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C.elegans embryo

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324486/mitopho8%C3%AE-60-assay-as-a-tool-to-quantitatively-measure-mitophagy-activity
#1
Zhiyuan Yao, Xu Liu, Daniel J Klionsky
Mitophagy, a selective type of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), specifically mediates the vacuole/lysosome-dependent degradation of damaged or surplus mitochondria. Because this process regulates the number and quality of mitochondria, it is vital for proper cellular homeostasis. Mitophagy also plays critical roles in the clearance of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans embryos, in erythroid cell maturation, and in the prevention of neurodegenerative disease and cancer. In order to study the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy, sensitive assays are necessary to quantitatively measure mitophagy activity...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302908/tubulin-isotype-substitution-revealed-that-isotype-composition-modulates-microtubule-dynamics-in-c-elegans-embryos
#2
Yu Honda, Kenta Tsuchiya, Eisuke Sumiyoshi, Nami Haruta, Asako Sugimoto
Microtubules (MTs) are polymers composed of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers, which are generally encoded by multiple gene loci. Despite implications of distinct properties of isotypes, how they contribute to diverse MT dynamics in vivo remains unclear. Here, using genome editing and RNAi depletion of tubulin isotypes, we demonstrate that four tubulin isotypes (hereafter α1, α2, β1 and β2) cooperatively confer distinct MT properties in Caenorhabditis elegans early embryos. GFP insertion into each isotype locus reveals their distinct expression levels and MT incorporation rates...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302059/correspondence-of-d-melanogaster-and-c-elegans-developmental-stages-revealed-by-alternative-splicing-characteristics-of-conserved-exons
#3
Ruiqi Gao, Jingyi Jessica Li
BACKGROUND: We report a statistical study to find correspondence of D. melanogaster and C. elegans developmental stages based on alternative splicing (AS) characteristics of conserved cassette exons using modENCODE RNA-seq data. We identify "stage-associated exons" to capture the AS characteristics of each stage and use these exons to map pairwise stages within and between the two species by an overlap test. RESULTS: Within fly and worm, adjacent developmental stages are mapped to each other, i...
March 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285997/ccm-3-promotes-c-%C3%A2-elegans-germline-development-by-regulating-vesicle-trafficking-cytokinesis-and-polarity
#4
Swati Pal, Benjamin Lant, Bin Yu, Ruilin Tian, Jiefei Tong, Jonathan R Krieger, Michael F Moran, Anne-Claude Gingras, W Brent Derry
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular defects of the CNS that arise from loss of integrity of the endothelial cells lining blood capillaries, causing leakage of blood into the brain [1]. This results in headaches, seizures, and/or hemorrhagic stroke, depending on the location of the lesion. CCM affects 0.5% of the population and follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern caused by mutations in one of the three genes: CCM1 (gene name KRIT1), CCM2 (also known as malcavernin or OSM), and CCM3 (gene name PDCD10) [2, 3], with the earliest onset and most severe prognosis occurring in CCM3 patients [4]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279983/a-microrna-family-exerts-maternal-control-on-sex-determination-in-c-elegans
#5
Katherine McJunkin, Victor Ambros
Gene expression in early animal embryogenesis is in large part controlled post-transcriptionally. Maternally contributed microRNAs may therefore play important roles in early development. We elucidated a major biological role of the nematode mir-35 family of maternally contributed essential microRNAs. We show that this microRNA family regulates the sex determination pathway at multiple levels, acting both upstream of and downstream from her-1 to prevent aberrantly activated male developmental programs in hermaphrodite embryos...
February 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267419/expanding-the-repertoire-of-deadenylases
#6
Ilias Skeparnias, Dimitrios Αnastasakis, Athanasios-Nasir Shaukat, Katerina Grafanaki, Constantinos Stathopoulos
Deadenylases belong to an expanding family of exoribonucleases involved mainly in mRNA stability and turnover, with the exception of PARN which has additional roles in the biogenesis of several important non-coding RNAs, including miRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, PARN in C. elegans and its homologue PNLDC1 in B. mori were reported as the elusive trimmers mediating piRNA biogenesis. In addition, characterization of mammalian PNLDC1 in comparison to PARN, showed that is specifically expressed in embryonic stem and germ cells, as well as during early embryo development...
March 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262484/the-antiviral-rna-interference-response-provides-resistance-to-lethal-arbovirus-infection-and-vertical-transmission-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Don B Gammon, Takao Ishidate, Lichao Li, Weifeng Gu, Neal Silverman, Craig C Mello
The recent discovery of the positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) Orsay virus (OV) as a natural pathogen of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has stimulated interest in exploring virus-nematode interactions. However, OV infection is restricted to a small number of intestinal cells, even in nematodes defective in their antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response, and is neither lethal nor vertically transmitted. Using a fluorescent reporter strain of the negative-sense ssRNA vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we show that microinjection of VSV particles leads to a dose-dependent, muscle tissue-tropic, lethal infection in C...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215526/canalization-of-c-%C3%A2-elegans-vulva-induction-against-anatomical-variability
#8
Guizela Huelsz-Prince, Jeroen Sebastiaan van Zon
It is a fundamental open question as to how embryos develop into complex adult organisms with astounding reproducibility, particularly because cells are inherently variable on the molecular level. During C. elegans vulva induction, the anchor cell induces cell fate in the vulva precursor cells in a distance-dependent manner. Surprisingly, we found that initial anchor cell position was highly variable and caused variability in cell fate induction. However, we observed that vulva induction was "canalized," i...
February 22, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202691/attenuation-of-n-glycosylation-causes-polarity-and-adhesion-defects-in-the-c-elegans-embryo
#9
Julia Stevens, Anne Spang
The C. elegans early embryo is highly polarized, requiring sequestration of cytoplasmic polarity factors at the plasma membrane. This compartmentalization aids asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins, which is partially responsible for the fates of the daughter cells. Since most plasma membrane proteins are glycosylated, we determined the effect of N-glycosylation attenuation on cell polarity. While polarity establishment was not perturbed, the AB/P1 size ratio was more variable in embryos with reduced N-glycosylation than in the mock-treated ones...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181905/the-interplay-of-stiffness-and-force-anisotropies-drive-embryo-elongation
#10
Thanh Thi Kim Vuong-Brender, Martine Ben Amar, Julien Pontabry, Michel Labouesse
The morphogenesis of tissues, like the deformation of an object, results from the interplay between their material properties and the mechanical forces exerted on them. Whereas the importance of mechanical forces in influencing cell behaviour is widely recognized, the importance of tissue material properties, in particular stiffness, has received much less attention. Using C. elegans as a model, we examine how both aspects contribute to embryonic elongation. Measuring the opening shape of the epidermal actin cortex after laser nano-ablation, we assess the spatiotemporal changes of actomyosin-dependent force and stiffness along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axis...
February 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122936/nucleoporins-npp-10-npp-13-and-npp-20-are-required-for-hcp-4-nuclear-import-to-establish-correct-centromere-assembly
#11
Jorge Ferreira, Jeffrey H Stear, Harald Saumweber
Centromeres form a chromosomal platform for the assembly of the kinetochores, which are required for orderly chromosome segregation. Assembly of both centromeres and kinetochores proceeds by a step by step mechanism that is regulated in time and space. It has been suggested that the regulated nuclear import of centromeric proteins is involved in this process. We show that the knockdown of nucleoporins NPP-10-N/-10-C, NPP-13 and NPP-20 in C. elegans affects early steps in centromere formation and sister centromere resolution and results in severe chromosomal defects in the early embryo...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115303/functional-conservation-study-of-polarity-protein-crumbs-intracellular-domain
#12
Shi Qiping, Cao Haowei, Xu Rui, Zhang Dandan, Huang Juan
The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) plays key roles in the establishing and maintaining cell apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells by determining the apical plasma membrane identity. Although its intracellular domain contains only 37 amino acids, it is absolutely essential for its function. In Drosophila, mutations in this intracellular domain result in severe defects in epithelial polarity and abnormal embryonic development. The intracellular domain of Crb shows high homology across species from Drosophila to Mus musculus and Homo sapiens...
January 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114100/the-genetics-of-axon-guidance-and-axon-regeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Andrew D Chisholm, Harald Hutter, Yishi Jin, William G Wadsworth
The correct wiring of neuronal circuits depends on outgrowth and guidance of neuronal processes during development. In the past two decades, great progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of axon outgrowth and guidance. Genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans has played a key role in elucidating conserved pathways regulating axon guidance, including Netrin signaling, the slit Slit/Robo pathway, Wnt signaling, and others. Axon guidance factors were first identified by screens for mutations affecting animal behavior, and by direct visual screens for axon guidance defects...
November 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079896/impaired-embryonic-development-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient-caenorhabditis-elegans-due-to-abnormal-redox-homeostasis-induced-activation-of-calcium-independent-phospholipase-and-alteration-of-glycerophospholipid-metabolism
#14
Tzu-Ling Chen, Hung-Chi Yang, Cheng-Yu Hung, Meng-Hsin Ou, Yi-Yun Pan, Mei-Ling Cheng, Arnold Stern, Szecheng J Lo, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065742/sustained-centrosome-cortical-contact-ensures-robust-polarization-of-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo
#15
Dominique M Saturno, Dominic T Castanzo, Margaret Williams, Devayu A Parikh, Eva C Jaeger, Rebecca Lyczak
In C. elegans, the anterior-posterior axis is established at the one-cell stage when the embryo polarizes along its long axis. One model suggests that a cue from the centrosome triggers symmetry breaking and is then dispensable for further steps in the process. In the absence of the initial centrosome cue, a redundant mechanism, reliant on the centrosome's microtubules, can polarize the cell. Despite this model, data from multiple sources suggest that direct centrosome-contact with the cortex may play a role in ensuring robust polarization...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065312/using-fast-acting-temperature-sensitive-mutants-to-study-cell-division-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
T Davies, S Sundaramoorthy, S N Jordan, M Shirasu-Hiza, J Dumont, J C Canman
Fast-acting temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations are powerful conditional tools for studying transient cellular processes such as cytokinesis. Fast-acting ts cytokinesis-defective mutants are functional at the permissive temperature; yet show a fully penetrant loss-of-function cytokinesis failure phenotype when upshifted to the restrictive temperature. Fast-acting ts mutations thus allow functional tunability and rapid and reversible protein inactivation by simply shifting the temperature at precise times throughout cell division...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065307/analysis-of-cytokinesis-by-electron-microscopy
#17
J König, J Borrego-Pinto, D Streichert, M Munzig, P Lenart, T Müller-Reichert
Following up on a chapter on the Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy of Early Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos in Mitosis (MCB 79, 101-119), we present an adaptation of our established protocol for the ultrastructural analysis of either permeabilized or injected embryonic systems. We prepared both drug-treated early C. elegans embryos and fluorescently labeled sea urchin embryos of Lytechinus pictus for ultrastructural studies on animal cytokinesis. Here we focus on the initial preparation steps of postmitotic embryos for high-pressure freezing and subsequent electron microscopy with an emphasis on electron tomography...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056033/fiji-macro-3d-art-veselect-3d-automated-reconstruction-tool-for-vesicle-structures-of-electron-tomograms
#18
Kristin Verena Kaltdorf, Katja Schulze, Frederik Helmprobst, Philip Kollmannsberger, Thomas Dandekar, Christian Stigloher
Automatic image reconstruction is critical to cope with steadily increasing data from advanced microscopy. We describe here the Fiji macro 3D ART VeSElecT which we developed to study synaptic vesicles in electron tomograms. We apply this tool to quantify vesicle properties (i) in embryonic Danio rerio 4 and 8 days past fertilization (dpf) and (ii) to compare Caenorhabditis elegans N2 neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) wild-type and its septin mutant (unc-59(e261)). We demonstrate development-specific and mutant-specific changes in synaptic vesicle pools in both models...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050953/mir-142-3p-as-a-biomarker-of-blastocyst-implantation-failure-a-pilot-study
#19
Edson Borges, Amanda Souza Setti, Daniela P A F Braga, Murilo V Geraldo, Rita de Cássia S Figueira, Assumpto Iaconelli
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to find whether microRNAs (miRNAs) detected in the culture medium of embryos produced in vitro could be potential biomarkers of embryo implantation. METHODS: Culture media samples from 36 embryos, derived from patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in a private university-affiliated IVF center, were collected between January/2015 and November/2015. Samples were collected on day three and embryo transfers were performed on day five and all embryos reached the blastocyst stage...
December 1, 2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049702/cell-biology-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-nucleus
#20
Orna Cohen-Fix, Peter Askjaer
Studies on the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleus have provided fascinating insight to the organization and activities of eukaryotic cells. Being the organelle that holds the genetic blueprint of the cell, the nucleus is critical for basically every aspect of cell biology. The stereotypical development of C. elegans from a one cell-stage embryo to a fertile hermaphrodite with 959 somatic nuclei has allowed the identification of mutants with specific alterations in gene expression programs, nuclear morphology, or nuclear positioning...
January 2017: Genetics
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