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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922364/association-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-serum-level-of-cystatin-c-in-type-2-diabetes
#1
Tomomi Murai, Noriko Takebe, Kan Nagasawa, Yusuke Todate, Riyuki Nakagawa, Rieko Nakano, Mari Hangai, Yutaka Hasegawa, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Kunihiro Yoshioka, Yasushi Ishigaki
OBJECTIVE: Accumulation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is considered to be a cardiovascular risk factor independent from visceral adiposity, obesity, hypertension and diabetes. We explored the parameters related to EAT accumulation, aiming to clarify the novel pathophysiological roles of EAT in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: We examined the laboratory values, including cystatinC, and surrogate markers used for evaluating atherosclerosis. EAT was measured as the sum of the adipose tissue area, obtained by plain computed tomography scans in 208 subjects with T2DM but no history of coronary artery disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921638/graft-infiltrating-pd-l1-hi-cross-dressed-dendritic-cells-regulate-anti-donor-t-cell-responses-in-mouse-liver-transplant-tolerance
#2
Yoshihiro Ono, Angelica Perez-Gutierrez, Toshimasa Nakao, Helong Dai, Geoffrey Camirand, Osamu Yoshida, Shinichiro Yokota, Donna Beer Stolz, Mark A Ross, Adrian E Morelli, David A Geller, Angus W Thomson
While a key role of cross-dressing has been established in immunity to viral infection and more recently in the instigation of transplant rejection, its role in tolerance is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of intra-graft dendritic cells (DC) and cross-dressing in mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched liver transplant tolerance that occurs without therapeutic immunosuppression. While donor interstitial DC diminished rapidly following transplantation, they were replaced in the liver by host DC that peaked on postoperative day (POD) 7 and persisted indefinitely...
September 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921500/growth-hormone-therapy-for-people-with-thalassaemia
#3
REVIEW
Chin Fang Ngim, Nai Ming Lai, Janet Yh Hong, Shir Ley Tan, Amutha Ramadas, Premala Muthukumarasamy, Meow-Keong Thong
BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia is a recessively-inherited blood disorder that leads to anaemia of varying severity. In those affected by the more severe forms, regular blood transfusions are required which may lead to iron overload. Accumulated iron from blood transfusions may be deposited in vital organs including the heart, liver and endocrine organs such as the pituitary glands which can affect growth hormone production. Growth hormone deficiency is one of the factors that can lead to short stature, a common complication in people with thalassaemia...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911986/virtual-cell-based-assay-simulation-of-intra-mitochondrial-concentration-in-hepatocytes-and-cardiomyocytes
#4
Andrew P Worth, Jochem Louisse, Peter Macko, Jose Vicente Sala Benito, Alicia Paini
In order to replace the use of animals in toxicity testing, there is a need to predict human in vivo toxic doses from concentrations that cause adverse effects in in vitro test systems. The virtual cell based assay (VCBA) has been developed to simulate intracellular concentrations as a function of time, and can be used to interpret in vitro concentration-response curves. In this study we refine and extend the VCBA model by including additional target-organ cell models and by simulating the fate and effects of chemicals at the organelle level...
September 11, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904117/estimating-lives-saved-by-achieving-dietary-micronutrient-adequacy-with-a-focus-on-vitamin-a-intervention-programs-in-cameroon
#5
REVIEW
Reina Engle-Stone, Amanda Perkins, Adrienne Clermont, Neff Walker, Marjorie J Haskell, Stephen A Vosti, Kenneth H Brown
Background: We previously compared the potential effects of different intervention strategies for achieving dietary vitamin A (VA) adequacy. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) permits estimates of lives saved through VA interventions but currently only considers periodic VA supplements (VASs).Objective: We aimed to adapt the LiST method for estimating the mortality impact of VASs to estimate the impact of other VA interventions (e.g., food fortification) on child mortality and to estimate the number of lives saved by VA interventions in 3 macroregions in Cameroon...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900442/impact-of-preoperative-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-cholangiography-on-postoperative-resection-margin-status-in-patients-operated-due-to-hilar-cholangiocarcinoma
#6
A Andert, P Bruners, C Heidenhain, F Ulmer, C D Klink, P H Alizai, C Kuhl, U P Neumann, M Binnebösel
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyse the value of 3-dimensional computed tomography cholangiography (3D-ERC) compared to conventional retrograde cholangiography in the preoperative diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) with special regard to the resection margin status (R0/R1). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All hepatic resections performed between January 2011 and November 2013 in patients with HC at the Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery of the RWTH Aachen University Hospital were analysed...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889276/thallium-toxicity-general-issues-neurological-symptoms-and-neurotoxic-mechanisms
#7
Laura Osorio-Rico, Abel Santamaria, Sonia Galván-Arzate
Thallium (Tl(+)) is a ubiquitous natural trace metal considered as the most toxic among heavy metals. The ionic ratio of Tl(+) is similar to that of potassium (K(+)), therefore accounting for the replacement of the latter during enzymatic reactions. The principal organelle damaged after Tl(+) exposure is mitochondria. Studies on the mechanisms of Tl(+) include intrinsic pathways altered and changes in antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, cytochrome c, and caspases. Oxidative damage pathways increase after Tl(+) exposure to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in physical properties of the cell membrane caused by lipid peroxidation, and concomitant activation of antioxidant mechanisms...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884960/genotypic-phenotypic-features-and-enzyme-replacement-therapy-outcome-in-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-vi-from-turkey
#8
Mustafa Kılıç, Ali Dursun, Turgay Coşkun, Ayşegül Tokatlı, Rıza K Özgül, Didem Yücel-Yılmaz, Mehmet Karaca, Deniz Doğru, Dursun Alehan, Sibel Kadayıfçılar, Aydan Genç, Handan Turan-Dizdar, Burhanettin Gönüldaş, Sema Savcı, Melda Sağlam, Cemalettin Aksoy, Umut Arslan, Hatice-Serap Sivri
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) characterized by a chronic, progressive course with multiorgan involvement. In our study, clinical, biochemical, molecular findings, and response to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for at least 6 months were evaluated in 20 patients with MPS VI. Treatment effects on clinical findings such as liver and spleen sizes, cardiac and respiratory parameters, visual and auditory changes, joints' range of motions, endurance tests and changes in urinary glycosaminoglycan excretions, before and after ERT were analyzed...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884132/renal-function-improvement-by-telbivudine-in-liver-transplant-recipients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Wei-Chen Lee, Tsung-Han Wu, Yu-Chao Wang, Chih-Hsien Cheng, Chen-Fang Lee, Ting-Jung Wu, Hong-Shiue Chou, Kun-Ming Chan, Ching-Song Lee
Chronic renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplantation. Telbivudine, anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleoside, can improve renal function. It is interesting if using telbivudine for prophylaxis of HBV recurrence has additional value on renal function improvement. 120 liver transplant recipients with lamivudine prophylaxis for HBV recurrence were 1 : 1 randomized into lamivudine-continuous (n = 60) and telbivudine-replacement (n = 60) groups. Fifty-eight patients in lamivudine-continuous group and 54 in telbivudine-replacement group completed the study...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881270/molecular-and-clinical-characterization-of-a-series-of-patients-with-childhood-onset-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-retrospective-investigations-follow-up-and-detection-of-two-novel-lipa-pathogenic-variants
#10
Livia Pisciotta, Giulia Tozzi, Lorena Travaglini, Roberta Taurisano, Tiziano Lucchi, Giuseppe Indolfi, Francesco Papadia, Maja Di Rocco, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Patricia Crock, Komal Vora, Scott Nightingale, Helen Michelakakis, Anastasia Garoufi, Lilia Lykopoulou, Stefano Bertolini, Sebastiano Calandra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Childhood/Adult-onset Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (LAL-D) is a recessive disorder due to loss of function variants of LAL, the enzyme which hydrolyses cholesteryl esters, derived from internalized apoB containing lipoproteins. The disease is characterized by multi-organ involvement including the liver, spleen, intestine and cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was the clinical and molecular characterization of 14 (13 unrelated) previously unreported patients with childhood-onset LAL-D...
August 26, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881157/identifying-cost-effective-screening-algorithms-for-active-hepatitis-c-virus-infections-in-a-high-prevalence-setting
#11
Paul Jülicher, Claudio Galli
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different screening patterns for active chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections utilizing the hepatitis C core antigen test compared to standard care in the context of a general screening program in a high-prevalence country. METHODS: This study developed a decision analytic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of four screening algorithms for the detection of active HCV infections among asymptomatic individuals with an unknown HCV status in a context of high (>5%) HCV prevalence...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866862/acetylshikonin-is-a-novel-non-selective-cytochrome-p450-inhibitor
#12
Jong Cheol Shon, Nguyen Minh Phuc, Won Cheol Kim, Jae Kyung Heo, Zhexue Wu, Hyunyoung Lee, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
Acetylshikonin is biologically active compound with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity, which is isolated from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizoma. We have recently discovered a inhibitory effect of acetylshikonin against CYP2J2 activity. Based on this result, we expanded our study to evaluate the inhibitory effects of acetylshikonin against nine different cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms in human liver microsomes (HLMs) using substrate cocktails incubation assay. Acetylshikonin showed strong inhibitory effect against all P450s tested with IC50 values of 1...
September 3, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865508/carcinoid-syndrome-and-carcinoid-heart-disease-as-manifestations-of-non-metastatic-ovarian-neuroendocrine-tumour
#13
Joana Simões-Pereira, Lai Mun Wang, Attila Kardos, Ashley Grossman
The carcinoid syndrome is rare but it is associated with carcinoid heart disease in more than a half of the cases. Carcinoid heart disease is typically characterised by morphological and functional modifications of right-sided valves. Its aetiology is probable multifactorial but serotonin appears to play a key role in the development of this valvular disease. Unlike gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours, ovarian neuroendocrine tumours can present with carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid heart disease in the absence of liver metastases; such ovarian neuroendocrine tumours are a unique clinical entity...
May 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865097/suspected-phenobarbital-induced-pseudolymphoma-in-a-dog
#14
R Lampe, J Manens, N Sharp
Pseudolymphoma is a drug reaction to anti-epileptics that is well recognized in humans; it has been reported in one cat but not dogs. In this report, lymphoma-like clinical signs are suspected to be secondary to phenobarbital administration in a dog. A 2.5-year-old male, neutered Shepherd mix presented for a 3-day history of progressive ataxia, dazed mentation, pyrexia, and lethargy. While hospitalized, the dog developed generalized lymphadenopathy and sustained pyrexia. The dog was receiving levetiracetam and phenobarbital for epilepsy, and serum concentrations of both were within standard therapeutic ranges...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859230/continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-is-associated-with-reduced-serum-ammonia-levels-and-mortality-in-acute-liver-failure
#15
Filipe S Cardoso, Michelle Gottfried, Shannan Tujios, Jody C Olson, Constantine J Karvellas
BACKGROUND: Hyperammonemia has been associated with intracranial hypertension and mortality in patients with acute liver failure (ALF). We evaluated the effect of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on serum ammonia level and outcomes in ALF. METHODS: Multicenter cohort study of consecutive ALF patients from the United States ALF Study Group registry between 01/1998-12/2016. Firstly, we studied the association of ammonia with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and 21-day transplant-free survival (TFS) (n=1186)...
August 31, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857064/implementation-of-g6pd-testing-and-primaquine-for-p-vivax-radical-cure-operational-perspectives-from-thailand-and-cambodia
#16
Suravadee Kitchakarn, Dysoley Lek, Sea Thol, Chantheasy Hok, Aungkana Saejeng, Rekol Huy, Nipon Chinanonwait, Krongthong Thimasarn, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai
Following progressive success in reducing the burden of malaria over the past two decades, countries of the Asia Pacific are now aiming for elimination of malaria by 2030. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the two main malaria species that are endemic in the region. P. vivax is generally perceived to be less severe but will be harder to eliminate, owing partly to its dormant liver stage (known as a hypnozoite) that can cause multiple relapses following an initial clinical episode caused by a mosquito-borne infection...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856732/predictive-model-and-risk-factors-associated-with-a-revised-definition-of-early-allograft-dysfunction-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#17
R Nicolau-Raducu, A J Cohen, A Bokhari, H Bohorquez, D Bruce, I Carmody, E Bugeaud, J Seal, D Sonnier, B Nossaman, G Loss
INTRODUCTION: Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) is a well-defined clinical syndrome that reflects overall graft function within the first week after transplant. The aim of this study was to further refine the definition for EAD. METHOD: In this study, 1124 patients were included for analysis. Logistic regression was performed to identify markers of liver injury associated with 6-month patient and graft failure. RESULTS: Recursive partitioning identified cut-points for ALT/AST >3000/6000IU/dL observed within 1(st) week, with bilirubin ≥10mg/dL and INR ≥1...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842156/beyond-ether-and-chloroform-a-major-breakthrough-with-halothane
#18
Lisa Huang, Christine N Sang, Manisha S Desai
BACKGROUND: The use of equipment powered by electricity in the operating room increased the risk of fires in the presence of flammable agents such as ether and cyclopropane. Chloroform was associated with cardiac arrhythmias and liver damage. The introduction of halothane in the late 1950s was heralded as a solution to many problems facing the specialty of anesthesia. We explore whether the manufacturer promptly reported halothane's adverse effects to regulatory agencies and practitioners...
July 2017: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836738/concise-review-bioprinting-of-stem-cells-for-transplantable-tissue-fabrication
#19
REVIEW
Ashley N Leberfinger, Dino J Ravnic, Aman Dhawan, Ibrahim T Ozbolat
Bioprinting is a quickly progressing technology, which holds the potential to generate replacement tissues and organs. Stem cells offer several advantages over differentiated cells for use as starting materials, including the potential for autologous tissue and differentiation into multiple cell lines. The three most commonly used stem cells are embryonic, induced pluripotent, and adult stem cells. Cells are combined with various natural and synthetic materials to form bioinks, which are used to fabricate scaffold-based or scaffold-free constructs...
August 24, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836191/human-fibrotic-diseases-current-challenges-in-fibrosis-research
#20
Joel Rosenbloom, Edward Macarak, Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez, Sergio A Jimenez
Human fibrotic diseases constitute a major health problem worldwide owing to the large number of affected individuals, the incomplete knowledge of the fibrotic process pathogenesis, the marked heterogeneity in their etiology and clinical manifestations, the absence of appropriate and fully validated biomarkers, and, most importantly, the current void of effective disease-modifying therapeutic agents. The fibrotic disorders encompass a wide spectrum of clinical entities including systemic fibrotic diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc), sclerodermatous graft vs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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