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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899304/caffeine-for-apnea-of-prematurity-effects-on-the-developing-brain
#1
REVIEW
Anzari Atik, Richard Harding, Robert De Matteo, Delphi Kondos-Devcic, Jeanie Cheong, Lex W Doyle, Mary Tolcos
Caffeine is a methylxanthine that is widely used to treat apnea of prematurity (AOP). In preterm infants, caffeine reduces the duration of respiratory support, improves survival rates and lowers the incidence of cerebral palsy and cognitive delay. There is, however, little evidence relating to the immediate and long-term effects of caffeine on brain development, especially at the cellular and molecular levels. Experimental data are conflicting, with studies showing that caffeine can have either adverse or benefical effects in the developing brain...
November 26, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889866/management-and-outcomes-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-children-with-robin-sequence-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Manouk J S van Lieshout, Koen F M Joosten, Maarten J Koudstaal, Marc P van der Schroeff, Karolijn Dulfer, Irene M J Mathijssen, Eppo B Wolvius
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess the prevalence, course, and management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with Robin sequence (RS) aged 1-18 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 children aged 1 to18 years with RS. Patient data were collected on baseline characteristics and management. OSA was evaluated by polysomnography. RESULTS: Sixty-three children with RS were included (median age 8...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863530/performances-of-low-level-hospital-health-caregivers-after-a-neonatal-resuscitation-course
#3
Giuseppe De Bernardo, Desirée Sordino, Francesco Cavallin, Veronica Mardegan, Nicoletta Doglioni, Maria Luisa Tataranno, Daniele Trevisanuto
BACKGROUND: High fidelity simulation has been executed to allow the evaluation of technical and non-technical skills of health caregivers. Our objective was to assess technical and non-technical performances of low level hospitals health caregivers who attended a Neonatal Resuscitation course using high fidelity simulation in a standard-setting scenario. METHODS: Twenty-three volunteers were asked to manage a simple scenario (infant with secondary apnea) after the course...
November 18, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862264/every-3-versus-every-6-hour-oral-feeding-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Megan M Gray, Barbara Medoff-Cooper, Elizabeth M Enlow, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Sara B DeMauro
AIM: This trial compares two oral feeding schedules, every 3 hour and every 6 hour oral feeding attempts, to determine which schedule allows for more rapid attainment of full oral feeding in preterm infants. METHODS: Infants born at ≤ 33 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to receive oral feeding every 3 hours or every 6 hours if feeding cues were present. The primary outcome was time to full oral feeding, secondary outcomes include respiratory and apnea rates, growth and length of stay...
November 14, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861919/consequences-of-maternal-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-respiratory-function-in-rat-pups
#5
Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Océane Mercier, Olivier Pothier-Piccinin, Tommy Seaborn, Vincent Joseph, Isabelle Marc, Richard Kinkead
Most preterm infants present respiratory instabilities and apneas owing to incomplete development of the neural circuits that control breathing. Because omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) benefit brain development, we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA supplementation (via maternal diet) improves respiratory function in rat pups. Pups received n-3 PUFA supplementation from an enriched diet (13 g kg(-1) of n-3 PUFA) administered to the mother from birth until experiments were performed (postnatal days 10-11)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860324/tracheobronchial-foreign-body-removal-in-infants-who-had-very-small-airways-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#6
Seung Hoon Woo, Jung Je Park, Minsu Kwon, Jun Sun Ryu, Jin Pyeong Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a life-threatening emergency. Using a rigid bronchoscope with optical forceps is the most effective method for foreign body removal. However, occasionally for some infants these instruments could not be used, as they may be too large for their small airways. Here, they present the apnea technique with only an optical forceps for foreign body removal in infants with very small airways. METHODS: Foreign bodies were removed using only an optical forceps for infants who had very small diameter airways...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849235/randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-nasal-intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation-and-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-premature-infants-after-tracheal-extubation
#7
Daniela Franco Rizzo Komatsu, Edna Maria de Albuquerque Diniz, Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro, Maria Esther Jurvest Rivero Ceccon, Flávio Adolfo Costa Vaz
Objective: To analyze the frequency of extubation failure in premature infants using conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) after extubation in groups subjected to nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV) and continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Method: Seventy-two premature infants with respiratory failure were studied, with a gestational age (GA) ≤ 36 weeks and birth weight (BW) > 750 g, who required tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819175/early-versus-late-inguinal-hernia-repair-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#8
Rajesh Pandey, Joleen Dako, Sarah Venus, Deepak Kumar, Maroun Mhanna
OBJECTIVE: Compare outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) Infants following early (before discharge) versus late (after discharge) inguinal hernia (IH) repair. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective study of ELBW infants with IH, data was abstracted for clinical characteristics, IH and related outcomes. RESULT: Of the 39/252 (15.4%) ELBW infants who developed IH, those with early (59%) versus late (41%) repair were comparable in birth weight (753±158 vs...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810158/clinical-outcomes-associated-with-a-failed-infant-car-seat-challenge
#9
Malika D Shah, Keith A Dookeran, Janine Y Khan
OBJECTIVE: To assess comorbid conditions and clinical outcomes among late preterm and low birth weight term infants (<2.5 kg) who failed the Infant Car Seat Challenge (ICSC) on the Mother-Baby Unit. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective chart review of consecutive infants who failed ICSC on the Mother-Baby Unit and were subsequently admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Prentice Women's Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. Regression models were used to estimate risk differences (RDs) with 95% CIs for factors related to length of stay...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790480/bilateral-vocal-cord-palsy-with-arnold-chiari-malformation-a-rare-case-series
#10
Nikhil Arora, Ruchika Juneja, Ravi Meher, Eishaan K Bhargava
Stridor in paediatric age group is not an uncommon presentation to the ENT emergency. The range of differential diagnosis is vast. The presentation may vary from noisy breathing to severe respiratory distress and apnea. Early and meticulous diagnosis is crucial for the management as the condition may be life threatening. We report a rare case series of 3 infants with Arnold Chiari Malformation who presented to the hospital with stridor and were diagnosed with bilateral vocal cord palsy. These 3 infants had similar underlying neurological condition with hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778207/estimation-of-breathing-rate-in-thermal-imaging-videos-a-pilot-study-on-healthy-human-subjects
#11
Carina Barbosa Pereira, Xinchi Yu, Michael Czaplik, Vladimir Blazek, Boudewijn Venema, Steffen Leonhardt
Diverse studies have demonstrated the importance of monitoring breathing rate (BR). Commonly, changes in BR are one of the earliest and major markers of serious complications/illness. However, it is frequently neglected due to limitations of clinically established measurement techniques, which require attachment of sensors. The employment of adhesive pads or thoracic belts in preterm infants as well as in traumatized or burned patients is an additional paramount issue. The present paper proposes a new robust approach, based on data fusion, to remotely monitor BR using infrared thermography (IRT)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760427/doxapram-treatment-for-apnea-of-prematurity-a-systematic-review
#12
Roseanne J S Vliegenthart, Christine H Ten Hove, Wes Onland, Anton H L C van Kaam
BACKGROUND: Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common complication of preterm birth, for which caffeine is the first treatment of choice. In case of persistent AOP, doxapram has been advocated as an additional therapy. OBJECTIVE: To identify and appraise all existing evidence regarding efficacy and safety of doxapram use for AOP in infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age. METHODS: All studies reporting on doxapram use for AOP were identified by searching electronic databases, references from relevant studies, and abstracts from the Societies for Pediatric Research...
October 20, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749633/etiology-and-outcome-of-severe-apparent-life-threatening-events-in-infants
#13
Tanja Radovanovic, Slobodan Spasojevic, Vesna Stojanovic, Aleksandra Doronjski
INTRODUCTION: An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as "an episode that is frightening to the observer and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change of muscle tone, choking, or gagging." OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine etiology and outcome of severe ALTE (requiring resuscitation measures) and to review diagnostic approaches in infants hospitalized after such an episode of ALTE. METHODS: Retrospective analysis included patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina, after an episode of severe ALTE over a 4-year period...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733384/interactive-effects-of-maternal-cigarette-smoke-heat-stress-hypoxia-and-lipopolysaccharide-on-neonatal-cardiorespiratory-and-cytokine-responses
#14
Fiona B McDonald, Kumaran Chandrasekharan, Richard J A Wilson, Shabih U Hasan
Maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure exhibits a strong epidemiological association with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, but other environmental stressors, including infection, hyperthermia, and hypoxia, have also been postulated as important risk factors. This study examines whether maternal CS exposure causes maladaptations within homeostatic control networks by influencing the response to lipopolysaccharide, heat stress, and/or hypoxia in neonatal rats. Pregnant dams were exposed to CS or parallel sham treatments daily for the length of gestation...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725928/association-between-apnea-of-prematurity-and-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-late-preterm-infants-an-observational-study
#15
François Olivier, Sophie Nadeau, Georges Caouette, Bruno Piedboeuf
BACKGROUND: Late preterm infants (34-36 weeks' gestation) remain a population at risk for apnea of prematurity (AOP). As infants affected by respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) have immature lungs, they might also have immature control of breathing. Our hypothesis is that an association exists between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the association between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. The secondary objective was to evaluate if an association exists between apparent RDS severity and AOP...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721838/apparent-life-threatening-event-in-infancy
#16
Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim
An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as the combination of clinical presentations such as apnea, marked change in skin and muscle tone, gagging, or choking. It is a frightening event, and it predominantly occurs during infancy at a mean age of 1-3 months. The causes of ALTE are categorized into problems that are: gastrointestinal (50%), neurological (30%), respiratory (20%), cardiovascular (5%), metabolic and endocrine (2%-5%), or others such as child abuse. Up to 50% of ALTEs are idiopathic, where the cause cannot be diagnosed...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718360/does-mandibular-distraction-vector-influence-airway-volumes-and-outcome
#17
Elizabeth G Zellner, Julie M Mhlaba, Russell R Reid, Derek Steinbacher
PURPOSE: The goal of mandibular distraction in the Pierre-Robin sequence is to maximally expand the oropharyngeal airway. It has been hypothesized that a steep oblique distraction vector might allow greater airway enlargement compared with horizontal distraction. This study compared vector orientation in relation to airway volume and overall clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Micrognathic infants who underwent mandibular distraction with sufficient computed tomographic data were retrospectively reviewed...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690634/caregiving-related-sleep-problems-and-their-relationship-to-mental-health-and-daytime-function-in-female-veterans
#18
Yeonsu Song, Donna L Washington, Elizabeth M Yano, Susan M McCurry, Constance H Fung, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Juan Carlos Rodriguez, Stella Jouldjian, Michael N Mitchell, Cathy A Alessi, Jennifer L Martin
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To identify caregiving-related sleep problems and their relationship to mental health and daytime function in female Veterans. PARTICIPANTS: Female Veterans (N = 1,477) from cross-sectional, nationwide, postal survey data. METHODS: The survey respondent characteristics included demographics, comorbidity, physical activity, health, use of sleep medications, and history of sleep apnea. They self-identified caregiving- related sleep problems (i...
October 3, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684421/clinically-significant-cardiopulmonary-events-and-the-effect-of-definition-standardization-on-apnea-of-prematurity-management
#19
M B F Powell, C R Ahlers-Schmidt, M Engel, B T Bloom
OBJECTIVE: To define the impact of care standardization on caffeine and cardiorespiratory monitoring at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic records were abstracted for infants aged 24-36 weeks gestation with birth weights appropriate for gestational age. Infants who died, transferred prior to discharge, had major pulmonary anomalies, required a home monitor for mechanical ventilation or had a family history of sudden infant death syndrome were excluded...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619032/sleep-architecture-in-pierre-robin-sequence-the-effect-of-mandibular-distraction-osteogenesis
#20
J N Bangiyev, H Traboulsi, I Abdulhamid, A Rozzelle, P J Thottam
INTRODUCTION: Pierre-Robin Sequence (PRS), a triad of micro/retrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction, usually in conjunction with a cleft palate is frequently associated with significant morbidity. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) is an effective treatment modality to address retroglossal upper airway obstruction by increasing the anterior-posterior diameter of the infant airway. Although MDO has been shown to improve the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in children with PRS, the consequences of MDO on other aspects of infant sleep, including hypercapnea, hypoxia, the REM to Non-REM ratio, as well as its effect on central and mixed apneas has not been investigated with an adequate sample size...
October 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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