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Bacteria host pathogen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214736/breaking-the-population-barrier-by-single-cell-analysis-one-host-against-one-pathogen
#1
REVIEW
Erez Mills, Roi Avraham
Most of our understanding of the host-bacterium interaction has come from studies of bulk populations. In reality, highly adaptable and dynamic host cells and bacteria engage in complex, diverse interactions. This complexity necessarily limits the depth of understanding that can be gained with bulk population measurements. Here, we will review the merit of single cell analysis to characterize this diversity that can trigger heterogeneous outcomes. We will discuss heterogeneity of bacterial and host populations, differences in host microenvironments, technological advances that facilitate the analysis of rare subpopulations, and the potential relevance of these subpopulations to infection outcomes...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214646/new-rna-seq-approaches-for-the-study-of-bacterial-pathogens
#2
REVIEW
Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba, Sara C Santos, Jörg Vogel
Understanding how bacteria cause disease requires knowledge of which genes are expressed and how they are regulated during infection. While RNA-seq is now a routine method for gene expression analysis in bacterial pathogens, the past years have also witnessed a surge of novel RNA-seq based approaches going beyond standard mRNA profiling. These include variations of the technique to capture post-transcriptional networks controlled by small RNAs and to discover associated RNA-binding proteins in the pathogen itself...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214340/molecular-tiling-on-the-surface-of-a-bacterial-spore-the-exosporium-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-cereus-thuringiensis-group
#3
Cassandra Terry, Shuo Jiang, David S Radford, Wan Qiang, Svetomir Tzokov, Anne Moir, Per A Bullough
Bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium form highly resistant spores, which in the case of some pathogens act as the infectious agents. An exosporium forms the outermost layer of some spores; it plays roles in protection, adhesion, dissemination, host targeting in pathogens, and germination control. The exosporium of the Bacillus cereus group, including the anthrax pathogen, contains a 2D-crystalline basal layer, overlaid by a hairy nap. BclA and related proteins form the hairy nap, and require ExsFA (BxpB) for their localisation on the basal layer...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213545/antifungal-bacteria-on-woodland-salamander-skin-exhibit-high-taxonomic-diversity-and-geographic-variability
#4
Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Graziella V DiRenzo, Stephanie A Yarwood, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Karen R Lips
Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin, some of which inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Yet, there has been no systematic survey of anti-Bd bacteria across localities, species and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variation in amphibian susceptibility to Bd. Our sites were within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling indicated low Bd prevalence. We determined the number and identity of anti-Bd bacteria on 61 Plethodon salamanders (37 P...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210633/potential-usefulness-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-extracellular-membrane-vesicles-as-antibacterial-vaccines
#5
Chi-Won Choi, Edmond Changkyun Park, Sung Ho Yun, Sang-Yeop Lee, Seung Il Kim, Gun-Hwa Kim
The secretion of extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) is a common phenomenon that occurs in archaea, bacteria, and mammalian cells. The EMVs of bacteria play important roles in their virulence, biogenesis mechanisms, and host cell interactions. Bacterial EMVs have recently become the focus of attention because of their potential as highly effective vaccines that cause few side effects. Here, we isolated the EMVs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and examined their potential as new vaccine candidates. Although the S...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209897/host-cell-attachment-elicits-posttranscriptional-regulation-in-infecting-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#6
Naama Katsowich, Netanel Elbaz, Ritesh Ranjan Pal, Erez Mills, Simi Kobi, Tamar Kahan, Ilan Rosenshine
The mechanisms by which pathogens sense the host and respond by remodeling gene expression are poorly understood. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the cause of severe intestinal infection, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into intestinal epithelial cells. These effectors subvert host cell processes to promote bacterial colonization. We show that the T3SS also functions to sense the host cell and to trigger in response posttranscriptional remodeling of gene expression in the bacteria...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#7
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207180/assembly-of-the-outermost-spore-layer-pieces-of-the-puzzle-are-coming-together
#8
George C Stewart
Certain endospore-forming soil dwelling bacteria are important human, animal, or insect pathogens. These organisms produce spores containing an outer layer, the exosporium. The exosporium is the site of interactions between the spore and the soil environment and between the spore and the infected host during the initial stages of infection. The composition and assembly process of the exosporium are poorly understood. This is partly due to the extreme stability of the exosporium that has proven to be refractive to existing methods to deconstruct the intact structure into its component parts...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205456/histochemical-study-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-spores-in-the-kidneys-of-naturally-infected-new-zealand-rabbits
#9
Luis E Rodríguez-Tovar, Alejandra Villarreal-Marroquín, Alicia M Nevárez-Garza, Uziel Castillo-Velázquez, Heidi G Rodríguez-Ramírez, Magda C Navarro-Soto, Juan J Zárate-Ramos, Gustavo Hernández-Vidal, Armando Trejo-Chávez
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an important microsporidian pathogen that is considered an emergent, zoonotic, and opportunistic. It infects both domestic and laboratory rabbits, generating severe chronic interstitial and granulomatous nephritis with fibrosis and granulomatous encephalitis. Encephalitozoonosis is diagnosed in paraffin-embedded sections by examining the spores in the host tissues. The spores are difficult to observe when the samples are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), particularly when there is an inflammatory reaction and tissue damage...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205377/culture-independent-genomics-of-a-novel-chlamydial-pathogen-of-fish-provides-new-insight-into-host-specific-adaptations-utilised-by-these-intracellular-bacteria
#10
Alyce Taylor-Brown, Trestan Pillonel, Andrew Bridle, Weihong Qi, Nathan Bachmann, Terrence L Miller, Gilbert Greub, Barbara Nowak, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Lloyd Vaughan, Adam Polkinghorne
Several Chlamydiales families are associated with epitheliocystis, a common condition of the fish gill epithelium. These families share common ancestors with the Chlamydiaceae and environmental Chlamydiae. Due to the lack of culture systems, little is known about the biology of these chlamydial fish pathogens. We investigated epitheliocystis in cultured Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) from North Queensland, Australia. Basophilic inclusions were present in the gills of 22/31 fish and the presence of the chlamydial pathogen in the cysts was confirmed by in situ hybridisation...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203238/differential-ability-of-bovine-antimicrobial-cathelicidins-to-mediate-nucleic-acid-sensing-by-epithelial-cells
#11
Arnaud Baumann, Mirjam Susanna Kiener, Brendan Haigh, Vincent Perreten, Artur Summerfield
Cathelicidins encompass a family of cationic peptides characterized by antimicrobial activity and other functions, such as the ability to enhance the sensing of nucleic acids by the innate immune system. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of the bovine cathelicidins indolicidin, bactenecin (Bac)1, Bac5, bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide (BMAP)-27, BMAP-28, and BMAP-34 to inhibit the growth of bacteria and to enhance the sensing of nucleic acid by the host's immune system. BMAP-27 was the most effective at killing Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli, and this was dependent on its amphipathic structure and cationic charge...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202229/requirement-of-the-rna-binding-protein-smpb-during-intracellular-growth-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#12
Mobarak Abu Mraheil, Renate Frantz, Lisa Teubner, Heiko Wendt, Uwe Linne, Jessica Wingerath, Thomas Wirth, Trinad Chakraborty
Bacterial trans-translation is the main quality control mechanism employed to relieve stalled ribosomes. Trans-translation is mediated by the small protein B (SmpB) and transfer-mRNA (tmRNA) ribonucleoprotein complex, which interacts with translational complexes stalled at the 3' end of non-stop mRNAs to release the stalled ribosomes thereby targeting the nascent polypeptides and truncated mRNAs for degradation. The trans-translation system exists with a few exceptions in all bacteria. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of SmpB to the growth and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes, a human intracellular food-borne pathogen that colonizes host tissues to cause severe invasive infections...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198346/characterization-of-two-new-putative-adhesins-of-leptospira-interrogans
#13
Jupciana M Figueredo, Gabriela H Siqueira, Gisele O de Souza, Marcos B Heinemann, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Erica G B Chapola, Ana L T O Nascimento
We here report the characterization of two novel proteins encoded by the genes LIC11122 and LIC12287, identified in the genome sequences of Leptospira interrogans, annotated, respectively, as a putative sigma factor and a hypothetical protein. The CDSs LIC11122 and LIC12287 have signal peptide SPII and SPI and are predicted to be located mainly at the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacteria. The genes were cloned and the proteins expressed using Escherichia coli. Proteinase K digestion showed that both proteins are surface exposed...
January 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196878/global-characterization-of-protein-secretion-from-human-macrophages-following-non-canonical-caspase-4-5-inflammasome-activation
#14
Martina B Lorey, Katariina Rossi, Kari K Eklund, Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen
Gram-negative bacteria are associated with a wide spectrum of infectious diseases in humans. Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that are assembled when the cell encounters pathogens or other harmful agents. The non-canonical caspase-4/5 inflammasome is activated by gram-negative bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and by endogenous oxidized phospholipids. Protein secretion is a critical component of the innate immune response. Here we have used label-free quantitative proteomics to characterize global protein secretion in response to non-canonical inflammasome activation upon intracellular LPS recognition in human primary macrophages...
February 14, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193861/galectin-3-directs-antimicrobial-guanylate-binding-proteins-to-vacuoles-furnished-with-bacterial-secretion-systems
#15
Eric M Feeley, Danielle M Pilla-Moffett, Erin E Zwack, Anthony S Piro, Ryan Finethy, Joseph P Kolb, Jennifer Martinez, Igor E Brodsky, Jörn Coers
Many invasive bacteria establish pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as intracellular niches for microbial growth. Immunity to these infections is dependent on the ability of host cells to recognize PVs as targets for host defense. The delivery of several host defense proteins to PVs is controlled by IFN-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs), which themselves dock to PVs through poorly characterized mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that GBPs detect the presence of bacterial protein secretion systems as "patterns of pathogenesis" associated with PVs...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193635/a-redox-responsive-transcription-factor-is-critical-for-pathogenesis-and-aerobic-growth-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#16
Aaron T Whiteley, Brittany R Ruhland, Mauna B Edrozo, Michelle L Reniere
Bacterial pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense and adapt to redox stress in nature and within the host. However, deciphering the redox environment encountered by intracellular pathogens in the mammalian cytosol is challenging and remains poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the contributions of the two redox-responsive, Spx-family transcriptional regulators to the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen. Spx-family proteins are highly conserved in Firmicutes and L...
February 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192255/molecular-characterization-of-a-fish-specific-toll-like-receptor-22-tlr22-gene-from-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l-evolutionary-relationship-and-induced-expression-upon-immune-stimulants
#17
Hua Li, Guiwen Yang, Fei Ma, Ting Li, Huiting Yang, Jan H W M Rombout, Liguo An
In the host innate immune system, various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize conserved pathogens-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and represent an efficient first line of defense against invading pathogens. TLR22 is one of the fish-specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs), identified in a variety of fish species. In this study, we report the cloning and identification of a TLR22 cDNA from the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The full-length CcTLR22 cDNA was 3301 bp long, including a 32 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame (ORF) of 2838 bp and a 432 bp 3'-UTR...
February 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187346/hydrologic-land-cover-and-seasonal-patterns-of-waterborne-pathogens-in-great-lakes-tributaries
#18
P L Lenaker, S R Corsi, M A Borchardt, S K Spencer, A K Baldwin, M A Lutz
Great Lakes tributaries are known to deliver waterborne pathogens from a host of sources. To examine the hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens (i.e. protozoa (2), pathogenic bacteria (4) human viruses, (8) and bovine viruses (8)) eight rivers were monitored in the Great Lakes Basin over 29 months from February 2011 to June 2013. Sampling locations represented a wide variety of land cover classes from urban to agriculture to forest. A custom automated pathogen sampler was deployed at eight sampling locations which provided unattended, flow-weighted, large-volume (120-1630 L) sampling...
February 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186422/seeds-of-the-wild-progenitor-of-maize-possess-bacteria-that-antagonize-foodborne-pathogens
#19
Hanan R Shehata, Mansel W Griffiths, Manish N Raizada
Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes help their hosts to combat pathogens. Here we explored the hypothesis that the plant-derived foods consumed by humans and other animals host endophytes that also antagonize foodborne pathogens or food-rotting agents. Our laboratory previously cultured a library of bacterial endophytes from different members of the maize/corn family (Zea) including wild relatives. Here, 190 of these endophytes were screened for their ability to antagonize four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella enterica Newport) and a food spoiling agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) using dual culture assays...
February 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184354/gallium-protoporphyrin-ix-inhibits-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-growth-by-targeting-cytochromes
#20
Sarah Hijazi, Paolo Visca, Emanuela Frangipani
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen due to both innate and acquired resistance to antibiotics. It is capable of causing a variety of infections, including chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron-uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. P. aeruginosa can acquire iron from a variety of sources to fulfill its nutritional requirements both in the environment and in the infected host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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