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Eliandra N da Silva, José de Anchieta C Horta-Júnior, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Mirela B Dias
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? ATP is known to modulate the chemosensitivity of some brain areas. However, whether the ATP contributes specifically to the mechanism of chemoreception in the LH/PFA remains to be determined. What is the main finding and its importance? ATP, acting on the LH/PFA, enhances the hypercapnic ventilatory response in rats during wakefulness, in the dark period. Our results highlight the importance of ATP as a modulator of central chemoreception and provide new insight regarding the mechanisms involved in LH/PFA chemosensitivity and the sleep-wake differences in the CO2 /H+ -dependent drive to breathe...
September 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Che-Yi Lin, Chun-Nan Chen, Kun-Tai Kang, Tzu-Yu Hsiao, Pei-Lin Lee, Wei-Chung Hsu
Importance: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is an important cause of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. However, residual OSA and abnormal polysomnographic findings have been reported in up to 75% of cases after adenotonsillectomy. Other anatomical and functional factors that influence upper airway structures, including the lateral pharyngeal wall, have rarely been studied in children with OSA. Objective: To determine whether the upper airway structures can be evaluated using head and neck ultrasonography and if there is an association between the ultrasonographic measurements for these structures and severity of OSA seen on polysomnography in children...
September 13, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Angela Vincent, Philippa Pettingill, Rosie Pettingill, Bethan Lang, Ron Birch, Patrick Waters, Sarosh R Irani, Camilla Buckley, Osamu Watanabe, Kimiyoshi Arimura, Matthew C Kiernan
Importance: Although acquired autoimmune neuromyotonia (NMT) is associated with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies, to date there has been no systematic study of autoantibodies to the specific antigens leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2), and contactin 2 together with the full clinical syndrome, particularly pain and autonomic and central nervous system involvement. Objectives: To study the full spectrum of clinical features and serum autoantibodies in patients with NMT, including the effects of pain on quality of life...
September 17, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Namdi Brandon, Kathie L Dionisio, Kristin Isaacs, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, Dustin Kapraun, R Woodrow Setzer, Paul S Price
Exposure to a chemical is a critical consideration in the assessment of risk, as it adds real-world context to toxicological information. Descriptions of where and how individuals spend their time are important for characterizing exposures to chemicals in consumer products and in indoor environments. Herein we create an agent-based model (ABM) that simulates longitudinal patterns in human behavior. By basing the ABM upon an artificial intelligence (AI) system, we create agents that mimic human decisions on performing behaviors relevant for determining exposures to chemicals and other stressors...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Priska Stahel, Shawn K Sud, So Jeong Lee, Timothy Jackson, David R Urbach, Allan Okrainec, Johane P Allard, Anne S Bassett, Andrew D Paterson, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Satya Dash
CONTEXT: Adult extreme obesity (EO) is a growing health concern. The prevalence of known obesity associated co-morbidities namely cardio-metabolic and neuro-psychiatric disease in EO is not fully established. The contribution of pathogenic genetic variants, previously implicated in early childhood onset obesity, to adult EO is also not established. OBJECTIVE: We undertook phenotypic and genetic analysis of adult patients with extreme obesity (EO, BMI > 50)...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Matthew M Engelhard, Ann Marie Navar, Scott H Kollins
Sleep disturbances, including insufficient sleep duration and circadian misalignment, confer risk for cardiometabolic disease. Less is known about the association between the regularity of sleep/wake schedules and cardiometabolic risk. This study evaluated the external validity of a new metric, the Sleep Regularity Index (SRI), among older adults (n = 1978; mean age 68.7 ± 9.2), as well as relationships between the SRI and cardiometabolic risk using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cezar M Tigaret, Sophie E L Chamberlain, Joseph H L P Sadowski, Michael C Ashby, Jack R Mellor
Hebbian synaptic plasticity at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses is tightly regulated by postsynaptic SK channels that restrict NMDA receptor activity. SK channels are themselves modulated by G-protein-coupled signalling pathways, but it is not clear under what conditions these are activated to enable synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) and type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) signalling pathways, which are known to inhibit SK channels and thereby disinhibit NMDA receptors, converge to facilitate spine calcium transients during the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses onto CA1 pyramidal neurons of male rats...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chris Gonzalez, Rachel Mak-McCully, Burke Rosen, Sydney S Cash, Patrick Chauvel, Hélène Bastuji, Marc Rey, Eric Halgren
Since their discovery, slow oscillations have been observed to group spindles during non-REM sleep. Previous studies assert that the slow oscillation downstate (DS) is preceded by slow spindles (10-12Hz), and followed by fast spindles (12-16Hz). Here, using both direct transcortical recordings in patients with intractable epilepsy (n=10, 8 female), as well as scalp EEG recordings from a healthy cohort (n=3, 1 female), we find in multiple cortical areas that both slow and fast spindles follow the DS. Although discrete oscillations do precede DSs, they are theta bursts (TB) centered at 5-8Hz...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sergio Susmallian, Royi Barnea, Yossi Weiss, Asnat Raziel
BACKGROUND: People are living longer than they were expected to 2 decades ago. Increased life expectancy and reduced mortality encompasses a simultaneous increase in the number of older adults with obesity that entails an increase of co-morbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and many other diseases. The aim of our study was to compare the outcomes of bariatric surgery in patients age ≥65 in comparison with younger patients. METHODS: This retrospective study compares bariatric surgeries performed in a private institution between the years 2013 and 2015...
August 11, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Andrée-Ann Baril, Julie Carrier, Alexandre Lafrenière, Simon Warby, Judes Poirier, Ricardo S Osorio, Najib Ayas, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Dominique Petit, Nadia Gosselin
Epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence is increasingly supporting the notion that obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for dementia. Hence, the identification of patients at risk of cognitive decline due to obstructive sleep apnea may significantly improve preventive strategies and treatment decision-making. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers obtained through genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches are improving the ability to predict incident dementia. Therefore, fluid biomarkers have the potential to predict vulnerability to neurodegeneration in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, as well as deepen our understanding of pathophysiological processes linking obstructive sleep apnea and dementia...
August 13, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Mercedes Atienza, Jacob Ziontz, Jose L Cantero
Aging is characterized by a progressive increase in proinflammatory status. This state, known as inflammaging, has been associated with cognitive decline in normal and pathological aging. However, this relationship has been inconsistently reported, likely because it is conditioned by other factors also affected by the aging process. Sleep and adiposity are two factors in particular that show significant alterations with aging and have been related to both cognitive decline and inflammaging. Given the consequences this state also has for brain integrity and cognition, we discuss here evidence supporting the potential mediating role of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in the complex relationship between impaired sleep, dysfunctional adiposity, and cognitive decline through the common pathway of neuroinflammation...
August 16, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Caroline Dutil, Jeremy J Walsh, Ryan B Featherstone, Katie E Gunnell, Mark S Tremblay, Reut Gruber, Shelly K Weiss, Kimberly A Cote, Margaret Sampson, Jean-Philippe Chaput
This systematic review examined the associations between sleep and brain functions and structures in children and adolescents aged 1-17 ys. Included studies (n = 24) were peer-reviewed and met the a priori determined population (apparently healthy children and adolescents aged 1 y to 17 ys), intervention/exposure/comparator (various sleep characteristics including duration, architecture, quality, timing), and outcome criteria (brain functions and/or brain structures, excluding cognitive function outcomes)...
August 15, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Alexandra K Adams, Emily J Tomayko, Kate A Cronin, Ronald J Prince, Kyungmann Kim, Lakeesha Carmichael, Tassy Parker
OBJECTIVE: To describe sociodemographic factors and health behaviors among American Indian (AI) families with young children and determine predictors of adult and child weight status among these factors. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional baseline data. SETTING: One urban area and 4 rural AI reservations nationwide. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 450 AI families with children aged 2-5years participating in the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 intervention...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Katie M Lawson, Soomi Lee
OBJECTIVES: Cross-sectional research has found that shorter and poorer sleep are associated with lower work performance and greater work-to-family conflict (WTFC). However, we know little about daily mechanisms linking sleep, work performance, and WTFC. This study tested whether previous nights' sleep was linked to next day WTFC, mediated by work performance. DESIGN: Daily interview methodology. SETTING: US extended-care workplaces. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred seventy-one female employees with children aged 9 to 17 years...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Erin E Flynn-Evans, Lucia Arsintescu, Kevin Gregory, Jeffrey Mulligan, Jessica Nowinski, Michael Feary
INTRODUCTION: It is established that shiftwork causes sleep loss and circadian misalignment. Individuals who work non-traditional day shifts that encroach into typical sleep times, such as those in the service and transportation sectors, may also experience sleep and circadian disruption. We aimed to determine how neurobehavioral performance and sleep would be affected by work start time among individuals working a non-traditional daytime shift pattern. METHODS: We collected sleep diaries, wrist-worn actigraphy (CamNtech, Cambridge UK), and the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) from 44 pilots (4F) who worked a shift rotation consisting of a five-day baseline block starting in the mid-morning (baseline), five early shifts (early), five high workload midday shifts (midday), and five days of late shifts (late), each separated by 3-4 days off...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Monica E Hartmann, J Roxanne Prichard
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine to what degree sleep disturbances predict academic success, relative to other known risk factors for decreased academic performance. METHODS: We performed regression analyses on data from the Spring 2009 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II dataset (n=55,322 students) to isolate the relative contribution of the frequency of sleep problems in the previous week to GPA and the likelihood of withdrawing from a course...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Anna Alkozei, Monika Haack, Jeff Skalamera, Ryan Smith, Brieann C Satterfield, Adam C Raikes, William Ds Killgore
OBJECTIVES: Previous work suggests that sleep restriction (SR) reduces cognitive control and may increase negative implicit biases. Here we investigated whether SR might influence decision making on a social-evaluative task where individuals had to make judgments of threat based on facial photographs. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of changes in negative implicit biases as a result of sleep restriction on this decision-making task. DESIGN: Fourteen healthy adults underwent two 3-week counterbalanced in-laboratory stays (chronic SR and control sleep [CS] conditions)...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Quanhe Yang, Julia L Durmer, Anne G Wheaton, Sandra L Jackson, Zefeng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Insufficient sleep negatively impacts the cardiovascular system. No study has examined the association between sleep duration and heart age (person's predicted vascular age based on cardiovascular disease [CVD] risk profile). This study examines association between sleep duration and excess heart age (EHA; difference between heart age and chronological age) among US adults. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for respondents aged 30-74 years without CVD or stroke (n = 12,775)...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Jill L Kaar, Sarah J Schmiege, Maya Vadiveloo, Stacey L Simon, Alison Tovar
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between health behavior patterns and childhood obesity, and the mediating effect of sleep duration. DESIGN: Population-based survey. PARTICIPANTS: Secondary analysis of data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study (age 6 years, n = 1073). MEASUREMENTS: Mothers self-reported their child's health behaviors including physical activity (PA), screen time, sleep duration, and diet. Latent class analysis determined the child's patterns based on health behaviors...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Hayden D Mountcastle, Su Hyun Park, Yazan A Al-Ajlouni, William C Goedel, Stephanie Cook, Sonia Lupien, Ezemenari M Obasi, Lauren Hale, Girardin Jean-Louis, Susan Redline, Dustin T Duncan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the association between perceived stress and sleep health among a sample of sexual minority men (SMM). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Paris, France. PARTICIPANTS: Gay, bisexual and other SMM users ≥18 years on a geosocial networking application in Paris, France (N = 580). MEASUREMENTS: Participants were directed to a web-based survey measuring stress, sleep health, and socio-demographics...
October 2018: Sleep Health
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