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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332150/ectoparasite-activity-during-incubation-increases-microbial-growth-on-avian-eggs
#1
G Tomás, D Martín-Gálvez, C Ruiz-Castellano, M Ruiz-Rodríguez, J M Peralta-Sánchez, M Martín-Vivaldi, J J Soler
While direct detrimental effects of parasites on hosts are relatively well documented, other more subtle but potentially important effects of parasitism are yet unexplored. Biological activity of ectoparasites, apart from skin injuries and blood-feeding, often results in blood remains, or parasite faeces that accumulate and modify the host environment. In this way, ectoparasite activities and remains may increase nutrient availability that may favour colonization and growth of microorganisms including potential pathogens...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331375/xanthomonas-tal-effectors-hijack-host-basal-transcription-factor-iia-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-subunits-for-invasion
#2
Ling Ma, Qiang Wang, Meng Yuan, Tingting Zou, Ping Yin, Shiping Wang
The Xanthomonas genus includes Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria, which infect a broad range of crops and wild plant species, cause symptoms with leaf blights, streaks, spots, stripes, necrosis, wilt, cankers and gummosis on leaves, stems and fruits in a wide variety of plants via injecting their effector proteins into the host cell during infection. Among these virulent effectors, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) interact with the γ subunit of host transcription factor IIA (TFIIAγ) to activate the transcription of host disease susceptibility genes...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331008/atypical-presentation-of-rickettsial-spotted-fever
#3
Uday Prabhakar, Anup Singh
Acute febrile illness is a common entity in tropics and often is challenging due a host of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. Extensive work up is required for better management. Rickettsiosis is uncommon and hence comes lower down in the differentials of multiorgan failure being superseded by the more common diseases as malaria, enteric fever and Dengue. We document a case of young male presenting with high grade fever, multiorgan dysfunction (hepatic, renal, neurological and respiratory involvement), conjunctival suffusion, retiform rash and without lymphadenopathy...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330183/campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-the-crow-gut-involves-high-deletion-within-the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-gene-cluster
#4
Keya Sen, Jingrang Lu, Piyali Mukherjee, Tanner Berglund, Eunice Varughese, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with isolates from other parts of Washington, and from a different crow spp., 7000 miles away, in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter was isolated from 61% and 69 % of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of about 1400 bp...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328063/immune-loss-as-a-driver-of-coexistence-during-host-phage-coevolution
#5
Jake L Weissman, Rayshawn Holmes, Rodolphe Barrangou, Sylvain Moineau, William F Fagan, Bruce Levin, Philip L F Johnson
Bacteria and their viral pathogens face constant pressure for augmented immune and infective capabilities, respectively. Under this reciprocally imposed selective regime, we expect to see a runaway evolutionary arms race, ultimately leading to the extinction of one species. Despite this prediction, in many systems host and pathogen coexist with minimal coevolution even when well-mixed. Previous work explained this puzzling phenomenon by invoking fitness tradeoffs, which can diminish an arms race dynamic. Here we propose that the regular loss of immunity by the bacterial host can also produce host-phage coexistence...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327292/alterations-of-growth-rate-and-gene-expression-levels-of-upec-by-antibiotics-at-sub-mic
#6
Defne Gümüş, Fatma Kalaycı-Yüksek, Emre Yörük, Gülşen Uz, Eşref Çelik, Cansu Arslan, Elif Merve Aydın, Cem Canlı, Mine Anğ-Küçüker
The host is the main environment for bacteria, and they also expose to many antibiotics during the treatment of infectious diseases in host body. In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible changes in growth rate and expression levels of three virulence genes (foc/foc, cnf1, and usp) in a uropathogenic E. coli standard strain within the presence of ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The UPEC C7 strain was grown on tryptic soy broth-TSB (control), TSB + ciprofloxacin, TSB + nitrofurantoin, and TSB + trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for determination of both growth rate and gene expression level...
January 11, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324800/hepcidin-deficiency-and-iron-deficiency-do-not-alter-tuberculosis-susceptibility-in-a-murine-m-tb-infection-model
#7
Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Elena Stylianou, Lucy A Eddowes, Pei Jin Lim, Lisa Stockdale, Nawamin Pinpathomrat, Naomi Bull, Janet Pasricha, Marta Ulaszewska, Yulia Beglov, Sophie Vaulont, Hal Drakesmith, Helen McShane
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the macrophage-tropic pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a highly prevalent infectious disease. Since an immune correlate of protection or effective vaccine have yet to be found, continued research into host-pathogen interactions is important. Previous literature reports links between host iron status and disease outcome for many infections, including TB. For some extracellular bacteria, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is essential for protection against infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324042/mosquito-immunobiology-the-intersection-of-vector-health-and-vector-competence
#8
Lyric C Bartholomay, Kristin Michel
As holometabolous insects that occupy distinct aquatic and terrestrial environments in larval and adult stages and utilize hematophagy for nutrient acquisition, mosquitoes are subjected to a wide variety of symbiotic interactions. Indeed, mosquitoes play host to endosymbiotic, entomopathogenic, and mosquito-borne organisms, including protozoa, viruses, bacteria, fungi, fungal-like organisms, and metazoans, all of which trigger and shape innate infection-response capacity. Depending on the infection or interaction, the mosquito may employ, for example, cellular and humoral immune effectors for septic infections in the hemocoel, humoral infection responses in the midgut lumen, and RNA interference and programmed cell death for intracellular pathogens...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322917/identification-of-natural-antimicrobial-peptides-from-bacteria-through-metagenomic-and-metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-high-throughput-transcriptome-data-of-taiwanese-oolong-teas
#9
Kai-Yao Huang, Tzu-Hao Chang, Jhih-Hua Jhong, Yu-Hsiang Chi, Wen-Chi Li, Chien-Lung Chan, K Robert Lai, Tzong-Yi Lee
BACKGROUND: Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), naturally encoded by genes and generally containing 12-100 amino acids, are crucial components of the innate immune system and can protect the host from various pathogenic bacteria and viruses. In recent years, the widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in the rapid growth of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms that often induce critical infection and pathogenesis. Recently, the advent of high-throughput technologies has led molecular biology into a data surge in both the amount and scope of data...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322466/using-rt-qpcr-for-quantifying-mycobacteria-marinum-from-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in-vivo-samples
#10
Han Xaio, Stephen H Gillespie
Mycobacterium marinum, the causative agent of fish tuberculosis, is rarely a human pathogen causing a chronic skin infection. It is now wildely used as a model system in animal models, especially in zebra fish model, to study the pathology of tuberculosis and as a means of screening new anti-tuberculosis agent. To facilitate such research, quantifying the viable count of M. marinum bacteria is a crucial step. The main approach used currently is still by counting the number of colony forming units (cfu), a method that has been in place for almost 100 years...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320408/outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccines-from-biosafe-surrogates-prevent-acute-lethal-glanders-in-mice
#11
Michael H Norris, Mohammad S R Khan, Sunisa Chirakul, Herbert P Schweizer, Apichai Tuanyok
Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted Gram-negative mammalian pathogen that causes the severe disease glanders. Glanders can manifest as a rapid acute progression or a chronic debilitating syndrome primarily affecting solipeds and humans in close association with infected animals. In USA, B. mallei is classified as one of the most important bacterial biothreat agents. Presently, there is no licensed glanders vaccine available for humans or animals. In this work, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were isolated from three attenuated biosafe bacterial strains, Burkholderia pseudomallei Bp82, B...
January 10, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319821/probiotic-potency-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-kx519413-and-kx519414-isolated-from-honey-bee-gut
#12
C Honey Chandran, T R Keerthi
The Indian honey bee-Apis cerana indica, which harbors an abundant and diverse range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in their gut with beneficial effects was used as the source for the isolation of LAB. In the present study, two LAB isolates from honey bee gut were selected primarily based on their phenotypic and selective biochemical characterization, further PCR and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum and were registered in National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under accession number KX519413 and KX519414...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317512/streptococcus-pneumoniae-modulates-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-dispersion-and-the-transition-from-colonization-to-invasive-disease
#13
Ryan M Reddinger, Nicole R Luke-Marshall, Shauna L Sauberan, Anders P Hakansson, Anthony A Campagnari
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are ubiquitous upper respiratory opportunistic pathogens. Individually, these Gram-positive microbes are two of the most common causative agents of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza A virus infection, and they constitute a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, rates of cocolonization with both of these bacterial species have increased, despite the traditional view that they are antagonistic and mutually exclusive...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317305/investigation-of-putative-invasion-determinants-of-actinobacillus-species-using-comparative-genomics
#14
Adina R Bujold, Andrew E Shure, Rui Liu, Andrew M Kropinski, Janet I MacInnes
Actinobacillus spp. are Gram-negative bacteria associated with mucosal membranes. While some are commensals, others can cause important human and animal diseases. A. pleuropneumoniae causes severe fibrinous hemorrhagic pneumonia in swine but not systemic disease whereas other species invade resulting in septicemia and death. To understand the invasive phenotype of Actinobacillus spp., complete genomes of eight isolates were obtained and pseudogenomes of five isolates were assembled and annotated. Phylogenetically, A...
January 6, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316978/in-vivo-testing-of-novel-vaccine-prototypes-against-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#15
Fabio Antenucci, Cyrielle Fougeroux, Alannah Deeney, Cathrine Ørskov, Andrew Rycroft, Peter Johannes Holst, Anders Miki Bojesen
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is a Gram-negative bacterium that represents the main cause of porcine pleuropneumonia in pigs, causing significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. A. pleuropneumoniae, as the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, excrete vesicles from its outer membrane (OM), accordingly defined as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Thanks to their antigenic similarity to the OM, OMVs have emerged as a promising tool in vaccinology. In this study we describe the in vivo testing of several vaccine prototypes for the prevention of infection by all known A...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316507/the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-from-the-pathogenic-bacterium-vibrio-cholerae-is-potently-activated-by-amines-and-amino-acids
#16
Andrea Angeli, Sonia Del Prete, William A Donald, Clemente Capasso, Claudiu T Supuran
The γ-class carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCAγ, was investigated for its activation with a panel of natural and non-natural amino acids and amines. The enzyme was effectively activated by l-tryptophan, 1-(2-minoethyl)-piperazine and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-morpholine, in the low nanomolar range (KAs 8-71 nM). In contrast, l-/d-Phe, l-/d-DOPA, d-Trp, l-/d-Tyr, 4-amino-l-Phe, histamine, dopamine, serotonin, some pyridyl-alkylamines, as well as l-adrenaline were submicromolar activators (KAs between 0...
January 4, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315383/multiple-intraintestinal-signals-coordinate-the-regulation-of-vibrio-cholerae-virulence-determinants
#17
Kenneth M Peterson, Patrick S Gellings
Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative motile bacterium capable of causing fatal pandemic disease in humans via oral ingestion of contaminated water or food. Within the human intestine the motile vibrios must evade the innate host defense mechanisms, penetrate the mucus layer covering the small intestine, adhere to and multiply on the surface of the microvilli and cause disease via the action of cholera toxin. The explosive diarrhea associated with V. cholerae intestinal colonization leads to dissemination of the vibrios back into the environment to complete this phase of the life cycle...
January 5, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311700/phage-host-population-dynamics-promotes-prophage-acquisition-in-bacteria-with-innate-immunity
#18
Maroš Pleška, Moritz Lang, Dominik Refardt, Bruce R Levin, Călin C Guet
Temperate bacteriophages integrate in bacterial genomes as prophages and represent an important source of genetic variation for bacterial evolution, frequently transmitting fitness-augmenting genes such as toxins responsible for virulence of major pathogens. However, only a fraction of bacteriophage infections are lysogenic and lead to prophage acquisition, whereas the majority are lytic and kill the infected bacteria. Unless able to discriminate lytic from lysogenic infections, mechanisms of immunity to bacteriophages are expected to act as a double-edged sword and increase the odds of survival at the cost of depriving bacteria of potentially beneficial prophages...
January 8, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311668/cliq-bid-a-method-to-quantify-bacteria-induced-damage-to-eukaryotic-cells-by-automated-live-imaging-of-bright-nuclei
#19
Yann Wallez, Stéphanie Bouillot, Emmanuelle Soleilhac, Philippe Huber, Ina Attrée, Eric Faudry
Pathogenic bacteria induce eukaryotic cell damage which range from discrete modifications of signalling pathways, to morphological alterations and even to cell death. Accurate quantitative detection of these events is necessary for studying host-pathogen interactions and for developing strategies to protect host organisms from bacterial infections. Investigation of morphological changes is cumbersome and not adapted to high-throughput and kinetics measurements. Here, we describe a simple and cost-effective method based on automated analysis of live cells with stained nuclei, which allows real-time quantification of bacteria-induced eukaryotic cell damage at single-cell resolution...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311232/context-dependent-requirements-for-fimh-and-other-canonical-virulence-factors-in-gut-colonization-by-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#20
Colin W Russell, Brittany A Fleming, Courtney A Jost, Alexander Tran, Alan T Stenquist, Morgan A Wambaugh, Mary P Bronner, Matthew A Mulvey
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) act as commensals within the mammalian gut, but can induce pathology upon dissemination to other host environments such as the urinary tract and bloodstream. ExPEC genomes are likely shaped by evolutionary forces encountered within the gut where the bacteria spend much of their time, provoking the question of how their extraintestinal virulence traits arose. The principle of coincidental evolution, in which a gene that evolved in one niche happens to be advantageous in another, has been used to argue that ExPEC virulence factors originated in response to selective pressures within the gut ecosystem...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
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