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C.elegans embryo

A De Simone, A Spahr, C Busso, P Gönczy
Microtubule asters must be positioned precisely within cells. How forces generated by molecular motors such as dynein are integrated in space and time to enable such positioning remains unclear. In particular, whereas aster movements depend on the drag caused by cytoplasm viscosity, in vivo drag measurements are lacking, precluding a thorough understanding of the mechanisms governing aster positioning. Here, we investigate this fundamental question during the migration of asters and pronuclei in C. elegans zygotes, a process essential for the mixing of parental genomes...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Daniel P Reich, Katarzyna M Tyc, Brenda L Bass
Cellular dsRNAs are edited by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). While editing can alter mRNA-coding potential, most editing occurs in noncoding sequences, the function of which is poorly understood. Using dsRNA immunoprecipitation (dsRIP) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we identified 1523 regions of clustered A-to-I editing, termed editing-enriched regions (EERs), in four stages of Caenorhabditis elegans development, often with highest expression in embryos. Analyses of small RNA-seq data revealed 22- to 23-nucleotide (nt) siRNAs, reminiscent of viral siRNAs, that mapped to EERs and were abundant in adr-1;adr-2 mutant animals...
February 26, 2018: Genes & Development
Ye Hong, Remi Sonneville, Bin Wang, Viktor Scheidt, Bettina Meier, Alexander Woglar, Sarah Demetriou, Karim Labib, Verena Jantsch, Anton Gartner
Faithful chromosome segregation and genome maintenance requires the removal of all DNA bridges that physically link chromosomes before cells divide. Using C. elegans embryos we show that the LEM-3/Ankle1 nuclease defines a previously undescribed genome integrity mechanism by processing DNA bridges right before cells divide. LEM-3 acts at the midbody, the structure where abscission occurs at the end of cytokinesis. LEM-3 localization depends on factors needed for midbody assembly, and LEM-3 accumulation is increased and prolonged when chromatin bridges are trapped at the cleavage plane...
February 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Shi-Lung Lin, Shao-Yao Ying
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that contain either complete or partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. Numerous miRNAs have been reported to induce RNA interference (RNAi), a post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism. Recent evidence also indicates that they are involved in the transcriptional regulation of genome activities. They were first discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans as native RNA fragments that modulate a wide range of genetic regulatory pathways during embryonic development, and are now recognized as small gene silencers transcribed from the noncoding regions of a genome...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
John Isaac Murray
The convergence of developmental biology and modern genomics tools brings the potential for a comprehensive understanding of developmental systems. This is especially true for the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo because its small size, invariant developmental lineage, and powerful genetic and genomic tools provide the prospect of a cellular resolution understanding of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and regulation across the organism. We describe here how a systems biology framework might allow large-scale determination of the embryonic regulatory relationships encoded in the C...
January 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Sarah Bianchi, Kacper B Rogala, Nicola J Dynes, Manuel Hilbert, Sebastian A Leidel, Michel O Steinmetz, Pierre Gönczy, Ioannis Vakonakis
Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles that organise the microtubule network and seed the formation of cilia and flagella. New centrioles assemble through a step-wise process dependent notably on the centriolar protein SAS-5 in Caenorhabditis elegans SAS-5 and its functional homologues in other species form oligomers that bind the centriolar proteins SAS-6 and SAS-4, thereby forming an evolutionarily conserved structural core at the onset of organelle assembly. Here, we report a novel interaction of SAS-5 with microtubules...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Aurore-Cécile Valfort, Caroline Launay, Marie Sémon, Marie Delattre
Asymmetric cell division is essential to generate cellular diversity. In many animal cells, the cleavage plane lies perpendicular to the mitotic spindle, and it is the spindle positioning that dictates the size of the daughter cells. Although some properties of spindle positioning are conserved between distantly related model species and different cell types, little is known of the evolutionary robustness of the mechanisms underlying this event. We recorded the first embryonic division of 42 species of nematodes closely related to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is an excellent model system to study the biophysical properties of asymmetric spindle positioning...
January 22, 2018: PLoS Biology
Jennifer K Heppert, Ariel M Pani, Allyson M Roberts, Daniel J Dickinson, Bob Goldstein
Oriented cell divisions are critical to establish and maintain cell fates and tissue organization. Diverse extracellular and intracellular cues have been shown to provide spatial information for mitotic spindle positioning, however, the molecular mechanisms by which extracellular signals communicate with cells to direct mitotic spindle positioning are largely unknown. In animal cells, oriented cell divisions are often achieved by the localization of force-generating, motor protein complexes to discrete cortical domains...
January 18, 2018: Genetics
Virinchipuram S Sreevidya, Kade A Lenz, Kurt R Svoboda, Hongbo Ma
With the recent ban of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) from some personal care products, many replacement antimicrobial compounds have been used. Yet the potential health risk and environmental impact of these replacement compounds are largely unknown. Here we investigated the toxicological effects of three commonly used replacement antimicrobials, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BEC), and chloroxylenol (CX) to two model organisms, the nematode C. elegans and zebrafish (Danio rerio), and compared them to the banned TCS and TCC...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Leona D Scanlan, Steven P Lund, Sanem Hosbas Coskun, Shannon K Hanna, Monique E Johnson, Christopher M Sims, Karina Brignoni, Patricia Lapasset, Elijah J Petersen, John T Elliott, Bryant C Nelson
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used extensively in molecular, toxicological and genetics research. However, standardized methods for counting nematodes in liquid culture do not exist despite the wide use of nematodes and need for accurate measurements. Herein, we provide a simple and affordable counting protocol developed to maximize count accuracy and minimize variability in liquid nematode culture. Sources of variability in the counting process were identified and tested in 14 separate experiments...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, Heather Currey, Phurpa Wangchuk, Ramon M Eichenberger, Aleen D Saxton, Thomas D Bird, Brian C Kraemer, Alex Loukas, John M Hawdon, Conor R Caffrey, Nicole F Liachko
Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Erik A Spickard, Pradeep M Joshi, Joel H Rothman
In animal embryos, cells transition from a multipotential state, with the capacity to adopt multiple fates, into an irreversible, committed state of differentiation. This multipotency-to-commitment transition (MCT) is evident from experiments in which cell fate is reprogrammed by transcription factors for cell-type-specific differentiation, as has been observed extensively in C. elegans. Although factors that direct differentiation into each of the three germ layer types cannot generally reprogram cells after the MCT in this animal, transcription factors for endoderm development are able to do so in multiple differentiated cell types...
January 15, 2018: FEBS Letters
Gabriela Huelgas-Morales
In virtually all sexually reproducing animals, oocytes arrest in meiotic prophase and resume meiosis in a conserved biological process called meiotic maturation. Meiotic arrest enables oocytes, which are amongst the largest cells in an organism, to grow and accumulate the necessary cellular constituents required to support embryonic development. Oocyte arrest can be maintained for a prolonged period, up to 50 years in humans, and defects in the meiotic maturation process interfere with the faithful segregation of meiotic chromosomes, representing the leading cause of human birth defects and female infertility...
December 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Shashikala Sasidharan, Sofya Borinskaya, Falshruti Patel, Yelena Bernadskaya, Sailaja Mandalapu, Maria Agapito, Martha C Soto
Actin is an integral component of epithelial apical junctions, yet the interactions of branched actin regulators with apical junction components are still not clear. Biochemical data have shown that α-catenin inhibits Arp2/3-dependent branched actin. These results suggested that branched actin is only needed at earliest stages of apical junction development. We use live imaging in developing C. elegans embryos to test models for how WAVE-induced branched actin collaborates with other apical junction proteins during the essential process of junction formation and maturation...
February 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
Itzel Sifuentes-Romero, Boris M Tezak, Sarah L Milton, Jeanette Wyneken
Experimental and field studies of different turtle species suggest that moisture influences embryonic development and sex ratios, wetter substrates tend to produce more males, and drier substrates produce more females. In this study, we used Trachemys scripta elegans to test the effect of moisture on embryonic development and sex ratios. T. s. elegans eggs were incubated under different temperature and moisture regimes. We monitored embryonic development until stage 22 (after sex determination) and, for the first time, we estimated sex ratios using a male-specific transcriptional molecular marker, Sox9...
November 28, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Patrícia A Simões, Ricardo Celestino, Ana X Carvalho, Reto Gassmann
In mitosis, the molecular motor dynein is recruited to kinetochores by the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch complex (RZZ) and Spindly to control spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) signaling and microtubule attachment. How the ubiquitous dynein co-factors Lis1 and NudE contribute to these functions remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the C. elegans NudE homolog NUD-2 is dispensable for dynein- and LIS-1-dependent mitotic spindle assembly in the zygote. This facilitates functional characterization of kinetochore-localized NUD-2, which is recruited by the CENP-F-like proteins HCP-1 and HCP-2 independently of RZZ-Spindly and dynein-LIS-1...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Jason S Watts, Diane G Morton, Kenneth J Kemphues, Jennifer L Watts
Biotin is an essential cofactor for multiple metabolic reactions catalyzed by carboxylases. Biotin is covalently linked to apoproteins by holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS). Accordingly, some mutations in HCS cause holocarboxylase deficiency, a rare metabolic disorder that can be life threatening if left untreated. However, the long-term effects of HCS deficiency are poorly understood. Here, we report our investigations of bpl-1, which encodes the C. elegans ortholog of HCS. We found that mutations in the biotin-binding region of bpl-1 are maternal-effect lethal, and cause defects in embryonic polarity establishment, meiosis, and the integrity of the eggshell permeability barrier...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
E B Frankel, Raakhee Shankar, James J Moresco, John R Yates, Niels Volkmann, Anjon Audhya
Degradation of most integral membrane proteins is directed by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, which selectively targets ubiquitin-modified cargoes into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) within multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). To better understand the mechanisms underlying ESCRT-mediated formation of ILVs, we exploited the rapid, de novo biogenesis of MVEs during the oocyte-to-embryo transition in C. elegans. In contrast to previous models suggesting that ILVs form individually, we demonstrate that they remain tethered to one another subsequent to internalization, arguing that they bud continuously from stable subdomains...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Paul D Goetsch, Jacob M Garrigues, Susan Strome
The DREAM (Dp/Retinoblastoma(Rb)-like/E2F/MuvB) transcriptional repressor complex acts as a gatekeeper of the mammalian cell cycle by establishing and maintaining cellular quiescence. How DREAM's three functional components, the E2F-DP heterodimer, the Rb-like pocket protein, and the MuvB subcomplex, form and function at target gene promoters remains unknown. The current model invokes that the pocket protein links E2F-DP and MuvB and is essential for gene repression. We tested this model by assessing how the conserved yet less redundant DREAM system in Caenorhabditis elegans is affected by absence of the sole C...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
Junya de Lacorte Singulani, Liliana Scorzoni, Paulo César Gomes, Ana Carolina Nazaré, Carlos Roberto Polaquini, Luis Octávio Regasini, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
AIM: Gallic acid and its ester derivatives have shown antifungal activity in vitro. This study was performed to investigate their activity against Candida albicans and their toxicity in the animal models Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish embryos. RESULTS: The compounds protected worms from C. albicans infection. The dodecyl gallate was the most effective. In zebrafish embryo, gallic acid and dodecyl gallate were the least toxic. CONCLUSION: Gallic acid and its ester derivatives have potential for in vivo use against C...
October 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
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