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C.elegans embryo

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215526/canalization-of-c-%C3%A2-elegans-vulva-induction-against-anatomical-variability
#1
Guizela Huelsz-Prince, Jeroen Sebastiaan van Zon
It is a fundamental open question as to how embryos develop into complex adult organisms with astounding reproducibility, particularly because cells are inherently variable on the molecular level. During C. elegans vulva induction, the anchor cell induces cell fate in the vulva precursor cells in a distance-dependent manner. Surprisingly, we found that initial anchor cell position was highly variable and caused variability in cell fate induction. However, we observed that vulva induction was "canalized," i...
February 14, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202691/attenuation-of-n-glycosylation-causes-polarity-and-adhesion-defects-in-the-c-elegans-embryo
#2
Julia Stevens, Anne Spang
The C. elegans early embryo is highly polarized, requiring sequestration of cytoplasmic polarity factors at the plasma membrane. This compartmentalization aids asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins, which is partially responsible for the fates of the daughter cells. Since most plasma membrane proteins are glycosylated, we determined the effect of N-glycosylation attenuation on cell polarity. While polarity establishment was not perturbed, the AB/P1 size ratio was more variable in embryos with reduced N-glycosylation than in the mock-treated ones...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181905/the-interplay-of-stiffness-and-force-anisotropies-drive-embryo-elongation
#3
Thanh Thi Kim Vuong-Brender, Martine Ben Amar, Julien Pontabry, Michel Labouesse
The morphogenesis of tissues, like the deformation of an object, results from the interplay between their material properties and the mechanical forces exerted on them. Whereas the importance of mechanical forces in influencing cell behaviour is widely recognized, the importance of tissue material properties, in particular stiffness, has received much less attention. Using C. elegans as a model, we examine how both aspects contribute to embryonic elongation. Measuring the opening shape of the epidermal actin cortex after laser nano-ablation, we assess the spatiotemporal changes of actomyosin-dependent force and stiffness along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axis...
February 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122936/nucleoporins-npp-10-npp-13-and-npp-20-are-required-for-hcp-4-nuclear-import-to-establish-correct-centromere-assembly
#4
Jorge Ferreira, Jeffrey H Stear, Harald Saumweber
Centromeres form a chromosomal platform for the assembly of the kinetochores, which are required for orderly chromosome segregation. Assembly of both centromeres and kinetochores proceeds by a step by step mechanism that is regulated in time and space. It has been suggested that the regulated nuclear import of centromeric proteins is involved in this process. We show that the knockdown of nucleoporins NPP-10-N/-10-C, NPP-13 and NPP-20 in C. elegans affects early steps in centromere formation and sister centromere resolution and results in severe chromosomal defects in the early embryo...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115303/functional-conservation-study-of-polarity-protein-crumbs-intracellular-domain
#5
Shi Qiping, Cao Haowei, Xu Rui, Zhang Dandan, Huang Juan
The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) plays key roles in the establishing and maintaining cell apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells by determining the apical plasma membrane identity. Although its intracellular domain contains only 37 amino acids, it is absolutely essential for its function. In Drosophila, mutations in this intracellular domain result in severe defects in epithelial polarity and abnormal embryonic development. The intracellular domain of Crb shows high homology across species from Drosophila to Mus musculus and Homo sapiens...
January 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114100/the-genetics-of-axon-guidance-and-axon-regeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Andrew D Chisholm, Harald Hutter, Yishi Jin, William G Wadsworth
The correct wiring of neuronal circuits depends on outgrowth and guidance of neuronal processes during development. In the past two decades, great progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of axon outgrowth and guidance. Genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans has played a key role in elucidating conserved pathways regulating axon guidance, including Netrin signaling, the slit Slit/Robo pathway, Wnt signaling, and others. Axon guidance factors were first identified by screens for mutations affecting animal behavior, and by direct visual screens for axon guidance defects...
November 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079896/impaired-embryonic-development-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient-caenorhabditis-elegans-due-to-abnormal-redox-homeostasis-induced-activation-of-calcium-independent-phospholipase-and-alteration-of-glycerophospholipid-metabolism
#7
Tzu-Ling Chen, Hung-Chi Yang, Cheng-Yu Hung, Meng-Hsin Ou, Yi-Yun Pan, Mei-Ling Cheng, Arnold Stern, Szecheng J Lo, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065742/sustained-centrosome-cortical-contact-ensures-robust-polarization-of-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo
#8
Dominique M Saturno, Dominic T Castanzo, Margaret Williams, Devayu A Parikh, Eva C Jaeger, Rebecca Lyczak
In C. elegans, the anterior-posterior axis is established at the one-cell stage when the embryo polarizes along its long axis. One model suggests that a cue from the centrosome triggers symmetry breaking and is then dispensable for further steps in the process. In the absence of the initial centrosome cue, a redundant mechanism, reliant on the centrosome's microtubules, can polarize the cell. Despite this model, data from multiple sources suggest that direct centrosome-contact with the cortex may play a role in ensuring robust polarization...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065312/using-fast-acting-temperature-sensitive-mutants-to-study-cell-division-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
T Davies, S Sundaramoorthy, S N Jordan, M Shirasu-Hiza, J Dumont, J C Canman
Fast-acting temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations are powerful conditional tools for studying transient cellular processes such as cytokinesis. Fast-acting ts cytokinesis-defective mutants are functional at the permissive temperature; yet show a fully penetrant loss-of-function cytokinesis failure phenotype when upshifted to the restrictive temperature. Fast-acting ts mutations thus allow functional tunability and rapid and reversible protein inactivation by simply shifting the temperature at precise times throughout cell division...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065307/analysis-of-cytokinesis-by-electron-microscopy
#10
J König, J Borrego-Pinto, D Streichert, M Munzig, P Lenart, T Müller-Reichert
Following up on a chapter on the Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy of Early Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos in Mitosis (MCB 79, 101-119), we present an adaptation of our established protocol for the ultrastructural analysis of either permeabilized or injected embryonic systems. We prepared both drug-treated early C. elegans embryos and fluorescently labeled sea urchin embryos of Lytechinus pictus for ultrastructural studies on animal cytokinesis. Here we focus on the initial preparation steps of postmitotic embryos for high-pressure freezing and subsequent electron microscopy with an emphasis on electron tomography...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056033/fiji-macro-3d-art-veselect-3d-automated-reconstruction-tool-for-vesicle-structures-of-electron-tomograms
#11
Kristin Verena Kaltdorf, Katja Schulze, Frederik Helmprobst, Philip Kollmannsberger, Thomas Dandekar, Christian Stigloher
Automatic image reconstruction is critical to cope with steadily increasing data from advanced microscopy. We describe here the Fiji macro 3D ART VeSElecT which we developed to study synaptic vesicles in electron tomograms. We apply this tool to quantify vesicle properties (i) in embryonic Danio rerio 4 and 8 days past fertilization (dpf) and (ii) to compare Caenorhabditis elegans N2 neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) wild-type and its septin mutant (unc-59(e261)). We demonstrate development-specific and mutant-specific changes in synaptic vesicle pools in both models...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050953/mir-142-3p-as-a-biomarker-of-blastocyst-implantation-failure-a-pilot-study
#12
Edson Borges, Amanda Souza Setti, Daniela P A F Braga, Murilo V Geraldo, Rita de Cássia S Figueira, Assumpto Iaconelli
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to find whether microRNAs (miRNAs) detected in the culture medium of embryos produced in vitro could be potential biomarkers of embryo implantation. METHODS: Culture media samples from 36 embryos, derived from patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in a private university-affiliated IVF center, were collected between January/2015 and November/2015. Samples were collected on day three and embryo transfers were performed on day five and all embryos reached the blastocyst stage...
December 1, 2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049702/cell-biology-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-nucleus
#13
Orna Cohen-Fix, Peter Askjaer
Studies on the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleus have provided fascinating insight to the organization and activities of eukaryotic cells. Being the organelle that holds the genetic blueprint of the cell, the nucleus is critical for basically every aspect of cell biology. The stereotypical development of C. elegans from a one cell-stage embryo to a fertile hermaphrodite with 959 somatic nuclei has allowed the identification of mutants with specific alterations in gene expression programs, nuclear morphology, or nuclear positioning...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049659/reciprocal-signaling-by-wnt-and-notch-specifies-a-muscle-precursor-in-the-c-elegans-embryo
#14
Scott M Robertson, Jessica Medina, Marieke Oldenbroek, Rueyling Lin
The MS blastomere produces one-third of the body wall muscles (BWMs) in the C. elegans embryo. MS-derived BWMs require two distinct cell-cell interactions, the first inhibitory and the second, two cell cycles later, required to overcome this inhibition. The inductive interaction is not required if the inhibitory signal is absent. Although the Notch receptor GLP-1 was implicated in both interactions, the molecular nature of the two signals was unknown. We now show that zygotically expressed MOM-2 (Wnt) is responsible for both interactions...
February 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031250/a-to-i-rna-editing-promotes-developmental-stage-specific-gene-and-lncrna-expression
#15
Boaz Goldstein, Lily Agranat-Tamir, Dean Light, Orna Ben-Naim Zgayer, Alla Fishman, Ayelet T Lamm
A-to-I RNA editing is a conserved widespread phenomenon in which adenosine (A) is converted to inosine (I) by adenosine deaminases (ADARs) in double-stranded RNA regions. Although human RNAs contain millions of A-to-I editing sites, most of these occur in noncoding regions and their function is unknown. Mutations in ADAR enzymes in C. elegans cause defects in normal development but are not lethal as in human and mouse. Previous studies in C. elegans indicated competition between RNA interference (RNAi) and RNA editing mechanisms, with the observation that worms that lack both mechanisms do not exhibit defects when only RNA editing is absent...
December 28, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011782/inference-of-cellular-level-signaling-networks-using-single-cell-gene-expression-data-in-c-elegans-reveals-mechanisms-of-cell-fate-specification
#16
Xiao-Tai Huang, Yuan Zhu, Leanne Lai Hang Chan, Zhongying Zhao, Hong Yan
MOTIVATION: Cell fate specification plays a key role to generate distinct cell types during metazoan development. However, most of the underlying signaling networks at cellular level are not well understood. Availability of time lapse single-cell gene expression data collected throughout C. elegans embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity for investigating signaling networks underlying cell fate specification at systems, cellular and molecular levels. RESULTS: We propose a framework to infer signaling networks at cellular level by exploring the single-cell gene expression data...
December 23, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009254/spatiotemporal-coupling-and-decoupling-of-gene-transcription-with-dna-replication-origins-during-embryogenesis-in-c-elegans
#17
Ehsan Pourkarimi, James M Bellush, Iestyn Whitehouse
The primary task of developing embryos is genome replication, yet how DNA replication is integrated with the profound cellular changes that occur through development is largely unknown. Using an approach to map DNA replication at high resolution in C. elegans, we show that replication origins are marked with specific histone modifications that define gene enhancers. We demonstrate that the level of enhancer associated modifications scale with the efficiency at which the origin is utilized. By mapping replication origins at different developmental stages, we show that the positions and activity of origins is largely invariant through embryogenesis...
December 23, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003861/rei-1-a-novel-rab11-gef-with-a-sh3bp5-domain
#18
Aisa Sakaguchi, Miyuki Sato, Ken Sato
The small GTPase Rab proteins are key regulators of membrane trafficking. Rab11 is one of the best-characterized molecules among the Rab family proteins and it plays multiple roles in endocytic recycling, exocytosis, and cytokinesis. However, it remains unclear how Rab11 is activated at a precise timing and location and regulates its diverse functions. Specifically, our knowledge of the upstream regulatory factors that activate Rab11 is limited. In this regard, we have identified the RAB-11-interacting protein-1 (REI-1) as a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB-11 in Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979995/nucleosome-fragility-is-associated-with-future-transcriptional-response-to-developmental-cues-and-stress-in-c-elegans
#19
Tess E Jeffers, Jason D Lieb
Nucleosomes have structural and regulatory functions in all eukaryotic DNA-templated processes. The position of nucleosomes on DNA and the stability of the underlying histone-DNA interactions affect the access of regulatory proteins to DNA. Both stability and position are regulated through DNA sequence, histone post-translational modifications, histone variants, chromatin remodelers, and transcription factors. Here, we explored the functional implications of nucleosome properties on gene expression and development in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos...
January 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881437/casein-kinase-ii-is-required-for-proper-cell-division-and-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-of-centrosome-duplication-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-embryos
#20
Jeffrey C Medley, Megan M Kabara, Michael D Stubenvoll, Lauren E DeMeyer, Mi Hye Song
Centrosomes are the primary microtubule-organizing centers that orchestrate microtubule dynamics during the cell cycle. The correct number of centrosomes is pivotal for establishing bipolar mitotic spindles that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. Thus, centrioles must duplicate once per cell cycle, one daughter per mother centriole, the process of which requires highly coordinated actions among core factors and modulators. Protein phosphorylation is shown to regulate the stability, localization and activity of centrosome proteins...
January 15, 2017: Biology Open
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