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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425080/monitoring-of-paternal-mitochondrial-degradation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Miyuki Sato, Ken Sato
In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, paternally inherited mitochondria and their mitochondrial DNA are degraded via selective autophagy called allophagy (allogeneic organelle autophagy). This is a developmentally programmed autophagy and combined with C. elegans genetics and in vivo imaging provides a unique opportunity to analyze selective autophagy under physiological conditions.
April 20, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411364/centriolar-remodeling-underlies-basal-body-maturation-during-ciliogenesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Inna V Nechipurenko, Cristina Berciu, Piali Sengupta, Daniela Nicastro
The primary cilium is nucleated by the mother centriole-derived basal body (BB) via as yet poorly characterized mechanisms. BBs have been reported to degenerate following ciliogenesis in the C. elegans embryo, although neither BB architecture nor early ciliogenesis steps have been described in this organism. In a previous study (Doroquez et al., 2014), we described the three-dimensional morphologies of sensory neuron cilia in adult C. elegans hermaphrodites at high resolution. Here, we use serial section electron microscopy and tomography of staged C...
April 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409302/asymmetric-cell-division-in-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo-multiple-steps-to-generate-cell-size-asymmetry
#4
Anne Pacquelet
The first division of the one-cell C. elegans embryo has been a fundamental model in deciphering the mechanisms underlying asymmetric cell division. Polarization of the one-cell zygote is induced by a signal from the sperm centrosome and results in the asymmetric distribution of PAR proteins. Multiple mechanisms then maintain PAR polarity until the end of the first division. Once asymmetrically localized, PAR proteins control several essential aspects of asymmetric division, including the position of the mitotic spindle along the polarity axis...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400443/plastin-increases-cortical-connectivity-to-facilitate-robust-polarization-and-timely-cytokinesis
#5
Wei Yung Ding, Hui Ting Ong, Yusuke Hara, Jantana Wongsantichon, Yusuke Toyama, Robert C Robinson, François Nédélec, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
The cell cortex is essential to maintain animal cell shape, and contractile forces generated within it by nonmuscle myosin II (NMY-2) drive cellular morphogenetic processes such as cytokinesis. The role of actin cross-linking proteins in cortical dynamics is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved actin bundling/cross-linking protein plastin is instrumental for the generation of potent cortical actomyosin contractility in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote. PLST-1 was enriched in contractile structures and was required for effective coalescence of NMY-2 filaments into large contractile foci and for long-range coordinated contractility in the cortex...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368371/cul-2-lrr-1-and-ubxn-3-drive-replisome-disassembly-during-dna-replication-termination-and%C3%A2-mitosis
#6
Remi Sonneville, Sara Priego Moreno, Axel Knebel, Clare Johnson, C James Hastie, Anton Gartner, Agnieszka Gambus, Karim Labib
Replisome disassembly is the final step of DNA replication in eukaryotes, involving the ubiquitylation and CDC48-dependent dissolution of the CMG helicase (CDC45-MCM-GINS). Using Caenorhabditis elegans early embryos and Xenopus laevis egg extracts, we show that the E3 ligase CUL-2(LRR-1) associates with the replisome and drives ubiquitylation and disassembly of CMG, together with the CDC-48 cofactors UFD-1 and NPL-4. Removal of CMG from chromatin in frog egg extracts requires CUL2 neddylation, and our data identify chromatin recruitment of CUL2(LRR1) as a key regulated step during DNA replication termination...
May 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331075/myosin-activity-drives-actomyosin-bundle-formation-and-organization-in-contractile-cells-of-the-c-elegans-spermatheca
#7
Alison C E Wirshing, Erin J Cram
Stress fibers, contractile actomyosin bundles, are important for cellular force production and adaptation to physical stress and have been well-studied within the context of cell migration. However, less is known about actomyosin bundle formation and organization in vivo and in specialized contractile cells, such as smooth muscle and myoepithelial cells. The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a bag-like organ of 24 myoepithelial cells that houses the sperm and is the site of fertilization. During ovulation, spermathecal cells are stretched by oocyte entry and then coordinately contract to expel the fertilized embryo into the uterus...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324486/mitopho8%C3%AE-60-assay-as-a-tool-to-quantitatively-measure-mitophagy-activity
#8
Zhiyuan Yao, Xu Liu, Daniel J Klionsky
Mitophagy, a selective type of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), specifically mediates the vacuole/lysosome-dependent degradation of damaged or surplus mitochondria. Because this process regulates the number and quality of mitochondria, it is vital for proper cellular homeostasis. Mitophagy also plays critical roles in the clearance of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans embryos, in erythroid cell maturation, and in the prevention of neurodegenerative disease and cancer. In order to study the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy, sensitive assays are necessary to quantitatively measure mitophagy activity...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320824/molecular-mechanism-of-dynein-recruitment-to-kinetochores-by-the-rod-zw10-zwilch-complex-and-spindly
#9
José B Gama, Cláudia Pereira, Patrícia A Simões, Ricardo Celestino, Rita M Reis, Daniel J Barbosa, Helena R Pires, Cátia Carvalho, João Amorim, Ana X Carvalho, Dhanya K Cheerambathur, Reto Gassmann
The molecular motor dynein concentrates at the kinetochore region of mitotic chromosomes in animals to accelerate spindle microtubule capture and to control spindle checkpoint signaling. In this study, we describe the molecular mechanism used by the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch complex and the adaptor Spindly to recruit dynein to kinetochores in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and human cells. We show that Rod's N-terminal β-propeller and the associated Zwilch subunit bind Spindly's C-terminal domain, and we identify a specific Zwilch mutant that abrogates Spindly and dynein recruitment in vivo and Spindly binding to a Rod β-propeller-Zwilch complex in vitro...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302908/tubulin-isotype-substitution-revealed-that-isotype-composition-modulates-microtubule-dynamics-in-c-elegans-embryos
#10
Yu Honda, Kenta Tsuchiya, Eisuke Sumiyoshi, Nami Haruta, Asako Sugimoto
Microtubules (MTs) are polymers composed of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers, which are generally encoded by multiple gene loci. Despite implications of distinct properties of isotypes, how they contribute to diverse MT dynamics in vivo remains unclear. Here, using genome editing and RNAi depletion of tubulin isotypes, we demonstrate that four tubulin isotypes (hereafter α1, α2, β1 and β2) cooperatively confer distinct MT properties in Caenorhabditis elegans early embryos. GFP insertion into each isotype locus reveals their distinct expression levels and MT incorporation rates...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302059/correspondence-of-d-melanogaster-and-c-elegans-developmental-stages-revealed-by-alternative-splicing-characteristics-of-conserved-exons
#11
Ruiqi Gao, Jingyi Jessica Li
BACKGROUND: We report a statistical study to find correspondence of D. melanogaster and C. elegans developmental stages based on alternative splicing (AS) characteristics of conserved cassette exons using modENCODE RNA-seq data. We identify "stage-associated exons" to capture the AS characteristics of each stage and use these exons to map pairwise stages within and between the two species by an overlap test. RESULTS: Within fly and worm, adjacent developmental stages are mapped to each other, i...
March 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285997/ccm-3-promotes-c-%C3%A2-elegans-germline-development-by-regulating-vesicle-trafficking-cytokinesis-and-polarity
#12
Swati Pal, Benjamin Lant, Bin Yu, Ruilin Tian, Jiefei Tong, Jonathan R Krieger, Michael F Moran, Anne-Claude Gingras, W Brent Derry
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular defects of the CNS that arise from loss of integrity of the endothelial cells lining blood capillaries, causing leakage of blood into the brain [1]. This results in headaches, seizures, and/or hemorrhagic stroke, depending on the location of the lesion. CCM affects 0.5% of the population and follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern caused by mutations in one of the three genes: CCM1 (gene name KRIT1), CCM2 (also known as malcavernin or OSM), and CCM3 (gene name PDCD10) [2, 3], with the earliest onset and most severe prognosis occurring in CCM3 patients [4]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279983/a-microrna-family-exerts-maternal-control-on-sex-determination-in-c-elegans
#13
Katherine McJunkin, Victor Ambros
Gene expression in early animal embryogenesis is in large part controlled post-transcriptionally. Maternally contributed microRNAs may therefore play important roles in early development. We elucidated a major biological role of the nematode mir-35 family of maternally contributed essential microRNAs. We show that this microRNA family regulates the sex determination pathway at multiple levels, acting both upstream of and downstream from her-1 to prevent aberrantly activated male developmental programs in hermaphrodite embryos...
February 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267419/expanding-the-repertoire-of-deadenylases
#14
Ilias Skeparnias, Dimitrios Αnastasakis, Athanasios-Nasir Shaukat, Katerina Grafanaki, Constantinos Stathopoulos
Deadenylases belong to an expanding family of exoribonucleases involved mainly in mRNA stability and turnover, with the exception of PARN which has additional roles in the biogenesis of several important non-coding RNAs, including miRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, PARN in C. elegans and its homologue PNLDC1 in B. mori were reported as the elusive trimmers mediating piRNA biogenesis. In addition, characterization of mammalian PNLDC1 in comparison to PARN, showed that is specifically expressed in embryonic stem and germ cells, as well as during early embryo development...
March 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262484/the-antiviral-rna-interference-response-provides-resistance-to-lethal-arbovirus-infection-and-vertical-transmission-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Don B Gammon, Takao Ishidate, Lichao Li, Weifeng Gu, Neal Silverman, Craig C Mello
The recent discovery of the positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) Orsay virus (OV) as a natural pathogen of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has stimulated interest in exploring virus-nematode interactions. However, OV infection is restricted to a small number of intestinal cells, even in nematodes defective in their antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response, and is neither lethal nor vertically transmitted. Using a fluorescent reporter strain of the negative-sense ssRNA vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we show that microinjection of VSV particles leads to a dose-dependent, muscle tissue-tropic, lethal infection in C...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215526/canalization-of-c-%C3%A2-elegans-vulva-induction-against-anatomical-variability
#16
Guizela Huelsz-Prince, Jeroen Sebastiaan van Zon
It is a fundamental open question as to how embryos develop into complex adult organisms with astounding reproducibility, particularly because cells are inherently variable on the molecular level. During C. elegans vulva induction, the anchor cell induces cell fate in the vulva precursor cells in a distance-dependent manner. Surprisingly, we found that initial anchor cell position was highly variable and caused variability in cell fate induction. However, we observed that vulva induction was "canalized," i...
February 22, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202691/attenuation-of-n-glycosylation-causes-polarity-and-adhesion-defects-in-the-c-elegans-embryo
#17
Julia Stevens, Anne Spang
The Caenorhabditiselegans early embryo is highly polarized, requiring sequestration of cytoplasmic polarity factors at the plasma membrane. This compartmentalization aids asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins, which is partially responsible for the fates of the daughter cells. Since most plasma membrane proteins are glycosylated, we determined the effect of attenuation of N-glycosylation on cell polarity. While polarity establishment was not perturbed, the size difference between the two cells formed in first cell division (AB and P1) was more variable in embryos with reduced N-glycosylation than in the mock-treated embryos...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181905/the-interplay-of-stiffness-and-force-anisotropies-drives-embryo-elongation
#18
Thanh Thi Kim Vuong-Brender, Martine Ben Amar, Julien Pontabry, Michel Labouesse
The morphogenesis of tissues, like the deformation of an object, results from the interplay between their material properties and the mechanical forces exerted on them. The importance of mechanical forces in influencing cell behaviour is widely recognized, whereas the importance of tissue material properties, in particular stiffness, has received much less attention. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we examine how both aspects contribute to embryonic elongation. Measuring the opening shape of the epidermal actin cortex after laser nano-ablation, we assess the spatiotemporal changes of actomyosin-dependent force and stiffness along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axis...
February 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122936/nucleoporins-npp-10-npp-13-and-npp-20-are-required-for-hcp-4-nuclear-import-to-establish-correct-centromere-assembly
#19
Jorge Ferreira, Jeffrey H Stear, Harald Saumweber
Centromeres form a chromosomal platform for the assembly of the kinetochores, which are required for orderly chromosome segregation. Assembly of both centromeres and kinetochores proceeds by a step by step mechanism that is regulated in time and space. It has been suggested that the regulated nuclear import of centromeric proteins is involved in this process. We show that the knockdown of nucleoporins NPP-10-N/-10-C, NPP-13 and NPP-20 in C. elegans affects early steps in centromere formation and sister centromere resolution and results in severe chromosomal defects in the early embryo...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115303/functional-conservation-study-of-polarity-protein-crumbs-intracellular-domain
#20
Shi Qiping, Cao Haowei, Xu Rui, Zhang Dandan, Huang Juan
The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) plays key roles in the establishing and maintaining cell apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells by determining the apical plasma membrane identity. Although its intracellular domain contains only 37 amino acids, it is absolutely essential for its function. In Drosophila, mutations in this intracellular domain result in severe defects in epithelial polarity and abnormal embryonic development. The intracellular domain of Crb shows high homology across species from Drosophila to Mus musculus and Homo sapiens...
January 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
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