternal inflammation with LPS before pregnancy on body weight, physical composition including body fat, adipokine production, and pathology of allergic rhinitis in offspring...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706730/body-mass-index-associations-between-mother-and-offspring-from-birth-to-age-18-the-fels-longitudinal-study
#14
S Swanton, A C Choh, M Lee, L L Laubach, J K Linderman, S A Czerwinski, M J Peterson
BACKGROUND: Parental obesity is a known determinant of childhood obesity. Previous research has shown a strong maternal influence on body mass index (BMI) during infancy and early childhood. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to investigate the BMI associations between mother and offspring from birth to age 18 years. METHODS: Participants were selected from the Fels Longitudinal Study. The current study sample includes 427 (215 mother/son and 212 mother/daughter) mother/child pairs...
June 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702719/dietary-iron-intake-and-availability-are-related-to-maternal-education-level-in-overweight-obese-adolescents
#15
Chaleelak Thongprasert, Carol Hutchinson, Warapone Satheannoppakao, Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul
PURPOSE: To compare intakes of dietary iron and enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption between overweight/obese (OW/OB) adolescents and their normal weight (NW) peers, and between parental education levels stratified by weight status. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study of adolescents (n 121 OW/OB and n 102 NW) aged 12-14 years, attending a secondary school in Nonthaburi province, Thailand. Socio-demographic data were obtained from participants' parents using a questionnaire...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702436/paternal-physical-exercise-improves-spatial-learning-ability-by-enhancing-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-in-male-pups-born-from-obese-maternal-rats
#16
Hye-Sang Park, Tae-Woon Kim
Maternal obesity exerts negative effects on cognitive function and behavior of the offspring. In the present study, we assessed the effects of paternal physical exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with hippocampal neuroplasticity in the rat pups born from the obese maternal rats. There were four experimental groups: paternal nonexercised male pups from normal maternal rats, paternal exercised male pups from normal maternal rats, paternal nonexercised male pups from obese maternal rats, and paternal exercised male pups from obese maternal rats...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702320/parental-obesity-leads-to-metabolic-changes-in-the-f2-generation-in-drosophila
#17
Rebecca A S Palu, Sophia A Praggastis, Carl S Thummel
OBJECTIVE: A significant portion of the heritable risk for complex metabolic disorders cannot be attributed to classic Mendelian genetic factors. At least some of this missing heritability is thought to be due to the epigenetic influence of parental and grandparental metabolic state on offspring health. Previous work suggests that this transgenerational phenomenon is evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila. These studies, however, have all depended on dietary paradigms to alter parental metabolic state, which can have inconsistent heritable effects on the metabolism of offspring...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702255/diabetes-and-its-drivers-the-largest-epidemic-in-human-history
#18
EDITORIAL
Paul Z Zimmet
The "Diabesity" epidemic (obesity and type 2 diabetes) is likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history. Diabetes has been seriously underrated as a global public health issue and the world can no longer ignore "the rise and rise" of type 2 diabetes. Currently, most of the national and global diabetes estimates come from the IDF Atlas. These estimates have significant limitations from a public health perspective. It is apparent that the IDF have consistently underestimated the global burden. More reliable estimates of the future burden of diabetes are urgently needed...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701460/clinician-self-efficacy-in-initiating-discussions-about-gestational-weight-gain
#19
Helena Piccinini-Vallis
OBJECTIVE: To compare prenatal care providers' perceived self-efficacy in starting discussions about gestational weight gain with pregnant women under a variety of conditions of gradated difficulty, when weight gain has been in excess of current guidelines. DESIGN: A 42-item online questionnaire related to the known barriers to and facilitators of having discussions about gestational weight gain. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Prenatal care providers were contacted through the Family Medicine Maternity Care list server of the College of Family Physicians of Canada...
July 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701155/maternal-obesity-and-its-effect-on-labour-duration-in-nulliparous-women-a-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#20
Karen Louise Ellekjaer, Thomas Bergholt, Ellen Løkkegaard
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing among primipara women. We aimed to describe the association between body mass index (BMI) during early-pregnancy and duration of labour in nulliparous women. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of 1885 nulliparous women with a single cephalic presentation from 37 0/7 to 42 6/7 weeks of completed gestation and spontaneous or induced labour at Nordsjællands Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2011 and 2012...
July 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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