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Bacteria host pathogen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654176/multiple-pseudomonas-species-secrete-exolysin-like-toxins-and-provoke-caspase-1-dependent-macrophage-death
#1
REVIEW
Pauline Basso, Pierre Wallet, Sylvie Elsen, Emmanuelle Soleilhac, Thomas Henry, Eric Faudry, Ina Attrée
Pathogenic bacteria secrete protein toxins that provoke apoptosis or necrosis of eukaryotic cells. Here, we developed a live-imaging method, based on incorporation of a DNA-intercalating dye into membrane-damaged host cells, to study the kinetics of primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) mortality induced by opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa expressing either Type III Secretion System (T3SS) toxins or the pore-forming toxin, Exolysin (ExlA). We found that ExlA promotes the activation of Caspase-1 and maturation of interleukin-1β...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654175/identification-and-occurrence-of-the-hydroxamate-siderophores-aerobactin-putrebactin-avaroferrin-and-ochrobactin-c-as-virulence-factors-from-entomopathogenic-bacteria
#2
Merle Hirschmann, Florian Grundmann, Helge B Bode
Effective iron acquisition and fine-tuned intracellular iron storage systems are the main prerequisites for a successful host invasion by a pathogen. Bacteria have developed several different strategies to sequester this essential element from their environment, one relies on the secretion of low molecular weight compounds with high affinity for ferric iron, the so-called siderophores. Here we report hydroxamate siderophore structures produced by entomopathogenic bacteria of the species Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, which are known for their potential to produce bioactive natural products, required for their role as nematode symbiont and insect pathogen...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653285/innate-defense-regulator-idr-1018-activates-human-mast-cells-through-g-protein-phospholipase-c-mapk-and-nf-%C3%A4-b-sensitive-pathways
#3
Kensuke Yanashima, Panjit Chieosilapatham, Eri Yoshimoto, Ko Okumura, Hideoki Ogawa, François Niyonsaba
Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides not only display antimicrobial activities against numerous pathogens but also exert a broader spectrum of immune-modulating functions. Innate defense regulators (IDRs) are a class of host defense peptides synthetically developed from natural or endogenous cationic host defense peptides. Of the IDRs developed to date, IDR-1018 is more efficient not only in killing bacteria but also in regulating the various functions of macrophages and neutrophils and accelerating the wound healing process...
June 26, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652651/molecular-mimicry-in-helicobacter-pylori-infections
#4
REVIEW
Magdalena Chmiela, Weronika Gonciarz
Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize gastric mucosa in humans and increase the risk of serious diseases such as gastric and duodenal ulcers, stomach cancers and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of several extragastric diseases has been suggested including immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and dermatological disorders. Also neurological diseases and even lung cancer have attracted researchers concern...
June 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652309/host-and-pathogen-copper-transporting-p-type-atpases-function-antagonistically-during-salmonella-infection
#5
Erik Ladomersky, Aslam Khan, Vinit Shanbhag, Jennifer S Cavet, Jefferson Chan, Gary A Weisman, Michael J Petris
Copper is an essential, yet potentially toxic trace element that is required by all aerobic organisms. A key regulator of copper homeostasis in mammalian cells is the copper transporting P-type ATPase, ATP7A, which mediates copper transport from the cytoplasm into the secretory pathway, as well as copper export across the plasma membrane. Previous studies have shown that ATP7A-dependent copper transport is required for killing phagocytosed Escherichia coli in a cultured macrophage cell line. Herein, we expand on these studies by generating Atp7a(LysMcre) mice in which the Atp7a gene was specifically deleted in cells of the myeloid lineage including macrophages...
June 26, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#6
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in alveolar macrophages...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650938/outbreak-caused-by-escherichia-coli-o18-k1-h7-sequence-type-95-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-barcelona-spain
#7
Emma Sáez-López, Jordi Bosch, Maria Dolors Salvia, Dietmar Fernández-Orth, Virginio Cepas, Mario Ferrer-Navarro, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Jordi Vila, Sara M Soto
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of late-onset neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to characterize an outbreak of neonatal sepsis occurring in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from April to August 2013. METHODS: After presentation of the index case, all E. coli isolates from previously hospitalized neonates, health care workers, and neonates admitted to the NICU from April to October 2013 were tested for K1 antigen positivity and epidemiologically compared by pulse-field gel electrophoresis...
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650861/microbiome-in-interstitial-lung-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-treatment-target
#8
Margaret L Salisbury, MeiLan K Han, Robert P Dickson, Philip L Molyneaux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current knowledge of the role of the lung microbiome in interstitial lung disease and poses considerations of the microbiome as a therapeutic target. RECENT FINDINGS: Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs in health and disease. Studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggest that increased bacterial burden and/or abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria may drive disease progression, acute exacerbations, and mortality...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650431/illuminating-vital-surface-molecules-of-symbionts-in-health-and-disease
#9
Jason E Hudak, David Alvarez, Ashwin Skelly, Ulrich H von Andrian, Dennis L Kasper
The immunomodulatory surface molecules of commensal and pathogenic bacteria are critical to microorganisms' survival and the host's response(1,2). Recent studies have highlighted the unique and important responses elicited by commensal-derived surface macromolecules(3-5). However, the technology available to track these molecules in host cells and tissues remains primitive. We report, here, an interdisciplinary approach that uses metabolic labelling combined with bioorthogonal click chemistry (that is, reactions performed in living organisms)(6) to specifically tag up to three prominent surface immunomodulatory macromolecules-peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide-either simultaneously or individually in live anaerobic commensal bacteria...
June 26, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650175/bioactive-peptide-natural-products-as-lead-structures-for-medicinal-use
#10
Tam Dang, Roderich D Süssmuth
The need for new drugs for the treatment of various diseases is enormous. From the previous century until the present, numerous peptide and peptide-derived natural products have been isolated from bacteria and fungi. Hence, microorganisms play a pivotal role as sources for novel drugs with an emphasis on anti-infective agents. Various disciplines from biology, chemistry, and medicine are involved in early stages of the search for peptide natural products including taxonomy, microbiology, bioanalytics, bioinformatics, and medicinal chemistry...
June 26, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649410/komodo-dragon-inspired-synthetic-peptide-drgn-1-promotes-wound-healing-of-a-mixed-biofilm-infected-wound
#11
Ezra M C Chung, Scott N Dean, Crystal N Propst, Barney M Bishop, Monique L van Hoek
Cationic antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional molecules that have a high potential as therapeutic agents. We have identified a histone H1-derived peptide from the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), called VK25. Using this peptide as inspiration, we designed a synthetic peptide called DRGN-1. We evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of both peptides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. DRGN-1, more than VK25, exhibited potent antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity, and permeabilized bacterial membranes...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649237/outer-membrane-vesicles-omvs-of-gram-negative-bacteria-a-perspective-update
#12
REVIEW
Arif Tasleem Jan
Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria are spherical membrane-enclosed entities of endocytic origin. Reported in the consortia of different bacterial species, production of OMVs into extracellular milieu seems essential for their survival. Enriched with bioactive proteins, toxins, and virulence factors, OMVs play a critical role in the bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Emergence of OMVs as distinct cellular entities helps bacteria in adaptating to diverse niches, in competing with other bacteria to protect members of producer species and more importantly play a crucial role in host-pathogen interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649138/pseudomonas-predators-understanding-and-exploiting-phage-host-interactions
#13
REVIEW
Jeroen De Smet, Hanne Hendrix, Bob G Blasdel, Katarzyna Danis-Wlodarczyk, Rob Lavigne
Species in the genus Pseudomonas thrive in a diverse set of ecological niches and include crucial pathogens, such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The bacteriophages that infect Pseudomonas spp. mirror the widespread and diverse nature of their hosts. Therefore, Pseudomonas spp. and their phages are an ideal system to study the molecular mechanisms that govern virus-host interactions. Furthermore, phages are principal catalysts of host evolution and diversity, which directly affects the ecological roles of environmental and pathogenic Pseudomonas spp...
June 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647534/molecular-cell-biology-of-complement-membrane-attack
#14
REVIEW
B Paul Morgan, Courtney Boyd, Doryen Bubeck
The membrane attack complex (MAC) is the pore-forming toxin of the complement system, a relatively early evolutionary acquisition that confers upon complement the capacity to directly kill pathogens. The MAC is more than just a bactericidal missile, having the capacity when formed on self-cells to initiate a host of cell activation events that can have profound consequences for tissue homeostasis in the face of infection or injury. Although the capacity of complement to directly kill pathogens has been recognised for over a century, and the pore-forming killing mechanism for at least 50 years, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding precisely how MAC mediates its killing and cell activation activities...
June 21, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647345/cutaneous-nod2-expression-regulates-the-skin-microbiome-and-wound-healing-in-a-murine-model
#15
Helen Williams, Rachel A Crompton, Helen A Thomason, Laura Campbell, Gurdeep Singh, Andrew J McBain, Sheena M Cruickshank, Matthew J Hardman
The skin microbiome exists in dynamic equilibrium with the host but when the skin is compromised, bacteria can colonise the wound and impair wound healing. Thus the interplay between normal skin-microbial interactions versus pathogenic-microbial interactions in wound repair is important. Bacteria are recognised by innate host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and we previously demonstrated an important role for the PRR NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domains-containing protein 2) in skin wound repair...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644443/unexpected-genomic-features-in-widespread-intracellular-bacteria-evidence-for-motility-of-marine-chlamydiae
#16
Astrid Collingro, Stephan Köstlbacher, Marc Mussmann, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Steven J Hallam, Matthias Horn
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising important human pathogens and symbionts of protists. Molecular evidence indicates a tremendous diversity of chlamydiae particularly in marine environments, yet our current knowledge is based mainly on terrestrial representatives. Here we provide first insights into the biology of marine chlamydiae representing three divergent clades. Our analysis of single-cell amplified genomes revealed hallmarks of the chlamydial lifestyle, supporting the ancient origin of their characteristic developmental cycle and major virulence mechanisms...
June 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643413/effects-of-sodium-chloride-on-heat-resistance-oxidative-susceptibility-motility-biofilm-and-plaque-formation-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#17
Pornpan Pumirat, Muthita Vanaporn, Usa Boonyuen, Nitaya Indrawattana, Amporn Rungruengkitkun, Narisara Chantratita
Burkholderia pseudomallei is an environmental saprophyte and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe infectious disease prevalent in tropical areas, including southeast Asia and northern Australia. In Thailand, the highest incidence of melioidosis is in the northeast region, where saline soil and water are abundant. We hypothesized that B. pseudomallei develops an ability to thrive in saline conditions and gains a selective ecological advantage over other soil-dwelling microorganisms. However, little is known about how an elevated NaCl concentration affects survival and adaptive changes in this pathogen...
June 23, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642842/the-tick-microbiome-why-non-pathogenic-microorganisms-matter-in-tick-biology-and-pathogen-transmission
#18
REVIEW
Sarah I Bonnet, Florian Binetruy, Angelica M Hernández-Jarguín, Olivier Duron
Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642764/xylella-fastidiosa-host-range-and-advance-in-molecular-identification-techniques
#19
REVIEW
Paolo Baldi, Nicola La Porta
In the never ending struggle against plant pathogenic bacteria, a major goal is the early identification and classification of infecting microorganisms. Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Xanthmonadaceae, is no exception as this pathogen showed a broad range of vectors and host plants, many of which may carry the pathogen for a long time without showing any symptom. Till the last years, most of the diseases caused by X. fastidiosa have been reported from North and South America, but recently a widespread infection of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in Apulia (south-eastern Italy), and several cases of X...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642757/the-fungal-pathogen-candida-glabrata-does-not-depend-on-surface-ferric-reductases-for-iron-acquisition
#20
Franziska Gerwien, Abu Safyan, Stephanie Wisgott, Sascha Brunke, Lydia Kasper, Bernhard Hube
Iron acquisition is a crucial virulence determinant for many bacteria and fungi, including the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata. While the diverse strategies used by C. albicans for obtaining iron from the host are well-described, much less is known about the acquisition of this micronutrient from host sources by C. glabrata - a distant relative of C. albicans with closer evolutionary ties to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which nonetheless causes severe clinical symptoms in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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