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Bacteria host pathogen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778753/sm22-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-actin-rich-structures-generated-during-bacterial-infections
#1
Michael Dominic Chua, Kevin Jay Hipolito, Onisukomen Benny Singerr, Julian Solway, Julian Andrew Guttman
The host actin cytoskeleton is utilized by an assortment of pathogenic bacteria to colonize and cause disease in their hosts. Two prominently studied actin-hijacking bacteria are enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. EPEC form actin-rich pedestals atop its host cells to move across the intestinal epithelia, while Listeria monocytogenes generate branched actin networks arranged as actin clouds around the bacteria and as comet tails for propulsion within and amongst their host cells...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777359/regulatory-mechanisms-of-thiol-based-redox-sensors-lessons-learned-from-structural-studies-on-prokaryotic-redox-sensors
#2
REVIEW
Sang Jae Lee, Dong-Gyun Kim, Kyu-Yeon Lee, Ji Sung Koo, Bong-Jin Lee
Oxidative stresses, such as reactive oxygen species, reactive electrophilic species, reactive nitrogen species, and reactive chlorine species, can damage cellular components, leading to cellular malfunction and death. In response to oxidative stress, bacteria have evolved redox-responsive sensors that enable them to simultaneously monitor and eradicate potential oxidative stress. Specifically, redox-sensing transcription regulators react to oxidative stress by means of modifying the thiol groups of cysteine residues, functioning as part of an efficient survival mechanism for many bacteria...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775486/peroxidasin-contributes-to-lung-host-defense-by-direct-binding-and-killing-of-gram-negative-bacteria
#3
Ruizheng Shi, Zehong Cao, Hong Li, Jochen Graw, Guogang Zhang, Victor J Thannickal, Guangjie Cheng
Innate immune recognition is classically mediated by the interaction of host pattern-recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns; this triggers a series of downstream signaling events that facilitate killing and elimination of invading pathogens. In this report, we provide the first evidence that PXDN (also known as vascular peroxidase-1) directly binds to gram-negative bacteria and mediates bactericidal activity, thus, contributing to lung host defense. PXDN contains five leucine-rich repeats and four immunoglobulin domains, which allows for its interaction with lipopolysaccharide, a membrane component of gram-negative bacteria...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773876/early-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-in-pigs-disrupts-microbiome-composition-and-functionality-principally-at-the-ileum-mucosa
#4
Héctor Argüello, Jordi Estellé, Sara Zaldívar-López, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Ana Carvajal, Mª Asunción López-Bascón, Fiona Crispie, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Luis Morera, Juan J Garrido
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen which successfully infects animal species for human consumption such as swine. The pathogen has a battery of virulence factors which it uses to colonise and persist within the host. The host microbiota may play a role in resistance to, and may also be indirectly responsible from some of the consequences of, Salmonella infection. To investigate this, we used 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing to determine the changes in the gut microbiota of pigs in response to infection by Salmonella Typhimurium at three locations: ileum mucosa, ileum content and faeces...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773170/iron-and-innate-antimicrobial-immunity-depriving-the-pathogen-defending-the-host
#5
REVIEW
Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as 'nutritional immunity'. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772736/exploring-the-effect-of-phage-therapy-in-preventing-vibrio-anguillarum-infections-in-cod-and-turbot-larvae
#6
Nanna Rørbo, Anita Rønneseth, Panos G Kalatzis, Bastian Barker Rasmussen, Kirsten Engell-Sørensen, Hans Petter Kleppen, Heidrun Inger Wergeland, Lone Gram, Mathias Middelboe
The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and inefficient vaccination at the larval stage of fish emphasizes the need for novel approaches, and phage therapy for controlling Vibrio pathogens has gained interest in the past few years. In this study, we examined the potential of the broad-host-range phage KVP40 to control four different V...
May 16, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772500/influence-of-zeolite-and-superphosphate-as-additives-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-bacterial-communities-during-factory-scale-chicken-manure-composting
#7
Shuang Peng, Huijie Li, Dan Song, Xiangui Lin, Yiming Wang
Factory-scale chicken manure composting added with zeolite (F), superphosphate (G), or zeolite and ferrous sulfate (FL) simultaneously, were evaluate for their effects on the behaviors of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial communities. After composting, ARGs in manure decreased by 67.3% in the control, whereas the reductions were 86.5%, 68.6% and 72.2% in F, G and FL, respectively. ARGs encoding ribosomal protection proteins (tetO, tetB(P), and tetM) were reduced to a greater extent than tetG, tetL, sul1 and sul2...
April 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771448/segmented-filamentous-bacteria-induced-immune-responses-a-balancing-act-between-host-protection-and-autoimmunity
#8
REVIEW
Kyle L Flannigan, Timothy L Denning
Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are gram-positive, spore-forming, bacteria that primarily colonize the ileum of the small intestine. Upon direct adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, SFB actively stimulate innate and adaptive immune cell activation. The cardinal features of SFB-induced gut immunity - Th17 cell differentiation, IgA production, and barrier protection - lead to the containment of SFB and further afford protection against invading pathogens. Th17 cells and IL-17A, however, can also reach peripheral sites and exacerbate autoimmunity...
May 17, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770355/host-regulated-hepatitis-b-virus-capsid-assembly-in-a-mammalian-cell-free-system
#9
Kuancheng Liu, Jianming Hu
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important global human pathogen and represents a major cause of hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. The HBV capsid is composed of multiple copies of a single viral protein, the capsid or core protein (HBc), plays multiple roles in the viral life cycle, and has emerged recently as a major target for developing antiviral therapies against HBV infection. Although several systems have been developed to study HBV capsid assembly, including heterologous overexpression systems like bacteria and insect cells, in vitro assembly using purified protein, and mammalian cell culture systems, the requirement for non-physiological concentrations of HBc and salts and the difficulty in manipulating host regulators of assembly presents major limitations for detailed studies on capsid assembly under physiologically relevant conditions...
April 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769762/polymicrobial-synergy-and-dysbiosis-an-overview
#10
REVIEW
Hawaabi Faqeer Mohd Shaikh, Suvarna Hanmantgouda Patil, Tanvi Shyamsundar Pangam, Khushboo Vijaysinh Rathod
The oral fissure is immensely inhabited with a number of polymicrobial colonies similar to the intestinal system. Periodontitis is a dysbiotic disease resulting from deviation in subgingival Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacteria shift from Gram-positive bacteria. The development of periodontal dysbiosis occurs over a broadened timeframe, which slowly turns the symbiotic association of host and microbe to pathogenic. This review highlights a recent paradigm of periodontitis progression has been postulated which challenges the traditional concept of periodontitis being induced by few particular periopathogens such as belonging to red complex, but by a more comprehensive dysbiotic-synergistic community...
March 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767396/are-lactoferrin-receptors-in-gram-negative-bacteria-viable-vaccine-targets
#11
Clement Chan, Vahid F Andisi, Dixon Ng, Nick Ostan, Warren K Yunker, Anthony B Schryvers
A number of important Gram-negative pathogens that reside exclusively in the upper respiratory or genitourinary tract of their mammalian host rely on surface receptors that specifically bind host transferrin and lactoferrin as a source of iron for growth. The transferrin receptors have been targeted for vaccine development due to their critical role in acquiring iron during invasive infection and for survival on the mucosal surface. In this study, we focus on the lactoferrin receptors, determining their prevalence in pathogenic bacteria and comparing their prevalence in commensal Neisseria to other surface antigens targeted for vaccines; addressing the issue of a reservoir for vaccine escape and impact of vaccination on the microbiome...
May 16, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765579/antagonistic-effect-of-isolated-probiotic-bacteria-from-natural-sources-against-intestinal-escherichia-coli-pathotypes
#12
Sahar Karimi, Ehsan Rashidian, Mehdi Birjandi, Leila Mahmoodnia
Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms which are beneficial bacteria that are normal flora of the digestive system which, in determined amounts, show beneficial effects on host health, and can balance gastrointestinal microflora. Digestive tract diseases such as diarrhea are one of the major causes of child mortality in developing countries. Different pathotypes of Escherichia coli cause diarrhea that affects children, therefore reduction of these colonization strains in humans or animals can decline gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765364/rearing-water-treatment-induces-microbial-selection-influencing-the-microbiota-and-pathogen-associated-transcripts-of-cod-gadus-morhua-larvae
#13
Ragnhild I Vestrum, Kari J K Attramadal, Per Winge, Keshuai Li, Yngvar Olsen, Atle M Bones, Olav Vadstein, Ingrid Bakke
We have previously shown that K-selection and microbial stability in the rearing water increases survival and growth of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) larvae, and that recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are compatible with this. Here, we have assessed how water treatment influenced the larval microbiota and host responses at the gene expression level. Cod larvae were reared with two different rearing water systems: a RAS and a flow-through system (FTS). The water microbiota was examined using a 16S rDNA PCR/DGGE strategy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764950/cagy-dependent-regulation-of-type-iv-secretion-in-helicobacter-pylori-is-associated-with-alterations-in-integrin-binding
#14
Emma C Skoog, Vasilios A Morikis, Miriam E Martin, Greg A Foster, Lucy P Cai, Lori M Hansen, Beibei Li, Jennifer A Gaddy, Scott I Simon, Jay V Solnick
Strains of Helicobacter pylori that cause ulcer or gastric cancer typically express a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island ( cag PAI). CagY is an ortholog of VirB10 that, unlike other VirB10 orthologs, has a large middle repeat region (MRR) with extensive repetitive sequence motifs, which undergo CD4+ T cell-dependent recombination during infection of mice. Recombination in the CagY MRR reduces T4SS function, diminishes the host inflammatory response, and enables the bacteria to colonize at a higher density...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764946/comparative-genomics-reveals-the-core-gene-toolbox-for-the-fungus-insect-symbiosis
#15
Yan Wang, Matt Stata, Wei Wang, Jason E Stajich, Merlin M White, Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Modern genomics has shed light on many entomopathogenic fungi and expanded our knowledge widely; however, little is known about the genomic features of the insect-commensal fungi. Harpellales are obligate commensals living in the digestive tracts of disease-bearing insects (black flies, midges, and mosquitoes). In this study, we produced and annotated whole-genome sequences of nine Harpellales taxa and conducted the first comparative analyses to infer the genomic diversity within the members of the Harpellales...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764944/recon-dependent-inflammation-in-hepatocytes-enhances-listeria-monocytogenes-cell-to-cell-spread
#16
Adelle P McFarland, Thomas P Burke, Alexie A Carletti, Rochelle C Glover, Hannah Tabakh, Matthew D Welch, Joshua J Woodward
The oxidoreductase RECON is a high-affinity cytosolic sensor of bacterium-derived cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs). CDN binding inhibits RECON's enzymatic activity and subsequently promotes inflammation. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of RECON on the infection cycle of the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes , which secretes cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) into the cytosol of infected host cells. Here, we report that during infection of RECON-deficient hepatocytes, which exhibit hyperinflammatory responses, L...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764940/the-tetrameric-structure-of-sialic-acid-synthesizing-udp-glcnac-2-epimerase-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-a-comparative-study-with-human-gne
#17
Tzu-Ping Ko, Shu-Jung Lai, Tung-Ju Hsieh, Chia-Shin Yang, Yeh Chen
Sialic acid presentation on the cell surface by some pathogenic strains of bacteria allows their escape from the host immune system. It is one of the major virulence factors. Bacterial biosynthesis of sialic acids starts with the conversion of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP and ManNAc by a hydrolyzing 2-epimerase. Here we present the crystal structure of this enzyme, named NeuC, from Acinetobacter baumannii The protein folds into two Rossmann-like domains and forms dimers and tetramers as does the epimerase part of the bifunctional UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase / ManNAc kinase (GNE)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764197/re-thinking-the-chicken-campylobacter-jejuni-interaction-a-review
#18
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Chickens are recognized as an imperative source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., carrying this microorganism in high numbers in their intestinal tract. For long time, C. jejuni has been considered as a commensal microorganism which colonizes its primary host rather than infecting it, in the absence of any obvious clinical signs. However, recent studies question this and argue for a deeper understanding of the host-bacteria interaction. Following oral uptake it was demonstrated that C. jejuni interacts intimately with the gut epithelium and influences cellular functions of the host, with consequences on nutrient absorption...
May 15, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763807/positional-scanning-library-applied-to-the-human-eosinophil-cationic-protein-rnase3-n-terminus-reveals-novel-and-potent-anti-biofilm-peptides
#19
David Pulido, Guillem Prats-Ejarque, Clara Villalba, Marcel Albacar, Mohammed Moussaoui, David Andreu, Rudolf Volkmer, Marc Torrent, Ester Boix
Eradication of established biofilm communities of pathogenic bacteria is one of the pending challenges in the development of new antimicrobial agents. In particular, the dreaded nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms microbial communities that offer an enhanced resistance to conventional antibiotics. Recently, we have described an engineered antimicrobial peptide derived from the human RNase3, also named the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), RN3 (5-36), which combines bactericidal activity with high cell agglutination and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affinity...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763729/in-silico-identification-of-molecular-mimics-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-clostridium-botulinum-atcc-3502-strain
#20
Tulika Bhardwaj, Shafiul Haque, Pallavi Somvanshi
Bacterial pathogens invade and disrupt the host defense system by means of protein sequences structurally similar at global and local level both. The sharing of homologous sequences between the host and the pathogenic bacteria mediates the infection and defines the concept of molecular mimicry. In this study, various computational approaches were employed to elucidate the pathogenicity of Clostridium at genome-wide level. Genome-wide study revealed that the pathogen mimics the host (Homo sapiens) and unraveled the complex pathogenic pathway of causing infections...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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