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Giovanni Rizzo, Stefano Zanigni, Roberto De Blasi, Daniela Grasso, Davide Martino, Rodolfo Savica, Giancarlo Logroscino
Brain magnetic resonance (MR) represents a useful and feasible tool for the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Conventional MR may reveal secondary forms of parkinsonism and may show peculiar brain alterations of atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Furthermore, advanced MR techniques, such as morphometric-volumetric analyses, diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, tractography, proton MR spectroscopy, and iron-content sensitive imaging, have been used to obtain quantitative parameters useful to increase the diagnostic accuracy...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Graham Fairfoul, Lynne I McGuire, Suvankar Pal, James W Ironside, Juliane Neumann, Sharon Christie, Catherine Joachim, Margaret Esiri, Samuel G Evetts, Michal Rolinski, Fahd Baig, Claudio Ruffmann, Richard Wade-Martins, Michele T M Hu, Laura Parkkinen, Alison J E Green
We have developed a novel real-time quaking-induced conversion RT-QuIC-based assay to detect alpha-synuclein aggregation in brain and cerebrospinal fluid from dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease patients. This assay can detect alpha-synuclein aggregation in Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease cerebrospinal fluid with sensitivities of 92% and 95%, respectively, and with an overall specificity of 100% when compared to Alzheimer and control cerebrospinal fluid. Patients with neuropathologically confirmed tauopathies (progressive supranuclear palsy; corticobasal degeneration) gave negative results...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Mansi R Khanna, Jane Kovalevich, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Kurt R Brunden
A group of neurodegenerative diseases referred to as tauopathies are characterized by the presence of brain cells harboring inclusions of pathological species of the tau protein. These disorders include Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau pathology, including progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and Pick's disease. Tau is normally a microtubule (MT)-associated protein that appears to play an important role in ensuring proper axonal transport, but in tauopathies tau becomes hyperphosphorylated and disengages from MTs, with consequent misfolding and deposition into inclusions that mainly affect neurons but also glia...
October 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Benjamin Lam, Aun Khan, Julia Keith, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Juan Bilbao, Peter St George-Hyslop, Mahdi Ghani, Morris Freedman, Donald T Stuss, Tiffany Chow, Sandra E Black, Mario Masellis
INTRODUCTION: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) resulting from genetic Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been described only once. Whether familial CBS-AD is a distinct clinical entity with its own imaging signature remains unknown. METHODS: Four individuals with CBS from two families underwent detailed assessment. For two individuals, regional atrophy and hypoperfusion were compared to autopsy-confirmed typical late-onset AD and corticobasal degeneration, as well as genetically proven PSEN1 cases with an amnestic presentation...
October 12, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Shubir Dutt, Richard J Binney, Hilary W Heuer, Phi Luong, Suneth Attygalle, Priyanka Bhatt, Gabe A Marx, Jonathan Elofson, Maria C Tartaglia, Irene Litvan, Scott M McGinnis, Bradford C Dickerson, John Kornak, Dana Waltzman, Lisa Voltarelli, Norbert Schuff, Gil D Rabinovici, Joel H Kramer, Clifford R Jack, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen, Adam L Boxer
OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility and reliability of volumetric MRI in measuring disease progression in the 4 repeat tauopathies, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS), to support clinical development of new tau-directed therapeutic agents. METHODS: Six- and 12-month changes in regional MRI volumes and PSP Rating Scale scores were examined in 55 patients with PSP and 33 patients with CBS (78% amyloid PET negative) compared to 30 normal controls from a multicenter natural history study...
October 14, 2016: Neurology
Nikos Makris, A Zhu, G M Papadimitriou, P Mouradian, I Ng, E Scaccianoce, G Baselli, F Baglio, M E Shenton, Y Rathi, B Dickerson, E Yeterian, M Kubicki
Originally, the middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) was defined as a long association fiber tract connecting the superior temporal gyrus and temporal pole with the angular gyrus. More recently its description has been expanded to include all long postrolandic cortico-cortical association connections of the superior temporal gyrus and dorsal temporal pole with the parietal and occipital lobes. Despite its location and size, which makes MdLF one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, its discovery in humans is recent...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Monica Sanchez-Contreras, Michael G Heckman, Pawel Tacik, Nancy Diehl, Patricia H Brown, Alexandra I Soto-Ortolaza, Elizabeth A Christopher, Ronald L Walton, Owen A Ross, Lawrence I Golbe, Neill Graff-Radford, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson, Rosa Rademakers
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Unexpectedly, tau pathology has been reported in a subset of LRRK2 mutation carriers. METHODS: To estimate the frequency of pathogenic LRRK2 mutations and to evaluate the association of common LRRK2 variants with risk of primary tauopathies, we studied 1039 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 145 corticobasal degeneration patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida brain bank and 1790 controls ascertained at Mayo Clinic...
October 6, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Vincent Huin, Vincent Deramecourt, Dominique Caparros-Lefebvre, Claude-Alain Maurage, Charles Duyckaerts, Eniko Kovari, Florence Pasquier, Valérie Buée-Scherrer, Julien Labreuche, Hélène Behal, Luc Buée, Claire-Marie Dhaenens, Bernard Sablonnière
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disease causing parkinsonian symptoms. Altered DNA methylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau gene correlates with the expression changes in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease brains. However, few studies examine the sequences beyond the constitutive promoter. OBJECTIVES: Because activating different microtubule-associated protein tau gene control regions via methylation might regulate the differential tau expression constituting the specific signatures of individual tauopathies, we compared methylation of a candidate promoter, intron 0...
October 6, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Sima A Desai, Heidi K Wennemer, Roman Zolotoy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Chiara Cerami, Alessandra Dodich, Lucia Greco, Sandro Iannaccone, Giuseppe Magnani, Alessandra Marcone, Elisabetta Pelagallo, Roberto Santangelo, Stefano F Cappa, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome due to different neurodegenerative conditions in which an accurate early diagnosis needs to be supported by a reliable diagnostic tool at the individual level. In this study, we investigated in PPA the FDG-PET brain metabolic patterns at the single-subject level, in order to assess the case-to-case variability and its relationship with clinical-neuropsychological findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 55 patients (i...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Adrienne M Keener, Yvette M Bordelon
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome, which is characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, rest tremor, and postural instability. Idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common cause of this syndrome, though there are several other important etiologies that must be considered. These include the atypical Parkinsonian disorders multiple system atrophy (MSA), dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal syndrome (CBS); as well as secondary causes of parkinsonism. These various disease entities may be distinguished based on key clinical features, which is critical for the purposes of diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Erik Mille, Johannes Levin, Matthias Brendel, Christian Zach, Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri, Kai Bötzel, Peter Bartenstein, Adrian Danek, Axel Rominger
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is a clinical diagnosis that comprises a group of rare neurodegenerative diseases manifesting in movement disorder and cognitive impairment. While diagnosis is based upon clinical criteria, there have been a number of molecular imaging studies, albeit in rather small cohorts. Therefore, we investigated the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism, as well as dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in a large and clinically well-defined cohort...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
A Eusebio, L Koric, O Félician, E Guedj, M Ceccaldi, J-P Azulay
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are two atypical parkinsonian syndromes first described half a century ago. The spectrum of these conditions as well as, more generally, the concept of tauopathy have dramatically changed over the past decade and especially in recent years. In particular, clinicopathological correlations have led to the description of several subtypes of these diseases and the features they share with other neurodegenerative diseases. The present paper is a review of how the concepts of PSP and CBD have evolved over time...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
Richard A Armstrong
Corticobasal degeneration is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative disease and a member of the 'parkinsonian' group of disorders, which also includes Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. The most common initial symptom is limb clumsiness, usually affecting one side of the body, with or without accompanying rigidity or tremor. Subsequently, the disease affects gait and there is a slow progression to influence ipsilateral arms and legs. Apraxia and dementia are the most common cortical signs...
August 23, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Philip W Tipton, Takuya Konno, Daniel F Broderick, Dennis W Dickson, Zbigniew K Wszolek
INTRODUCTION: The significant symptom overlap between progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and other parkinsonian neurodegenerative diseases frequently results in misdiagnosis. However, neuroimaging can be used to quantify disease-related morphological changes and specific markers. The cerebral peduncle angle (CPA) has been shown to differentiate clinically diagnosed PSP from other parkinsonian diseases but this result has yet to be confirmed in autopsy-proven disease. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained for 168 patients representing 69 medical facilities...
August 11, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Corey T McMillan, Clara Boyd, Rachel G Gross, Jessica Weinstein, Kim Firn, Jon B Toledo, Katya Rascovsky, Leslie Shaw, David A Wolk, David J Irwin, Edward B Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To use multimodal neuroimaging to evaluate the influence of heterogeneous underlying pathology in corticobasal syndrome (CBS) on the neuroanatomical distribution of disease. METHODS: We performed a retrospective evaluation of 35 patients with CBS with T1-weighted MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and neuropathologic, genetic, or CSF evidence of underlying pathology. Patients were assigned to 2 groups: those with evidence of Alzheimer pathology (CBS-AD) and those without Alzheimer pathology (CBS-non-AD)...
September 20, 2016: Neurology
Pawel Tacik, Michael A DeTure, Yari Carlomagno, Wen-Lang Lin, Melissa E Murray, Matthew C Baker, Keith A Josephs, Bradley F Boeve, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Neill R Graff-Radford, Joseph E Parisi, Leonard Petrucelli, Rosa Rademakers, Richard S Isaacson, Kenneth M Heilman, Ronald C Petersen, Dennis W Dickson, Naomi Kouri
Mutations in microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) cause frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). Here, we describe a patient with FTDP-17 and a novel missense mutation in exon 13 of MAPT, p.E372G. We compare clinicopathologic features of this patient to two previously unreported patients with another exon 13 mutation, p.G389R. The patient with the p.E372G mutation was a 40-year-old man with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), who subsequently developed agrammatic speech and parkinsonism...
October 5, 2016: Brain Pathology
Ruth Lamb, Jonathan D Rohrer, Andrew J Lees, Huw R Morris
There are currently no disease-modifying treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and no approved pharmacological or therapeutic treatments that are effective in controlling their symptoms. The use of most pharmacological treatment options are based on experience in other disorders or from non-randomized historical controls, case series, or expert opinion. Levodopa may provide some improvement in symptoms of Parkinsonism (specifically bradykinesia and rigidity) in PSP and CBD; however, evidence is conflicting and where present, benefits are often negligible and short lived...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Nikolaus R McFarland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although increasingly recognized, atypical parkinsonian syndromes remain challenging to diagnose and are underrecognized due to overlap with other parkinsonisms. This article provides a diagnostic approach to atypical parkinsonian syndromes, including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and dementia with Lewy bodies. The goal of this review is to aid the clinician in recognizing key clinical and pathologic features and to raise awareness of recent advances in diagnostics and treatment...
August 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Janis M Miyasaki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parkinson disease often spans decades of a patient's lifetime. Over time, nonmotor symptoms predominate and may limit dopaminergic therapy. Neurologists continue to play a vital role in treatment. In addition to balancing neurobehavioral complications of Parkinson disease with motor benefit, addressing nonmotor symptoms common in the advanced stage may improve quality of life and reduce symptom burden. Symptoms such as dysphagia, constipation, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, and pain respond to nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies...
August 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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