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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637841/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-mediates-the-sema3a-induced-cortical-basal-dendritic-arborization-through-the-activation-of-fyn-tyrosine-kinase
#1
Fumio Nakamura, Takako Okada, Maria Shishikura, Noriko Uetani, Masahiko Taniguchi, Takeshi Yagi, Yoichiro Iwakura, Toshio Ohshima, Yoshio Goshima, Stephen M Strittmatter
Leukocyte common antigen related (LAR) class protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are critical for axonal guidance; however, their relation to specific guidance cues is poorly defined. We here show that PTP-3, LAR homologue in C. elegans, is involved in axon guidance regulated by Sema2A-signaling. PTPδ, one of vertebrate LAR class PTPs, participates in Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse response of primary cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from M. musculus embryos. In vivo, however, the contribution of PTPδ in Sema3A-regualted axon guidance was minimal...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637747/f-actin-prevents-interaction-between-sperm-dna-and-the-oocyte-meiotic-spindle-in-c-elegans
#2
Michelle T Panzica, Harold C Marin, Anne-Cecile Reymann, Francis J McNally
Fertilization occurs during female meiosis in most animals, which raises the question of what prevents the sperm DNA from interacting with the meiotic spindle. In this study, we find that Caenorhabditis elegans sperm DNA stays in a fixed position at the opposite end of the embryo from the meiotic spindle while yolk granules are transported throughout the embryo by kinesin-1. In the absence of F-actin, the sperm DNA, centrioles, and organelles were transported as a unit with the yolk granules, resulting in sperm DNA within 2 µm of the meiotic spindle...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634273/the-c-elegans-vapb-homolog-vpr-1-is-a-permissive-signal-for-gonad-development
#3
Pauline A Cottee, Tim Cole, Jessica Schultz, Hieu D Hoang, Jack Vibbert, Sung Min Han, Michael A Miller
VAMP/synaptobrevin-associated proteins (VAPs) contain an N-terminal major sperm protein domain (MSPd) that is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VAPs have an intracellular housekeeping function, as well as an extracellular signaling function mediated by the secreted MSPd. Here we show that the C. elegans VAP homolog VPR-1 is essential for gonad development. vpr-1 null mutants are maternal effect sterile due to arrested gonadogenesis following embryo hatching. Somatic gonadal precursor cells and germ cells fail to proliferate fully and complete their respective differentiation programs...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630487/multicolor-two-photon-imaging-of-endogenous-fluorophores-in-living-tissues-by-wavelength-mixing
#4
Chiara Stringari, Lamiae Abdeladim, Guy Malkinson, Pierre Mahou, Xavier Solinas, Isabelle Lamarre, Sébastien Brizion, Jean-Baptiste Galey, Willy Supatto, Renaud Legouis, Ana-Maria Pena, Emmanuel Beaurepaire
Two-photon imaging of endogenous fluorescence can provide physiological and metabolic information from intact tissues. However, simultaneous imaging of multiple intrinsic fluorophores, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(phosphate) (NAD(P)H), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and retinoids in living systems is generally hampered by sequential multi-wavelength excitation resulting in motion artifacts. Here, we report on efficient and simultaneous multicolor two-photon excitation of endogenous fluorophores with absorption spectra spanning the 750-1040 nm range, using wavelength mixing...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629355/biologically-constrained-optimization-based-cell-membrane-segmentation-in-c-elegans-embryos
#5
Yusuke Azuma, Shuichi Onami
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in bioimaging and automated analysis methods have enabled the large-scale systematic analysis of cellular dynamics during the embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans. Most of these analyses have focused on cell lineage tracing rather than cell shape dynamics. Cell shape analysis requires cell membrane segmentation, which is challenging because of insufficient resolution and image quality. This problem is currently solved by complicated segmentation methods requiring laborious and time consuming parameter adjustments...
June 19, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623274/reduction-in-chromosome-mobility-accompanies-nuclear-organization-during-early-embryogenesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Ritsuko Arai, Takeshi Sugawara, Yuko Sato, Yohei Minakuchi, Atsushi Toyoda, Kentaro Nabeshima, Hiroshi Kimura, Akatsuki Kimura
In differentiated cells, chromosomes are packed inside the cell nucleus in an organised fashion. In contrast, little is known about how chromosomes are packed in undifferentiated cells and how nuclear organization changes during development. To assess changes in nuclear organization during the earliest stages of development, we quantified the mobility of a pair of homologous chromosomal loci in the interphase nuclei of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The distribution of distances between homologous loci was consistent with a random distribution up to the 8-cell stage but not at later stages...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619826/a-toolkit-for-gfp-mediated-tissue-specific-protein-degradation-in-c-elegans
#7
Shaohe Wang, Ngang Heok Tang, Pablo Lara-Gonzalez, Zhiling Zhao, Dhanya K Cheerambathur, Bram Prevo, Andrew D Chisholm, Arshad Desai, Karen Oegema
Proteins essential for embryo production, cell division, and early embryonic events are frequently re-utilized later in embryogenesis, during organismal development, or in the adult. Examining protein function across these different biological contexts requires tissue-specific perturbation. Here, we describe a method that utilizes expression of a fusion between a GFP-targeting nanobody and a SOCS-box containing ubiquitin ligase adaptor to target GFP tagged proteins for degradation. When combined with endogenous locus GFP tagging by CRISPR-Cas9 or rescue of a null mutant with a GFP fusion, this approach enables routine and efficient tissue-specific protein ablation...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502614/partially-compromised-specification-causes-stochastic-effects-on-gut-development-in-c-elegans
#8
Hailey Choi, Gina Broitman-Maduro, Morris F Maduro
The C. elegans gut descends from the E progenitor cell through a series of stereotyped cell divisions and morphogenetic events. Effects of perturbations of upstream cell specification on downstream organogenesis have not been extensively investigated. Here we have assembled an allelic series of strains that variably compromise specification of E by perturbing the activation of the gut-specifying end-1 and end-3 genes. Using a marker that allows identification of all E descendants regardless of fate, superimposed with markers that identify cells that have adopted a gut fate, we have examined the fate of E lineage descendants among hundreds of embryos...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500339/a-role-for-core-planar-polarity-proteins-in-cell-contact-mediated-orientation-of-planar-cell-division-across-the-mammalian-embryonic-skin
#9
Fazal Oozeer, Laura L Yates, Charlotte Dean, Caroline J Formstone
The question of how cell division orientation is determined is fundamentally important for understanding tissue and organ shape in both healthy or disease conditions. Here we provide evidence for cell contact-dependent orientation of planar cell division in the mammalian embryonic skin. We propose a model where the core planar polarity proteins Celsr1 and Frizzled-6 (Fz6) communicate the long axis orientation of interphase basal cells to neighbouring basal mitoses so that they align their horizontal division plane along the same axis...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492281/c-elegans-chromosomes-connect-to-centrosomes-by-anchoring-into-the-spindle-network
#10
Stefanie Redemann, Johannes Baumgart, Norbert Lindow, Michael Shelley, Ehssan Nazockdast, Andrea Kratz, Steffen Prohaska, Jan Brugués, Sebastian Fürthauer, Thomas Müller-Reichert
The mitotic spindle ensures the faithful segregation of chromosomes. Here we combine the first large-scale serial electron tomography of whole mitotic spindles in early C. elegans embryos with live-cell imaging to reconstruct all microtubules in 3D and identify their plus- and minus-ends. We classify them as kinetochore (KMTs), spindle (SMTs) or astral microtubules (AMTs) according to their positions, and quantify distinct properties of each class. While our light microscopy and mutant studies show that microtubules are nucleated from the centrosomes, we find only a few KMTs directly connected to the centrosomes...
May 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482037/a-non-canonical-site-reveals-the-cooperative-mechanisms-of-microrna-mediated-silencing
#11
Mathieu N Flamand, Hin Hark Gan, Vinay K Mayya, Kristin C Gunsalus, Thomas F Duchaine
Although strong evidence supports the importance of their cooperative interactions, microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites are still largely investigated as functionally independent regulatory units. Here, a survey of alternative 3΄UTR isoforms implicates a non-canonical seedless site in cooperative miRNA-mediated silencing. While required for target mRNA deadenylation and silencing, this site is not sufficient on its own to physically recruit miRISC. Instead, it relies on facilitating interactions with a nearby canonical seed-pairing site to recruit the Argonaute complexes...
May 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425080/monitoring-of-paternal-mitochondrial-degradation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Miyuki Sato, Ken Sato
In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, paternally inherited mitochondria and their mitochondrial DNA are degraded via selective autophagy called allophagy (allogeneic organelle autophagy). This is a developmentally programmed autophagy and combined with C. elegans genetics and in vivo imaging provides a unique opportunity to analyze selective autophagy under physiological conditions.
April 20, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411364/centriolar-remodeling-underlies-basal-body-maturation-during-ciliogenesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Inna V Nechipurenko, Cristina Berciu, Piali Sengupta, Daniela Nicastro
The primary cilium is nucleated by the mother centriole-derived basal body (BB) via as yet poorly characterized mechanisms. BBs have been reported to degenerate following ciliogenesis in the C. elegans embryo, although neither BB architecture nor early ciliogenesis steps have been described in this organism. In a previous study (Doroquez et al., 2014), we described the three-dimensional morphologies of sensory neuron cilia in adult C. elegans hermaphrodites at high resolution. Here, we use serial section electron microscopy and tomography of staged C...
April 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409302/asymmetric-cell-division-in-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo-multiple-steps-to-generate-cell-size-asymmetry
#15
Anne Pacquelet
The first division of the one-cell C. elegans embryo has been a fundamental model in deciphering the mechanisms underlying asymmetric cell division. Polarization of the one-cell zygote is induced by a signal from the sperm centrosome and results in the asymmetric distribution of PAR proteins. Multiple mechanisms then maintain PAR polarity until the end of the first division. Once asymmetrically localized, PAR proteins control several essential aspects of asymmetric division, including the position of the mitotic spindle along the polarity axis...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400443/plastin-increases-cortical-connectivity-to-facilitate-robust-polarization-and-timely-cytokinesis
#16
Wei Yung Ding, Hui Ting Ong, Yusuke Hara, Jantana Wongsantichon, Yusuke Toyama, Robert C Robinson, François Nédélec, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
The cell cortex is essential to maintain animal cell shape, and contractile forces generated within it by nonmuscle myosin II (NMY-2) drive cellular morphogenetic processes such as cytokinesis. The role of actin cross-linking proteins in cortical dynamics is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved actin bundling/cross-linking protein plastin is instrumental for the generation of potent cortical actomyosin contractility in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote. PLST-1 was enriched in contractile structures and was required for effective coalescence of NMY-2 filaments into large contractile foci and for long-range coordinated contractility in the cortex...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368371/cul-2-lrr-1-and-ubxn-3-drive-replisome-disassembly-during-dna-replication-termination-and%C3%A2-mitosis
#17
Remi Sonneville, Sara Priego Moreno, Axel Knebel, Clare Johnson, C James Hastie, Anton Gartner, Agnieszka Gambus, Karim Labib
Replisome disassembly is the final step of DNA replication in eukaryotes, involving the ubiquitylation and CDC48-dependent dissolution of the CMG helicase (CDC45-MCM-GINS). Using Caenorhabditis elegans early embryos and Xenopus laevis egg extracts, we show that the E3 ligase CUL-2(LRR-1) associates with the replisome and drives ubiquitylation and disassembly of CMG, together with the CDC-48 cofactors UFD-1 and NPL-4. Removal of CMG from chromatin in frog egg extracts requires CUL2 neddylation, and our data identify chromatin recruitment of CUL2(LRR1) as a key regulated step during DNA replication termination...
May 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331075/myosin-activity-drives-actomyosin-bundle-formation-and-organization-in-contractile-cells-of-the-c-elegans-spermatheca
#18
Alison C E Wirshing, Erin J Cram
Stress fibers, contractile actomyosin bundles, are important for cellular force production and adaptation to physical stress and have been well-studied within the context of cell migration. However, less is known about actomyosin bundle formation and organization in vivo and in specialized contractile cells, such as smooth muscle and myoepithelial cells. The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a bag-like organ of 24 myoepithelial cells that houses the sperm and is the site of fertilization. During ovulation, spermathecal cells are stretched by oocyte entry and then coordinately contract to expel the fertilized embryo into the uterus...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324486/mitopho8%C3%AE-60-assay-as-a-tool-to-quantitatively-measure-mitophagy-activity
#19
Zhiyuan Yao, Xu Liu, Daniel J Klionsky
Mitophagy, a selective type of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), specifically mediates the vacuole/lysosome-dependent degradation of damaged or surplus mitochondria. Because this process regulates the number and quality of mitochondria, it is vital for proper cellular homeostasis. Mitophagy also plays critical roles in the clearance of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans embryos, in erythroid cell maturation, and in the prevention of neurodegenerative disease and cancer. In order to study the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy, sensitive assays are necessary to quantitatively measure mitophagy activity...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320824/molecular-mechanism-of-dynein-recruitment-to-kinetochores-by-the-rod-zw10-zwilch-complex-and-spindly
#20
José B Gama, Cláudia Pereira, Patrícia A Simões, Ricardo Celestino, Rita M Reis, Daniel J Barbosa, Helena R Pires, Cátia Carvalho, João Amorim, Ana X Carvalho, Dhanya K Cheerambathur, Reto Gassmann
The molecular motor dynein concentrates at the kinetochore region of mitotic chromosomes in animals to accelerate spindle microtubule capture and to control spindle checkpoint signaling. In this study, we describe the molecular mechanism used by the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch complex and the adaptor Spindly to recruit dynein to kinetochores in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and human cells. We show that Rod's N-terminal β-propeller and the associated Zwilch subunit bind Spindly's C-terminal domain, and we identify a specific Zwilch mutant that abrogates Spindly and dynein recruitment in vivo and Spindly binding to a Rod β-propeller-Zwilch complex in vitro...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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