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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806467/the-history-of-home-cardiorespiratory-monitoring
#1
Gary E Freed, Francis Martinez
Home cardiorespiratory monitoring has changed significantly since it was first introduced in the 1970s. It has improved from a simple alarm system to a sophisticated piece of equipment capable of monitoring the patient's electrocardiogram, respiratory effort, and oxygen saturations. In addition, the indications for using a monitor have also changed. The home monitor was initially used to reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Although there were several studies demonstrating the reduction of SIDS rates in communities where apnea programs existed, none was a prospective, double-blinded study or had adequate numbers to be clinically significant...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802380/can-telemetry-data-obviate-the-need-for-sleep-studies-in-pierre-robin-sequence
#2
Nicole Leigh Aaronson, Noel Jabbour
OBJECTIVE: This study looks to correlate telemetry data gathered on patients with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) with sleep study data. Strong correlation might allow obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to be reasonably predicted without the need for sleep study. METHODS: Charts from forty-six infants with PRS who presented to our children's hospital between 2005 and 2015 and received a polysomnogram (PSG) prior to surgical intervention were retrospectively reviewed. Correlations and scatterplots were used to compare average daily oxygen nadir, overall oxygen nadir, and average number of daily desaturations from telemetry data with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen nadir on sleep study...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775068/active-sleep-unmasks-apnea-and-delayed-arousal-in-infant-rat-pups-lacking-central-serotonin
#3
Jacob O Young, Aron M Geurts, Matthew Robert Hodges, Kevin J Cummings
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), occurring during sleep periods, is highly associated with abnormalities within serotonin (5-HT) neurons, including reduced 5-HT. There is evidence that future SIDS cases experience more apnea and have abnormal arousal from sleep. In rodents, a loss of 5-HT neurons is associated with apnea in early life and, in adulthood, delayed arousal. As the activity of 5-HT neurons changes with vigilance state, we hypothesized that the degree of apnea and delayed arousal displayed by rat pups specifically lacking central 5-HT varies with state...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758081/development-of-a-dysphagia-screening-test-for-preterm-infants-dst-pi
#4
Kyoung Moo Lee, Young Tak Seo
OBJECTIVE: To explore both the early prediction and diagnosis of dysphagia in preterm infants as an important developmental aspect as well as the prevention of respiratory complications, we developed the simple and-easy-to-apply Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI) to predict supraglottic penetration and subglottic aspiration. METHODS: Fifty-two infants were enrolled in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) due to clinical suspicions of dysphagia...
June 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740786/virtual-surgical-planning-for-mandibular-distraction-in-infants-with-robin-sequence
#5
Cory M Resnick
Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) successfully relieves obstructive sleep apnea in many infants with Robin sequence. Preoperative virtual surgical planning and fabrication of three-dimensionally printed cutting guides may lead to further improvements in the MDO technique and decrease the risk for damage to adjacent structures such as developing teeth and the inferior alveolar nerve. This report presents an algorithm for virtual surgical planning and three-dimensionally printing of cutting guides for MDO in infants with RS...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721046/brain-metabolite-values-in-children-with-breath-holding-spells
#6
Mustafa Calik, Dilek Sen Dokumaci, Suna Sarikaya, Mahmut Demir, Ilhan Isik, Halil Kazanasmaz, Cemil Kaya, Hasan Kandemir
Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711234/sleep-related-breathing-disorders-and-indications-for-polysomnography-in-preterm-infants
#7
Koen Joosten, Robbin de Goederen, Angelique Pijpers, Karel Allegaert
There is a range of breathing problems which occur and may persist in preterm infants, such as central apneas, obstructive apneas and periodic breathing. Preterm infants may also suffer from respiratory distress syndrome and chronic lung disease necessitating prolonged use of oxygen therapy after discharge from the hospital. Due to these persistent breathing pattern abnormalities in preterm infants, there is a higher risk of altered sleep and apparent life threatening events. Polysomnography can be a helpful tool to identify those infants who have abnormalities in their breathing pattern, to identify those infants who have an increased risk to get a sleep related breathing event at home and to decide about the discontinuation of oxygen therapy...
July 12, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689530/congenital-vallecular-cyst-arare-and-potentially-lethal-condition
#8
Shabbir Ahmed Mallick, Tabinda Naz Qureshi, Ajoy Methew Varghese, Mona Mohammed Al Busaidi
Congenital vallecular cyst is a rare laryngeal lesion, accounting for 10-20% of all laryngeal cysts, with a potential to cause severe upper airway obstruction, which can be fatal. It can cause stridor, apnea, cyanosis, respiratory distress, and feeding difficulties. Diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion and helps in timely intervention. Direct laryngoscopy is gold standard for definitive diagnosis. Treatment options include aspiration, marsupialization, and surgical excision. Here, we report a case of 7-week-old infant with complain of recurrent episodes of cyanosis when agitated, since the age of 3 weeks, admitted with impression of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs)...
June 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689383/-apnea-of-prematurity-characteristic-and-treatment
#9
Aleksandra Goryniak, Angelika Szczęśniak, Daria Śleboda, Barbara Dołęgowska
Apnea of prematurity (AOP) can affect even 85-100% of premature newborns and is related to lack of full maturity of organs. AOP is manifesting by 15-20 seconds cessations of breathing accompanied by bradycardia and oxygen desaturation, what can lead to hypoxia or death. Therefore it is very important to implement the effective and safe treatment immediately after birth. Widely used caffeine citrate, which stimulates the respiratory system, improving the working of the respiratory muscles. However the metabolism of caffeine citrate is difficult in preterm infants due to the immaturity of the hepatic enzyme system, what can lead to the occurrence of side effects and toxicity...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688570/congenital-nasal-obstruction-in-infants-a-retrospective-study-and-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Vijay A Patel, Michele M Carr
OBJECTIVES: To identify etiologies of congenital nasal obstruction and describe clinical practice patterns in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of symptomatic infants. METHODS: An electronic chart review from 1/1/2006-10/1/2016 for all patients with a diagnosis of nasal obstruction within the first six months of life using ICD-9 and 10 codes 478.19 and J34.89. RESULTS: A total of 34 patients were evaluated by the Division of Otolaryngology for this chief complaint...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687180/a-patient-with-early-myoclonic-encephalopathy-eme-with-a-de-novo-kcnq2-mutation
#11
Karin Kojima, Kentaro Shirai, Mizuki Kobayashi, Akihiko Miyauchi, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hitoshi Osaka, Takanori Yamagata
BACKGROUND: The potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 2 (KCNQ2) gene has been reported to be associated with various types of epilepsy, including benign familial neonatal seizure (BFNS), early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), and unclassified early onset encephalopathies. We herein report a patient with early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME) caused by a KCNQ2 mutation. CASE REPORT: A male infant started to exhibit erratic myoclonus several days after birth and apnea attacks lasting for seconds with desaturation...
July 4, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678385/release-of-atp-by-pre-b%C3%A3-tzinger-complex-astrocytes-contributes-to-the-hypoxic-ventilatory-response-via-a-ca-2-dependent-p2y1-receptor-mechanism
#12
Vishaal Rajani, Yong Zhang, Venkatesh Jalubula, Vladimir Rancic, Shahriar SheikhBahaei, Jennifer D Zwicker, Silvia Pagliardini, Clayton T Dickson, Klaus Ballanyi, Sergey Kasparov, Alexander V Gourine, Gregory D Funk
KEY POINTS: The ventilatory response to reduced oxygen (hypoxia) is biphasic, comprising an initial increase in ventilation followed by a secondary depression. Our findings indicate that, during hypoxia, astrocytes in the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), a critical site of inspiratory rhythm generation, release a gliotransmitter that acts via P2Y1 receptors to stimulate ventilation and reduce the secondary depression. In vitro analyses reveal that ATP excitation of the preBötC involves P2Y1 receptor-mediated release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675824/a-new-type-of-swaddling-clothing-improved-development-of-preterm-infants-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#13
Yuma Kitase, Yoshiaki Sato, Hirokazu Takahashi, Misaki Shimizu, Chie Ishikawa, Hikaru Yamamoto, Masahiro Hayakawa
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants undergo stress owing to essential treatments and exposure to the extrauterine environment in neonatal intensive care units. AIMS: The aim of this study was to enable preterm infants to maintain adequate positioning with a newly developed swaddling clothing, in order to improve low muscle tone and sleep quality, and to confirm the safety of the clothing. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective clinical trial included an intervention group (preterm infants wearing bag-shaped clothing, allowing only exposure of the head, n=27), and a control group (preterm infants managed only with conventional swaddling, n=12)...
July 1, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671092/clinical-features-of-capillary-bronchitis-related-to-bordetella-pertussis
#14
Yongsheng Xu, Jing Ning, Zhulai Zhang
Pertussis infection can mimick the clinical manifestations of lower airway infection, while the symptoms and signs in some cases are like Bronchiolitis. The paper carried out retrospective analysis of infant pertussis bordetella infected cases admitted by the Respiratory Dept. of Tianjin Children's Hospital for "capillary bronchitis" from Sept. 2015 to Feb. 2016. It analyzed its clinical features, radiological features, laboratory characteristics and outcome through comparing the capillary bronchitis cases induced by the non-bordetella pertussis...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662083/report-about-term-infants-with-severe-hyperbilirubinemia-undergoing-exchange-transfusion-in-southwestern-china-during-an-11-year-period-from-2001-to-2011
#15
Canfeng Yu, Huifan Li, Qiannan Zhang, Huayun He, Xinhong Chen, Ziyu Hua
OBJECTIVES: This study was intended to explore the etiology and risk factors of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and to analyze the adverse events associated with ECT (Exchange Transfusion), as well as to identify the factors related to the poor prognosis. METHODS: All of the full-term neonates who had undergone ECT for hyperbilirubinemia at Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled in this study. General demographic characteristics, comorbidities, pre- and post-exchange TSB(Total Serum Bilirubin) levels, duration and frequency of ECT, and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed anonymously...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643232/caffeine-protects-against-anticonvulsant-induced-neurotoxicity-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#16
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Cornelia Schiller, Marco Sifringer, Ivo Bendix, Christoph Bührer
Phenobarbital is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of neonatal seizures but may induce neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Methylxanthine caffeine is used for the treatment of apnea in newborn infants and appears to be neuroprotective, as shown by antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in oxidative stress models in newborn rodents and reduced rates of cerebral palsy in human infants treated with caffeine. We hypothesized that caffeine may counteract the proapoptotic effects of phenobarbital in newborn rats...
June 22, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615326/prenatal-nicotinic-exposure-prolongs-superior-laryngeal-c-fiber-mediated-apnea-and-bradycardia-through-enhancing-neuronal-trpv1-expression-and-excitation
#17
Xiuping Gao, Lei Zhao, Jianguo Zhuang, Na Zang, Fadi Xu
Maternal cigarette smoke, including prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE), is responsible for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The fatal events of SIDS are characterized by severe bradycardia and life-threatening apneas. Although activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) of superior laryngeal C-fibers (SLCFs) could induce bradycardia and apnea and has been implicated in SIDS pathogenesis, how PNE affects the SLCF-mediated cardiorespiratory responses remains unexplored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PNE would aggravate the SLCF-mediated apnea and bradycardia via up-regulating TRPV1 expression and excitation of laryngeal C-neurons in the nodose/jugular (N/J) ganglia...
June 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588168/randomized-controlled-trial-of-slow-versus-rapid-enteral-feeding-advancements-on-the-clinical-outcomes-in-very-low-birth-weight-neonates
#18
F Ahmed, M A Mannan, A C Dey, N Nahar, Z Hasan, I Jahan, S K Dey, M Shahidullah
Starting and advancement of feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are big challenges for the neonatal practitioners. Wide variations in volume of feed advancement have observed in earlier trials both in slow and rapid advancement groups. Volume advancement in slow advancement groups have ranged from 10ml/kg/day to 23ml/kg/day and in rapid advancement groups have ranged from 15ml/kg/day to 45ml/kg/day in earlier different studies. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from April 2013 to July 2014 to evaluate the effects of slow versus rapid rates of feeding advancements on the clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants...
April 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587528/a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-of-exposure-to-womb-like-sounds-to-stabilize-breathing-and-cardiovascular-patterns-in-preterm-neonates
#19
Joanna J Parga, Ravi R Bhatt, Kalpashri Kesavan, Myung-Shin Sim, Harvey N Karp, Ronald M Harper, Lonnie Zeltzer
PURPOSE: We exposed premature infants to womb-like sounds to evaluate such exposure on breathing and cardiovascular patterns. We hypothesized that these sounds would reduce apnea and intermittent hypoxemia, enhance parasympathetic outflow, and improve cardiovascular patterns. METHODS: A total of 20 cases and 5 control infants at ≤32-36 weeks corrected gestational age participated in a prospective observational cohort study. Twenty-four hours of continuous ECG, respiratory and oxygen saturation data were collected in all infants...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541508/self-efficacy-and-short-term-adherence-to-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-treatment-in-children
#20
Melissa S Xanthopoulos, Ji Young Kim, Michael Blechner, Ming-Yu Chang, Mary Kate Menello, Christina Brown, Edward Matthews, Terri E Weaver, Justine Shults, Carole L Marcus
Study Objectives: Infants, children and adolescents are increasingly being prescribed continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS), yet adherence is often poor. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between caregiver and patient-reported health cognitions about CPAP prior to starting CPAP, and CPAP adherence at one month. We hypothesized that greater caregiver-reported self-efficacy would be positively associated with CPAP adherence in children...
May 24, 2017: Sleep
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